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Notes and Queries, Jan. 31, 1903. 


JfleDtum of Intercommunication 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, January 31, 1903. 






9 th S. X. JULY 5, 1902. 



CONTENTS. No. 236. 

NOTES : Hvnan on Birth of Edward VII. Verses for a 
Prince of Wales Cowley, 1 Living Memory of Corona- 
tion of George IV., 3 Gleek " Cigar " " Sheregrig." 4 
Inaccurate Allusions Pound's Day " Met," 5 Took's 
Court " Autocrat " in Russian Scotch Literary Church- 
men, fi. 

QUERIES : Orange Blossoms, 6 Papal Provisions Wood- 
house Napper Tandy Follett Grace before Meat 
' Bataille Loquifer' "Cockledumditt" Past Tenee, 7 
Schaw of Gospetry Cantership Stuart Portraits Glad- 
stone Browne Quotation Howe " A-sailing by the 
night" "Pec saetna," 8 Lovel : De Hautville May 
Cats, 9. 

REPLIES :" Meresteads," 9 "Hopeful": "Sanguine" 
Nicknames for Colonies Barras Afnsworth, 10 Iron 
Duke Nottingham "Ploughing his lonely furrow" 
Westminster City Motto Tennis Patmore Quotation 

* Cigarettes Shakespeare v. Bacon, 11 " Prospicimus 
modo" Week, 12 Kennett's Father "Only too thank- 
ful " " The " " Box Harry," 13 Eccleston Heuskarian 
Rarity " Bar sinister," 14 School Rules Nanoleon's 
Last Years, 15 Willughby's 'Ornithology' "Hop the 
twig" ' Aylwin* Latin Verses West Bourne. 16 Boon 
for Bookworms " Lutes of amber" "Buff Week" 
Wren's Mallet, 17 Comma Misplaced Yarrow Unvisited 
Pole, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Paton's ' Early History of Syria and 
Palestine ' Duff's 'Theology and Ethics of the Hebrews ' 
-'Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society' 
' Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldic*.' 



AT this moment, in which the thoughts of 
the nation are centred upon King Edward, 
the following hymn written on the occasion 
of his birth will be read with interest. The 
author of it was Henry Fothergill Chorley, 
who was connected with the Athenceum for 
thirty-five years. 

Thou that from Thy throne of splendour, 

Where the angels humbly bow, 
With an eye of mercy tender, 

Lookest down on worlds below ; 
Deign with gracious ear to gather 

Ev'ry heart of England's prayer ; 
King of Kings ! of parents Father, 
Bless the Mother in the Heir ! 

Lord, whose love paternal heedeth 

Monarch's triumph, peasant's sleep, 
Grant him all that pilgrim needeth 

On a heav'nward path so steep : 
Truth, to Fear and Flatt'ry stranger ; 

Valour, noblest deeds to dare ; 
O through empire's toil and danger, 

Bless the Mother in the Heir. 

Crown his youth with ail the pleasure 

Health and Strength and Joy bestow ; 
Crown his age with richer treasure, 

Love, that grateful myriads owe : 
Be his reign in future story 

Traced with words of record fair ; 
God ! to England's peace and glory, 

Bless the Mother in the Heir ! 

J. S. S. 

OF WALES (1555). 

"THE time," says Fox in his 'Acts and 
Monuments,' "was thought to be nigh that 
this young master should come into the 
world." Bells were rung, bonfires and pro- 
cessions made in London and all over the 
kingdom. The rumour, however, turned out 
to be a false one. Fox tells us that *' there 
was a cradle very sumptuously and gorgeously 
trimmed, upon the which cradle for the child 
appointed, these verses were written both in 
Latin and English : 

Quam Mariiesobolem, Deus optime, summe, dedisti, 
Anglis incolumem redde, tuere, rege. 

The child which thou to Mary, Lord of might ! 

hast send [sic], 
To England's joy, in health preserve, keep, and 

defend ! " 

' J. S. S. 


THE fourth edition of this celebrated 
writer's English works was published in 
1674. I have a copy of it before me, which 
is of exceptional interest, because it is en- 
riched witn numerous marginal notes, written 
partly just after the death of Thomas Oray, 
to whom the annotator refers as " our late 
poet," and from whom he quotes more than 
once. Gray died in 1771. The notes are 
subscribed with a capital "H," and as the 
writer informs us that all those pieces (in- 
variably spelt peices) to which the letter is 
affixed are included "in Dr. Hurd's edition 
of Cowley's 'Select Works," 1772," I am more 
than inclined to think that this is one of the 
very books Dr. Hurd himself used in making 
his selection, and that the marginalia are 
in his own handwriting. But I have other 
and stronger reasons for arriving at this 
interesting conclusion. Dr. Samuel Johnson 
has the following sentence in his life of 
Cowley : " Jonson and Donne, as Dr. Hurd 
remarks, were then in the highest esteem." 
I have been unable to consult what is printed 
in the ' Select Works,' but this is what I find 
written in the margin of p. 33 of the ' Pin- 
darique Odes,' on which the famous one to 
"Brutus" begins. The note, which I give 
exactly as I find it, is as follows : 

"The subject of this ode seems to have been 
chosen by the poet for y e sake of venting his indig- 
nation against Cromwell. It has been generally 
supposed y' Mr. Cowley had no ear for harmony, 
& even no taste of elegant expression. And we w a 
be apt to think so from his untun'd verse, and 
rugged style : but y" case was only this : Donne and 
Jonson were the favorite poets of y" time, & there- 
fore y e models, on w ch our poet was ambitious to 
form himself. But unhappily these poets affected 

NOTES AND QUERIES. ID* s. x. JULY 5, 1902. 

harsh numbers and uncouth expression ; and w' 
they affected easily came to be Iqok'd upon as 
Beauties. Even Milton himself, in his yonger 
days, fell into this delusion, (bee his poem on 
Shakespear.) But y e vigour of his genius, or, per- 
haps, his course of life, w ch led him out of y" high- 
road of fashion, enabled him, in good time, to break 
through the state of exemplar vitiis imitabile.* 
The Court, w ch had worse things to answer for, 
kept poor Cowley eternally in it. He foresoke y" 
Conversation (says Dr. Sprat, who design'd him a 
compliment in y e observation), but never the Lan- 
guage of the Court. H." 

Dr. Hurd, it will be noticed, exhibits some 
carelessness in spelling; but as the memoranda 
were intended for his own eye, we are not 
called upon to be censorious. If, however, 
he had read with attention Sprat's ' Account 
of the Life and Writings of Mr. Abraham 
Cowley,' prefixed to this edition, he would 
not have stumbled over the word " forsook," 
for this is how the biographer writes : " He 
forsook the Conversation, but never the 
Language, of the City and Court." 

It is well known that Dr. Johnson was 
acquainted with this selection of Cowley's 
works. Boswell informs us that in a con- 
versation in 1776 " he expressed his disappro- 
bation of Dr. Hurd, for having published a 
mutilated edition under the title of ' Select 
Works of Abraham Cowley, 1 " but two years 
afterwards "he seemed to be in a more 
indulgent humour," for he said : 

"I was angry with Hurd about Cowley, for 
having published a selection of his works: but, 
upon oetter consideration, I think there is no 
impropriety in a man's publishing as much as he 
chooses of any author, if he does not put the rest 
out of the way. A man, for instance, may print 
the Odes of Horace alone." 

There can be no doubt that Johnson was 
considerably indebted to Kurd's annotations. 
He works out the latter's reference to Donne 
and Ben Jonson as follows in his remarks 
on the " metaphysic style " : 

"This kind of writing, which was, I believe, 
borrowed from Marino and his followers, had been 
recommended by the example of Donne, a man 
of very extensive and various knowledge, and by 
Jonson, whose manner resembled that of Donne 
more in the ruggedness of his lines than in the 
cast of his sentiments." 

Further on he says : " But I have found no 
traces of Jonson in his works : to emulate 
Donne appears to have been his purpose." 
Few persons will be found to allow Jonson 
to be enrolled among the "metaphysic 
poets " ; nor will they admit that his style 
is rugged and that he "affected harsh 
numbers and uncouth expression." Untuned 
numbers he avoided in his own poems, and 

* Horace, ' Epist.,' I. 19, 1. 17. 

condemned in his friends', as we learn from 
Drummond " that Donne, for not keeping 
of accent, deserved hanging ; that Donne 
himself, for not being understood, would 
perish." It is curious to find that Johnson's 
condemnation passed on this writer for " that 
familiarity with religious images and that 
light allusion to sacred things, by which 
readers far short of sanctity are frequently 
offended," had been uttered long before in 
far stronger language by his great name- 
sake, when he said to Drummond " that 
Donne's ' Anniversary ' was profane and full 
of blasphemies." His life of Cowley proves 
that Dr. Johnson was well acquainted with 
Donne's works, but it appears doubtful 
whether he had done much more than dip 
into those of Ben Jonson. In the very com- 
plete index to Boswell's 'Life' Jonson's name 
is not once found, nor does it occur in ' The 
Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides.' It is, 
however, once mentioned in the life of 
Milton, and twice in that of Dryden ; but 
from these instances we can scarcely infer 
that the great critic was well acquainted 
with Ben Jonson's works, for his remarks 
are little more than an echo of what those 
two writers have themselves said. On the 
whole, it does not seem rash to assume that 
Dr. Johnson adopted Kurd's opinion re- 
garding Shakespeare's friend, though with 
some hesitation, as one cannot help thinking 
from his rather contradictory statements. 
In one particular he disagrees with Hurd, 
who considered Milton's poem on Shake- 
speare to be written in the style of Donne 
and Cowley ; but Johnson says : " Milton 
tried the metaphysic style only in his lines 
upon Hobson the carrier." 

Who shall decide when doctors disagree ? 
We have enough of them mentioned in this 
note. Though Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and 
Milton did not bear the title, Donne, Sprat, 
and Hurd were Doctors of Divinity, Cowley 
was a Doctor of Physic, and Samuel Johnson 
of Laws. 

I have confined myself to a single annota- 
tion, but there are others in the volume, which 
Cowley's critic had evidently studied with 
attention, and used with advantage in what 
he is reported to have regarded as the best of 
his 'Lives of the Poets.' It is, no doubt, an 
admirable study, and contains some of his 
choicest writing, especially that golden pas- 
sage beginning with the words ' ' Language 
is the dress of thought," but it is much more 
the criticism of a school of poets than of one 
particular member of it. By accumulating 
so many specimens of the fantastic genius of 
Donne and Cleveland, and bracketing them 

9* s. x. J ULY 5, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

with those he quotes from Cowley, Johnson 
(unwittingly, I believe) almost extinguished 
the reputation of a poet who was, Dryden 
says, " the darling of my youth." The critic 
is so intent on parading the faults of the 
writer before our eyes that we are persuaded 
his poems are unworthy of notice. This is 
most unjust, for Cowley has very considerable 
merits which deserve recognition ; and, in 
any case, his works will repay a diligent 
study, as may be shown elsewhere. 

Dr. Hurd's marginalia in the volume men- 
tioned are written with very great care, and 
are confined to those pieces which he printed 
in his ' Selections.' He has traced all the 
Latin quotations to their sources, and has 
many interesting references to Shakespeare, 
Ben Jonson, Donne, Clarendon, Milton, Dry- 
den, Addison, Pope, and Gray, the last of 
whom died when Kurd was getting near the 
end of his task. Though an admirer of Cowley, 
Hurd is not blind to his faults, which he con- 
demns, but attributes to the vitiated taste of 
the times. That he is the annotator I have 
not the least doubt, for the following reason, 
which seems decisive. The editor of this 
volume, " the courtly Sprat," as Johnson has 
once called him, has given only three speci- 
mens of Cowley's Latin muse. One is his 
4 Elegia Dedicatoria ' to Cambridge Uni- 
versity, another is the version of the first 
book of the ' Davideis,' and the third is the 
strange little poem 'Epitaphium Vivi Auc- 
toris,' which is printed on the last page. On 
the blank leaf is written the following trans- 
lation of the lines, which is, I think, better 
than Henry Morley's, given in his edition of 
Cowley's 'Essays': 


Here, stranger, in this humble nest, 

Here Cowley sleeps ; here lies, 
Scap'd all the toils, that life molest, 

And its superfluous joys. 

Here, in no sordid poverty, 

And no inglorious ease, 
He braves the world & can defy 

Its frowns and flatteries. 

The little earth, he asks, survey : 

Is he not dead, indeed ? 
" Light lie that earth," good stranger, pray, 

" Nor thorn upon it breed ! " 

With flow'rs, fit emblem of his fame, 

Compass your poet round ; 
With now'rs of ev'ry fragrant name 

Be his warm ashes crown'd ! H. 

I have given the lines exactly as they are 
written and punctuated. They are, we are 
told below, " Translated in Dr. Hurd s edition 

of Cowley's ' Select Works,' 1772." Dr. Richard 
Hurd, it may be mentioned, was born in 1720, 
and after being successively Bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry, and of Worcester, died in 
1808. His name is found several times in these 
notes, but always in the third person. With 
the following comments on the Latin text of 
the above poem I will bring this paper to an 

" Epitaphium vivi authoris] The conceit of a 
living death, was quite in the taste of our author. 
Vita gaudet mortua floribus] The application is 
the juster, & prettier, because of y e Poet's singular 
passion for gardens & flowers (on which subject he 
had written a latin Poem in six Books) : and then, 
according to the poetical creed, 

vivo quse cura 
eadem sequitur tellure repostum. 

Virg. En. 6, 564.* 

I, pedes qu6 t'e rapiunt, et Aurse ! 
' Forgot his Epic, nay Pindaric art ;' 
' But still I love the language of his heart.' 


These are the last words written in the 
volume. Any doubt as to the identity of the 
annotator will be removed when I state that 
his name is thus given, "R. Hurd," in the 
margin of the page just before the second 
quotation, and that the handwriting is every- 
where the same. * JOHN T. CURRY. 

NATION REJOICINGS. In the Launceston 
Weekly News of 7 June appeared a letter from 
Mr. R. Robbins, a former member of the local 
Town Council, but now resident in London, 
giving his recollections of the rejoicings held 
in the borough at the last three coronations 
those of George IV. in 1821, William IV. in 
1831, and Victoria in 1838. This venerable 

Smtleman who has lived to witness the 
iamond Jubilee procession of her late 
Majesty in 1897 from the Parliamentary 
stand at Westminster, and expected to see 
the royal progress of their present Majesties 
through the capital in 1902 from a point of 
vantage in Fleet Street wrote : 

" Launceston since I can remember has more than 
held its own in showing its loyalty to the house of 
Hanover, both the old town and St. Stephens, at 
the coronation of George IV. and William IV., 
when they were separate boroughs, each returning 
two representatives to Westminster, and each con- 
tinued their loyalty as strong as ever at the coro- 
nation of Victoria after the borough had lost three 
members. St. Stephens for the last three corona- 
tions held their own festivities. They were then a 
separate borough, and had a large trade of their 
own, but time has changed this, and revolutionized 
their political and commercial system since they 

* A pardonable slip; it should be 654. Virgil's 
words are very skilfully adapted to Cowley's case, 
I think. 


s. x. JULY 5, 1902. 

have been under the municipal borough of Launce- 

ston I first saw the light of day in 1817 in the 

hamlet of St. Thomas, and heard the church bells 
of Launceston and St. Thomas, to remind them of 
the coronation of George IV. on 19 July, 1821, when 
the people of the hamlet and St. Mary Magdalene 
sat down together at a public dinner on the Middle 
Walk. I well remember the table at which my 
parents and three sisters sat. It was at Miss 
Rowe's, of High Street, the late Sir William Rowe's 
aunt. There was dancing and a f ugee in the even- 
ing. There was no public dinner or tea given at 
the coronation of William. IV., but the working 
classes were well supplied, each family receiving so 
many pounds of beef per head, and a fugee in the 
Broad Street in the evening; while there was a 
trades' procession at Queen Victoria's coronation." 
The word fugee, in the above account, was 
strange to me, and Mr. Robbins, upon my 
inquiring its meaning, explained that a, fugee 
was the firing in the air of guns and blunder- 
busses, there being in his early days no fire- 
works in the country except sky-rockets and 
squibs. I would suggest that it is a corrup- 
tion of feu dejoie, a phrase likely to be heard 
at Launceston, where, as Mr. Robbins him- 
self has shown (8 th S. v. 34), some French 
words had remained in common use because 
a number of prisoners of war had been de- 
tained there in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. DUNHEVED. 

GLEEK. The earliest quotation in ' H.E.D.' 
for gleek, an old game at cards, is dated 1533. 
It occurs earlier, in 1532, in Roy's ' Rede Me, 
and be not Wrothe,' ed. Arber, p. 117 : 
In carde-playinge he is a good greke 
And can skyll of post and glyeke. 

In the Supplement to my larger ' Dictionary ' 
I refer to Warton, who quotes a poem by 
W. Forrest to the effect that Catharine of 
Arragon played at gleeke before her marriage 
in 1509. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

" CIGAR." ' N.E.D.' justifies its title to be 
a new as well as an historical dictionary by 
its multitudinous dates. Few of its readers 
would know when the word, or thing, coffee 
first came into England but for its date of 
1636. The word cigar, set down as first 
printed in an English book in 1735, is an 
instance, perhaps, more noteworthy. That 
the word was then believed to be new is 
implied in 'N.E.D.'s' first mention. "Seegars," 
says its first citation, " are Leaves of Tobacco 
rolled up in such Manner that they serve 
both for a Pipe and Tobacco itself through- 
out New Spain," &c. 

This quotation I have also used to show 
that 'N.E.D.' surpasses all other works of its 
class in the quality no less than the number 
of its citations. They are from sources that 
must be new to almost all its readers. The 

one above given is from a book which is not 
found in the catalogues of three out of the 
four largest libraries in and near Boston. 

After all, cigar, as treated by 'N.E.D.,' 
needs an American supplement for several 
reasons. Thus Colman, as cited by ' N.E.D.,' 
implies that sagars (sic) were well known in 
1787, while a letter of Mrs. Barbauld of the 
selfsame year (see 'N. & Q.,' 4 th S. iv. 30} 
points quite another way. Seeing a cigar 
smoked for the first time, she writes to her 
father, "We have beheld a wonder to-day. 
Did you ever see one ? " 

Again, in examining a file of the New York 
Spectator, in the library of the Wisconsin 
State Historical Society, I discovered in the 
number for 12 August, 1801, an advertise- 
ment headed, "Spanish segars. Bement <k 
Gale." In 1796 Belknap writes, Canajohara 
[N.Y.], in his ' Journal,' " We, eleven in num- 
ber, very close stowed in the stage, four 
segars smoking most of the time." Again, on 
25 August, 1792, he writes, ' A box of excellent 
Havana segars sent from Charleston [S.C.] to 

Yet once more, in the ' Bye-Laws of the 
Town of Newburyport [Mass.] for regulating 
the Internal Police of the same,' "Voted and 
ordered 1785, That any person or persons 
who shall be found smoaking [sic] any pipe 
or segar in the streets, lanes, or alleys, or on 
the wharves of said Town, from and after 
the second Tuesday of October next, shall 
forfeit and pay the sum of two shillings for 
every such offence." The proof is strong 
that cigar both the name and thing was 
well known in Massachusetts earlier than 
in England, and so the word should have 
been noted in ' N.E.D.' as of United States 

The truth is that Newburyport and other 
New England coast towns continually ex- 
ported codfish, their staple product, to the 
West Indies for enabling the Catholics to 
keep their fasts, beginning long before 
' N.E.D.'s ' earliest authority was born. It 
cannot be that the thing cigar was not known 
in New England earlier than in Old. Further 
research may show that the word was also 
earlier, and did not come in from either 
Spain or France. JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis. 

[MR. BUTLER may be right as to the earlier 
American use, but in view of the English quotations 
in ' N.E.D.' is it proved?] 

queer-looking word has long been a crux to 
readers of Peter Pindar. It puzzled even 
the editor of the ' Century Dictionary,' who 
quotes the verse in which it occurs, and 

s. x. JULY 5, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

defines it tentatively as "an unidentified 
animal." Looking over the appendix to 
Bruce's 'Travels,' 1790, vol. v. p. 182, I have 
come upon the key to the riddle. The 
sheregrig is a bird, and its name is merely 
the Arabic shirikrak (or shirigrag\ which 
appears in all the best Arabic dictionaries. 
Johnson, 'Arabic and Persian Dictionary,' 
1852, defines it as '"magpie." Lane, 'Arabic 
Lexicon,' 1863, has " woodpecker." It is three 
syllables, not two, as marked in the ' Cen- 
tury.' It is evidently the same as Hebrew 
skarakrak, a bird which, according to the 
Talmudists, will announce by its hissing the 

coming of the Messiah. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 


RAY, AND DICKENS. In the Sketch of 19 Feb- 
ruary there is a short article by Mr. T. H. S. 
Escott on ' Bygone Brighton,' which contains 
incidental allusions to passages in three 
of our greatest English novels ' Tristram 
Shandy, ' Vanity Fair,' and ' David Copper- 
field.' It is rather surprising to find that in 
each instance a more or less serious mistake 
has been made. 

We are told that "with two exceptions 

the later Clubs of Brighton are apt to be like 
Tristram Shandy's scullion here to-day and 
gone to-morrow." The fat, foolish scullion in 
the service of Walter Shandy said, on hearing 
that Master Bobby was dead, " So am not 1." 
The words " here to-day," &c., are apparently 
due to an inaccurate recollection of part of 
Trim's moralizing in the kitchen : 

"Are we not here now, continued the corporal 
(striking the end of his stick perpendicularly upon 
the floor, so as to give an idea of health and sta- 
bility), and are we not (dropping his hat upon the 
ground) gone ! in a moment ! " Vol. iv. chap. vii. 
p. 44, in 6-vol. edition of 1782. 

Near the beginning of Mr. Escott's article 
Mortimer Collins is described as "a Sedley 
(not Josh of 4 Vanity Fair ') born out of his 
generation." But Amelia's brother was Jos. 

In another part we read of 
"one or two more of the old ' blood and culture' 
school, who invoked Thackeray as their patron 
saint, and who never forgave the satire pointed at 
them by Dickens in his description of Mr. Spenlow's 
dinner party." 

The writer, presumably, was here thinking 
of the " sanguinary small-talk" at Mr. Water- 
brook's table (' David Copperfield,' chap, xxv.), 
when the "simpering fellow with the weak 
legs " compressed the general question into a 
nutshell by the remark, "I'd rather at any 
time be knocked down by a man who had 
got Blood in him, than I 'd be picked up by a 
man who hadn't !" 
Beside this may be set a passage from the 

patron saint of the "-blood and culture" 
school. Did not James Crawley, in reply to 
his cousin Pitt's reminder, " By the way, it 
was about blood you were talking, and the 
personal advantages which people derive 
from patrician birth," make the speech be- 
ginning "Blood's the word," and ending 
"Blood, sir, all blood"? 

Whether there is an equal amount of accu- 
racy in Mr. Escott's account of Mortimer 
Collins's waistcoat and George Augustus 
Sala's necktie may be safely left to the de- 
cision of experts in that branch of literary 
history; but perhaps, after all, "it's of no 
consequence." EDWARD BENSLY. 

The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

POUND'S DAY. The following paragraph 
from the Western Daily Mercury of 24 May 
seems worthy of permanent record in the 
pages of 'N. &Q.': 

"A curious custom" called 'Pound's Day' was 
observed in Exeter yesterday. Towards the St. 
Olave's Home, in connexion with the Church of, 
England Waifs- and Strays' Association, people * 
made gifts of pounds of tea, or sugar, or bread, or 
meat, or coffee, &c. The presents were all in 
pounds. Donors who personally carried their dona- 
tions to the home were welcomed by the officials 
and entertained at tea." 

A Pound's Day was. recently held with suc- 
cess at the Rosehill Hospital for Children at 
Babbacombe, when pounds of almost any- 
thing were accepted, but, as may be supposed, 
pounds sterling were the most welcome. 

A. J. DAVY. 


["Pound Day" has been observed in London for 
some years on behalf of the same society.] 

' Pineapple,' 9 th S. viii. 226.) Writing from 
this part of the world, where the pineapple 
is carved, more or less, all the year round, I 
was struck by MR. HARPUR'S use of the word 
" met " in the sense of meeting an inanimate 
object, or something that could not meet you 
in the ordinary sense of the word ; in other 
words, in the sense of to find, as in the case 
used by your correspondent with reference 
to the ceremony he mentions. In this part 
of the West Indies the word is largely used 
in this sense. 

An article of jewellery was recently lost 
by a member of my family, and on its 
being brought back, and inquiry made as to 
where it was found, "Oh !" said the finder, 
a native girl, " I met it in Street." 

But one still more interesting peculiarity 
of native expression has often struck me, 
and that is with reference to bringing the 
points of the compass into use in describing 



B. x. JULY 5, IMS. 

the position of anything, even the smallest 
articles of daily use. I first noticed this in 
a prosecution in which a constable, of con- 
siderable and rotund proportions, when asked 
as to the position of the accused person in 
relation to a particular incident, replied, 
"She was just to the south side of me," or 
" my south side," I forget which. The phrase 
being new to me, I could not refrain from 
asking him which he called his i( south side." 
On another occasion, when playing cricket, 
I was much amused when, on a batsman 
asking a local umpire to give him "guard," 
he was told to move his bat "a little more 
to the west." And again, a bowler, on being 
asked on which side of the wicket he was 

foing to bowl, replied, "On the east side." 
t is the same when a person is asked to 
fetch anything; as, for instance, "You will 
find it (or meet it) at the west side of the 
wardrobe standing on the east side of the 
room." The natives here never seem at a 
loss as to the points of the compass wherever 
they may be, the phrase " to the right " or 
"left" being seldom or never used in giving 
such directions. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

TOOK'S COURT. The history of the con- 
nexion of ' N. & Q.' with this place has been 
given at 8 th S. i. 268. A few more notes may 
be gathered here. According to the 'D.N.B.,' 
xlviii. 37a, there was a Ralph Took, of Took's 
Court, whose widow Elizabeth was living in 
1663. (But the reference given is to Chester's 
' Marriage Licences,' where no mention is 
made of Ralph or Took's Court, and the date 
assigned in ' D.N.B.' for her marriage is that 
of the licence.) Mr. Tuck, or Took, of Cur- 
sitors' Alley, a Chancery clerk, died in 1722 
(7 th S. x. 446). Rowland Okeover, of Oke- 
over, co. Stafford, Esquire, by his will 7 De- 
cember, 1727, and codicil 14 February, 1728, 
appointed his grandson William Okeover, of 
Took's Court, Chancery Lane, Esquire, his 
executor. This William Okeover by his will, 
1 March, 1745, appointed William Monk, of 
Clifford's Inn, gent., one of his executors 
(Orig. MS.). Henry Brougham, of Took's 
Court, was a coadjutor of Oldys in the 'Bio- 
graphia Britannica,' 1747-66 (3 rd S. i. 62). 

W. C. B. 

worth noting that the word " autocrat," as an 
equivalent of the Greek avTo-Kparwp = self- 
ruler, never (or but very rarely) is rendered in 
Russian by the corresponding term "avto- 
krat," although its English derivatives " auto- 
cracy " and "autocratic " commonly occur in 
Russian as " avto-kratsia " and "avto-krati- 

cesky." A learned Russian friend informs me 
that the proper and usual Russian word for 
an autocrat is " samo - derzhets " i.e., self- 
ruler. Probably this usage is due to the 
preference given to an indigenous word which 
especially presented the Russian emperor 
as an absolute or unrestricted ruler to the 
mind of the Russian people. H. KREBS. 

Industrious Litterateur,' 9 th S. ix. 366.) I need 
hardly say that I appreciate very highly the 
compliment paid by MR. GRIGOR at the above 
reference. It is so common to be ignored 
or misjudged rather than recognized and 
commended that an honest, encouraging 
salute is very welcome when, as thus, it is 
cordially given. I hope it may be seemly to 
make here a special response to MR. GRIGOR'S 
spontaneous and hearty appreciation of my 
articles in Saint Andrew. I embrace the 
opportunity to say that I am now preparing 
a volume on ' Scottish Literary Churchmen,' 
opening with a general survey, and treating 
individually the men of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. THOMAS BAYNE. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

ORANGE BLOSSOMS. When did it become 
the fashion for English brides to wear or bear 
orange blossoms at the marriage ceremony 1 
A parenthesis in 'Vanity Fair,' ch. xii., would 
seem to imply that they were but a recent 
introduction in 1848, when Thackeray wrote, 
"Had orange blossoms been invented then 
(those touching emblems of female purity 

imported by us from France), Miss Maria 

would have assumed the spotless wreath." 
When were orange blossoms imported from 
France 1 I should be glad of any references 
to them before this date. And, by the way, 
where did Thackeray get the explanation of 
the symbolism, which I observe has been 
adopted from him in several modern dic- 
tionaries? This appears not to be an im- 
ported explanation, but one of home produc- 
tion, perhaps merely a fancy of Thackeray's. 
According to Littre (s.v. Oranges), "married 
women wear a crown of orange buds and 
blossoms, whence orange blossom is taken as 
the symbol of matrimony." This is confirmed 
to me by a French scholar and writer whom 
I have consulted, and who says orange bios- 

9> s.x. JULY s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

soms have nothing to do with female purity, 
but merely indicate the attainment of matri- 
monythat " Mademoiselle " has attained the 
status of " Madame." J. A. H. MURRAY. 

PAPAL PROVISIONS. To what were these 
limited? Did they extend to an office as 
well as to a dignity? In a commission to 
inquire respecting a provision to Glasney 
College, in Cornwall ('Reg. Brantyngharn,' 
ed. Hingeston - Randolph, p. 150), the dis- 
tinction appears to be drawn. The valuable 
' History of the English Church ' started by 
Messrs Stephens and Hunt, but apparently 
discontinued, does not answer the query. 


of ' N. & Q.' knows of a portrait of Robert 
Wood house I should be grateful for informa- 
tion about it. Woodhouse was born at Nor- 
wich in 1773, was a fellow of Caius College, 
Cambridge, held in succession the Lucasian 
and Plumian Professorships in the Univer- 
sity, and was a man of note in his day. He 
died in 1827. 

I have a collection of portraits of mathe- 
maticians, which includes portraits of every 
one (save Woodhouse) who has ever held a 
Mathematical Chair in Cambridge ; hence 
ray special desire to secure a likeness of him. 
I believe that Mr. Woodhouse's family know 
of no portrait of him, and that no likeness of 
him is preserved at Cambridge ; but as his 
brother J. T. Woodhouse was somewhat of 
an artist, and the family was connected with 
Opie, the well-known painter, I think it just 
possible that some sketch of Woodhouse may 
be in existence. W. W. ROUSE BALL. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 

NAPPER TANDY. The Times of 27 May, 
1802, says that Bonaparte would not allow 
Napper Tandy to go to Paris. Who was he ? 


[James Napper Tandy, 1740-1803, was a United 
Irishman, who, at the head of a small French force, 
landed on the island of Rutland, co. Donegal, was 
tried in England, and sentenced to death, but died 
of dysentery in France, 24 August, 1803. He is 
mentioned in the song ' The Wearing of the Green.' 
A full account of his disreputable life appears in the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. Iv. pp. 353-7.] 

SAMUEL FOLLETT, son of Benjamin Follett, 
of Lyme Regis, was admitted to Westminster 
School on 4 November, 1771. I should be 
glad to ascertain any particulars of his 
parentage and career. G. F. R. B. 

GRACE BEFORE MEAT. At the end of an 
old book entitled ' The Perfect Path to Para- 
dice,' published in 1626, appear a few speci- 

mens of such prayers. Were they sung 
at this period, or simply recited? Perhaps 
the Puritans of that day sang them with a 
strong nasal twang ; although the closing 
verse seems almost too loyal for their 
principles in general. Here are some of the 
lines, as a sample thereof : 


Give thanks to God the Lord of might, 
As it becommeth Christians right, 
And ever when thou seest thy meat, 
Remember God before thou eat, 
And then God will remember thee 
And with his food will nourish thee, 
And after this life ended is, 
We shall remaine with him in blisee. 
God save his universal Church, 

Our noble King defend : 
Grant that thy people may enjoy 

Thy peace unto the end. 

Cotterstock Hall, Oundle. 

'BATAILLE LOQUIEER.' Has this chanson 
de geste of the langue d'oil ever been printed ? 
L. Gau tier's ' Bibliographic des Chansons de 
Geste,' 1897, speaks of it as "still unpublished " 
in that year. O. O. H. 

"CocKLEDUMDiTT." In the interesting little 
volume 'Journal of a Soldier of the 71st 
Regiment,' 1819, mention is made of a winter 
spent at Boho in Spafh, where 

" the peasants used to dance to the sound of their 
rattles, consisting of two pieces of hard wood, 
which they held between their fingers, and by 
shaking their hands, kept time, in the same manner 
as the boys in Edinburgh and other parts play what 
they call cockledumditt. They call them castanetts." 
-P. 177. 

I remember pieces of wood being so used 
when I was a boy at the " Southern Academy," 
in George Square, Edinburgh, in 1846, but I 
do not remember any name, or song, or tune 
associated with them. A friend tells me that 
cockhdumdyke was played with two pieces of 
wood, each burnt at one end, and that the 
refrain was 

Cockle dum dyke, 

Peas an' beans are baith alike. 

Is " ditt," then, a misprint for " dyke " ? But 
the author, John Howell, was an Edinburgh 
boy, and his ' Journal ' was printed in Edin- 
burgh. And is "cockle" a form of the Eng- 
lish "cockal," a game played with small 
bones? Will any one kindly give me in- 
formation on this subject ? W. S. 

A QUESTION OF TENSE. In the reports of 
some great companies different tenses are 
used in reference to circumstances occurring 
within the same period of time. For instance, 
the Great Northern Railway report for the 



. x. JULY s, 

half-year ending 30 June, 1901, says: "The 
expenditure on capital account has amountec 
to, ' <fec. ; and then : " The gross receipts on 
revenue account were," &c. The Grea 
Eastern .Railway report for the same half 
year states : " The working expenses hav( 
been," &c. ; but another paragraph has this, 

remark : " The death of Mr. , one of the 

directors, occurred during the half-year." In 
the Royal Insurance Company's report for 
the year 1900 occurs the following : " In the 
annuity branch the purchase money receivec 
for new annuities, together with the pre 
miums on continental annuities, amountec 
to," &c. And then comes : " Thirty-eigh 
annuities have expired during the year, the 
annual payments on which amounted to,' 
&c. Are the tenses as used in these examples 
legitimately interchangeable ? If not, which 
is the correct tense ? HENRY SMYTH. 

[One does not look for the highest form of the 
English language in the reports of commercia 
companies. An account of the transactions of a 
certain period may treat them in two ways : as 
written just at the close of the period, when the 
compound tense may be used, or as written when 
the period is definitely ended, when the preterite 
should be used. The instances quoted above are 
not consistent with themselves, and thus are open 
to censure. The " Shade of William Cobbett in 
the Pall Mall Gazette of 18 February, 1901, drew 
attention to a similar confusion between the com- 
pound past and the preterite in the King's Speech 
at the opening of Parliament the preceding day.] 

SCHAW OF GOSPETRY. Can any of your 
readers inform me if there are descendants 
of Frederick Bridges Schaw, of Gospetry, 
lieutenant in Leighton's Regiment of Foot, 
and son of Dr. Schaw, physician to Frederick, 
Prince of Wales ? He married in December, 
1762, Isabella, eldest daughter of Dr. Thom- 
son, "late from Jamaica." 


CANTERSHIP. In the Gentleman s Magazine 
for March, 1733, there appears the .following 
announcement under 'Ecclesiastical Prefer- 
ments ' : " Mr. John Pember to the Cantership 
of St. Davies." St. Davies is, of course, a 
mistake for St. David's ; but what of Canter- 
ship ? Probably it stands for precentor, but 
apparently the word is omitted by Dr. Murray 
from the 4 H.E.D.' D. M. R. 

\Cantorship, the office of a precentor, is in the 
'H.E.D.'; and under 'Canter* there is the entry 
"obs. var. of Cantor."] 

to Albert Way's catalogue of the works of 
art exhibited at the meeting of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute at Edinburgh, July, 1856, 
mention is made of one "beautiful paint- 
ing [of Queen Mary] at Madrid, in the 

royal collection, of which a copy, obtained 
through Lord Cowley while ambassador at 
the Court of Spain," <fec. I should be very 
glad of any particulars of this picture or the 
copy. Are any reproductions known and 
obtainable? J. J. FOSTER. 

Offa House, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Ronald Gower, in ' Old Diaries,' p. 66, writes, 
under date July, 1888 : 

" I think the last time he [Mr. Gladstone] was at 
Stafford House was when he gave an address in 
Italian to the Italians who had presented the 
marble medallion of Garibaldi to my brother." 

Was this address ever printed ; and, if so, by 
whom? I believe, if my memory fail not, 
he also, in the course of his versatile career, 
delivered addresses in modern Greek in 
Corfu, in Italian in Rome or Naples, and 
in French in Paris. Were these ever printed ; 
and, if so, are copies of them procurable, and 
where? J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

kindly inform me in what part of Sir Thomas 
Browne's works the following passage occurs ? 

" To pray and magnify God in the night and in 
my dark bed when 1 cannot sleep : to have short 
ejaculations whenever I awake, and when the four 
o'clock bell awakens me, or on my first discovery of 
the light, to say this collect of our liturgy, ' Eternal 
God, who hast safely brought me to the beginning of 
this day,' &c." 



[This sounds as if it came from the ' Religio 

glad if any one would give me information 
concerning the above lady. 1 have an old 
mezzotint, without date, representing her as 
a child, with a dove on her hand. Beneath 
is "Kneller S. R. Imp. et Angl. Eques Aur. 
pinx. T. Smith fee. Sold by T. Smith at the 
Lyon and Crown in Russel Street, Covent 
Garden." Was there any special reason for 
publishing this portrait ? F. V. 

Songs of the Sea and Lays of the Land ' 
there is a poem, ' Stand from Under,' every 
stanza of which ends with the above words. 
Do these mean simply sailing by night, or 
sailing in the night or what ? 


Mercian Origins' (9 th S. ix. 42) J. B. said, 
'The Pec ssetna dwelt in our Derbyshire." 
n Derbyshire is the district yet known as 

9*s.x.JuLY5,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"the Peak." Have Pec and Peak anything 
to do with each other ? Lord Avebury, lec- 
turing on ' English Scenery ' on 12 April at 
the Mansion House, said, " The Peak of Derby- 
shire was really a cup rather than a peak." 
I had often wondered what " the Peak dis- 
trict" had got its name from, and reasoned 
(on Lord Avebury 's lines above) as to the 
peculiarity and unfitness of the name for the 
district. If the Pec (Pec) ssetna, dwelling in 
that district, gave name to the district, the 
name "the Peak district" is explained. Ac- 
cording to Lord Avebury's dictum it could 
not be the Peak as a peaked (or piked) dis- 
trict that gave its name to these inhabitants. 


seigneurs of Castle Carey in Somerset, any 
ancient association with the Norman house 
of De Hautville ? I believe the arms of Lovel 
of Karey viz., a lion rampant between cross- 
lets fitche were likewise borne by the De 
Hautvilles, Norman conquerors of Naples and 
Apulia in Southern Italy. Sir John de 
Hautville is buried at Norton-Hautville, in 
Somerset. T. W. C. 

MAY CATS. The following cutting from 
the Torquay Directory of 29 May seems worth 
preserving in the pages of 'N. & Q.' Does 
the superstition prevail outside Devon and 
Cornwall 1 

"Superstition still lingers at Torquay. A 
Torquay correspondent of a Plymouth contemporary 
writes : ' An interesting event occurred at pur 
cottage yesterday, our cat presenting the establish- 
ment with a litter of kittens. This caused great 
joy to the younger members of the family, as they 
each hoped to become the possessor of one of them. 
However, these hopes were speedily dispelled, for 
no sooner had our housekeeper (who hails from 
Cornwall) heard of the event than they were 
immediately "ordained" to be drowned. Asked 
the reason for this apparently ruthless decision, she 
explained that all cats which are born in May have 
the disagreeable habit or faculty, when they are 
grown up, of bringing " varmints into the house ; 
that she once had the temerity to rear a May cat, 
and that the cat caught and brought into her house 
no fewer than twenty such varmints. Most of 
them certainly were only slowworms, but several 
were adders, and consequently she never intended 
doing such a foolish thing again. Can any one give 
me the origin of this belief, or say how far it 
prevails?' That the superstition obtains with 
Devonians as well as with Cornubians is evident 
from this extract from Mr. Eden Phillpotts's 
' Lying Prophets ' : : Them chets had to go, missy. 
'Tis a auld word, an" it ban't wise to take no count 
of sayings like that : '' May chets bad luck begets." 
You ve heard tell o' that? Never let live no 
kittens born in May. They theer dead chets 
corned May Day.'" 

A. J. DAVY. 


(9 th S. ix. 248, 437.) 

I BEG to thank ME. MATTHEWS, of Boston, 
U.S., for his most useful and interesting 
note. I had no idea that records kept by 
early American colonists contained material 
of such value to the English archaeologist. 

The word misted in the ' Plymouth Colony 
Records ' seems plainly identical with the 
meestead or meastead of the Court Rolls of the 
manor of Dewsbury, in Yorkshire, in the six- 
teenth century (see 9 th S. v. 349) ; and the 
meadstead oi those records is evidently identi- 
cal with the meadstead, midstead, or meatstead 
which occurs at Royston, near Barnsley, in 
the same county. The first time that I heard 
the Royston word, now more than twenty 
years ago, it was pronounced meadstead. I 
was then told of a piece of land in that 
village which belonged to the "meadstead- 
owners" in common, a " meadstead-owner " 
being the owner of one of the old houses in 
the village (see 8 th S. x. 349, 471). 

The meestead of the Dewsbury Rolls is 
doubtless identical in meaning with mese- 
place, which occurs in many old English books 
and documents. Thus in Fitzherbert's ' Sur- 
ueyenge,' 1539 (repiint, p. 66), we have : 

"I. B. holdeth a mese place frely of the lorde, by 
charter, with dyuers lands, medowes, and pastures, 
belongyng to the same, the whiche mese place lyeth 
bytwene the sayde hye way, and the sayde north 
felde, as is before sayid, and the sayd personage on 
the west side, and the tenement or mese place of 
F. G. on the easte part," &c. 

It will be noticed that this mese-place has 
lands and meadows belonging to it. And so 
the midstead of the Plymouth colonists has 
" land assigned vnto yt." 

The prefix mess-, as in mess-uage, mese- in 
mese-place, or meas- as in meas-stead, is identi- 
cal with the prefix meas- in meas-ure. A mese- 
place or meastead is then a " measure-place," 
a measured building-plot, or portion. Per- 
haps I may TDO allowed to refer to my notes 
on the word " messuage " in 9 th S. v. 520 ; vi. 

Meadstead is not so easily explained. It 
may mean " meadow-place " ; but, on the other 
hand, its apparent identity in meaning with 
mese-place, &c., raises the suspicion that the 
older form may have been mete-stead, and 
so be connected with E. mete, to measure. 

It is delightful to see how well old English 
habits and customs are reflected in the ex- 
tracts from the ' Plymouth Colony Records ' 
which MR. MATTHEWS has given. These ex- 
tracts appear to show that early in the seven- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9> s. x. JULY 5, 1902. 

teenth century New England colonists laic 
out their villages on the pattern of an English 
manor. There were misteds with dwelling- 
houses thereon, lying side by side in the 
village street, and uplands. Even the olc 
custom of making the frame of a house 
before it was set up was followed (see Way's 
'Prompt. Parv.,' p. 176). And when we are 
told of misteds granted in court, and forfeited 
for want of building, the English manorial 
system, or village community, seems to appear 
before our eyes. For what was a misted that 
had been built on but a mesuagium cedificatum, 
and what was a vacant misted but a mesua- 
gium vastum ? 

If such a word as merestead exists in Eng- 
lish documents I think it has yet to be dis- 
covered. Is it not a clerical error in the 
original record ? And is there any evidence 
to show that in the American colonies it 
meant a farm ? S. O. ADDY. 

Is there any means of ascertaining the 
name and origin of the clerk of the Plymouth, 
Mass., board ? From what part of England 
did Governor W. Bradford come? The sud- 
den cessation of the word meadstead in the 
records suggests that some official to whom 
the word was natural was succeeded by one 
who was unacquainted with it in ordinary 
life. Can MR. MATTHEWS tell us what word 
took its place in the records in question after 
1641 ? Q. V. 

"HOPEFUL": "SANGUINE" (9 th S. ix. 467). 
I take it that hopeful = cheerful expect- 
ancy and sanguine = ardent expectancy. 
There is really, as Trench has pointed put, 
no such thing as a synonym. The meanings 
of these words are almost the same, but in 
the latter word there is a subaudition of 
superior force and strength, as its derivation 
indicates. ST. SWITHIN is right, it seems to 
me, as to the variation in the meanings of 
similar and alike. The latter = exact resem- 
blance, while the former = correspondence in 
shape without regard to size. 


Kensington, W. 

Surely one can be hopeful without being 
sanguine. To be sanguine about a thing 
means to have more confidence, more assur- 
ance, than mere hopefulness has. We may 
even "hope against hope" (a curious phrase, 
by the way), and we often hope for things 
we scarcely dare to expect. In such a case 
we are certainly not sanguine. C. C. B. 

Surely Mr. Chamberlain is right in making 
a difference between these words. I have 
looked up the word sanguine in several dic- 

tionaries, all of which give the word " confi- 
dent" as one of its synonyms. To hope for 
something and to be confident of it are two 
very different attitudes of mind. One con- 
stantly comes across some such expression as 
"He was hopeful, but by no means sanguine." 

i. 109, 137, 491). The following extract from 
the Manchester Guardian of 23 April, describ- 
ing a paper read before the Royal Colonial 
Institute by Mr. H. A. Broome on 'Civil 
Progress in the Orange River Colony,' is of 
interest in connexion with the question 
raised : 

" To judge from Mr. Broome's paper, there is a 
flanger that the Orange River Colony will come 
generally to be called ' Orangia.' This is an ugly 
word, but Mr. Broome used it over and over again. 
Plainly he was used to it and was accustomed to 
hear others use it. We cannot check the demand 
for brevity; but cannot this particular name be 
stopped ? Whenever a new official name is given to 
a place the givers ought really to foresee the inevit- 
able abbreviations and to provide against them as 
far as possible in their original choice. ' The Free 
State ' was a good abbreviation, and ' The Trans- 
vaal,' which will no doubt be the abbreviation for 
' The Transvaal Colony,' will remain as good as it 
used to be in the old days. Orangia is altogether 
bad, but who can suggest a better name as brief or 
nearly as brief?" 


BARRAS (9 th S. viii. 202, 228, 267, 473 ; ix. 
15, 133). There is "Barras Bridge" at New- 
castle-on-Tyne. ST. SWITHIN. 


If I am not mistaken, nearly all the novels 
and short tales by this author have been 
republished by John Dicks, 313, Strand, 
either in sixpenny volumes or in "Dicks's 
English Library," with reproductions from the 
"original illustrations." In his later years 
Ainsworth was closely identified with Bow 
Sells, to which his last novels were con- 
tributed, the illustrations being supplied by 
Fred Gilbert, Friston, Huttula, and others of 
the clever artistic Bow Bells staff. I do not 
know for certain if Dicks's reprints of Ains- 
worth are " still in print." W. H. Ainsworth 
was, I fear, somewhat vain, and instead of 
sticking to Cruikshank and .Phiz, he pre- 
'erred to have a different artist to illustrate 
lis stories each time, which now and then 
ed him into strange company, as, for 
jxample, when he employed Buss to do the 
;tchings for 'James the Second.' The only 
other artist whom I can recall (beyond those 
named by R. D.) as having illustrated Ains- 
worth was a Frenchman, Ed. Morin clever, 
but too " scribbly "who, in 1854, sketched 

9* s. x. JULY 5, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the pictures for Ainsworth's ' Star Chamber, 
then appearing in the Home Companion, a 
paper which was, I believe, promoted by 
Robert Kemp Philp, proprietor and editor oi 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Keunington Lane. 

LINGTON (9 th S. ix. 466). MR. HENRY HOPE 
seems to be under a strange misapprehension. 
The title of "Iron Duke" was popularly 
bestowed on Arthur, Duke of Wellington, 
many years before the launching of the 
" large ship " at Liverpool. In my boyhood 
there was a fine old " three-decker " named 
"The Duke of Wellington." She was a 
wooden ship. When ironclads were intro- 
duced into the Royal Navy the old "Duke 
of Wellington " was put up in ordinary, and 
her substitute, being an iron ship (of sorts), 
was wittily and, as I think, appropriately 
named "The Iron Duke," in commemoration 
of that distinguished general whose memory 
Englishmen will always delight to honour. 

LADY NOTTINGHAM (9 th S. ix. 128, 213, 455). 
The correspondents who have noticed the 
communication I made on this lady's alleged 
extraordinary feat of maternity in becoming 
the mother of thirty children give cases of 
other ladies said to have surpassed her, one 
having had thirty-nine and the other forty- 
one children, but neither of them attempts 
to substantiate the facts. During how many 
years is childbearing possible for a woman in 
England ? Thirty? Would medical authority 
admit the possibility of the above number of 
children being produced in that period ? In 
the case of a person in the position of Lady 
Nottingham, it should be possible to sub- 
stantiate the fact if it is a fact by the dates 
of the births of the thirty children. 

E. F. D. C. 

ix. 485). W. B. H. thinks Lord Rosebery 
borrowed this idea from Mortimer Collins. 
I doubt it. Lord Rosebery used the phrase 
in July, 1901. Bradley's 'Owen Glyndwr' 
had, I believe, just appeared. In that book 
Hotspur's saying before the battle of Shrews- 
bury is given, " I perceive my plough is now 
drawing to its last furrow." Lord Rosebery 
probably adapted this striking remark to his 
own purpose. A. H. B. 

WESTMINSTER CITY MOTTO (9 th S. ix. 485). 
When the search for a motto first began 
the Town Clerk of Westminster asked me 
to obtain an Anglo-Saxon motto for con- 
sideration by the Council. The Rev. Prof. 

W. W. Skeat suggested line 658 of ' Beowulf,' 
" Hafa and geheald husa selest " (" Have thou 
and preserve the best of houses "), an allusion 
to the founding of Westminster Abbey by 
Edward the Confessor. The Rawlinsonian 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, Dr. 
Earle, suggested "Seaxnacyne-cynrenes ende- 
mel" ("The final monument of the Saxon 
dynasty "). Neither of these, however, found 
favour with the Council. 


27, 75, 153, 238, 272, 418, 454). I thought I 
had made my position clear in this discussion, 
had apologized to the shade of M. Littre, and 
made my peace with him. I can only repeat 
that I have found no evidence that tennis- 
players ever used the word " tenez " as we 
say " play ! " at cricket, unless the solitary, 
unsupported "accipe" is to be taken as proof, 
which does not satisfy me. As to PROF. 
SKEAT'S polite reference to me, conceived 
with all his well-known genial courtesy, I do 
not think it needs an answer. I have never- 
hinted a suggestion that " tenez is not the 

imperative plural of tenir." His reference, 

therefore, seems quite unfounded and super- 

MORE (9 th S. ix. 467T 515). The passage in 
'The Dynamiters' quoted by Miss HUDSON 
refers to a poem of Coventry Patmore's 
called 'The Circles.' It will be found on 
p. 215 of the 1878 edition of ' Amelia.' 


CIGARETTE -SMOKING (9 th S. ix. 308). In 
your note to MR. WILLIAM ANDREWS'S query 
you state that Mr. Laurence Oliphant was 
the first notable person to smoke cigarettes 
in the streets of London. A great many 
people give to Carlo Pellegrini the credit of 
introducing the insinuating cigarette into 
England. At all events, Pellegrini ("Ape " of 
Vanity Fair) takes an important place among 
the popularizers of the cigarette, for the 
great caricaturist and his little roll of tobacco 
were inseparable. CHARLES HIATT. 

SHAKESPEARE v. BACON (9 th S. ix. 245, 414). 
MR. WATSON, quoting Wordsworth, main- 
tains in this controversy that "the most 
singular thing is that in all the writings of 
Bacon there is not one allusion to Shake- 
speare," and that this " is surely a proof that 
Bacon had nothing to do with Shakespeare's 
plays." The argument appears to me to be 
ill the other way. If Shakespeare were 
Bacon's mask, is it likely that Bacon would 
mention Shakespeare as the author of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY s, 1902. 

plays which he himself had written ? He was 
careful not to give himself away in this man- 
ner. But Bacon was not the only writer of 
the time who apparently knew not Shake- 

Dr. Ingleby, editor of the ' Shakespeare 
Allusion Books' and the ' Centurie of Prayse,' 
says : 

" The absence of sundry great names with which 
no pains of research, scrutiny, or study could con- 
nect the most trivial allusion to the bard or his 
works (such, e.g., as Lord Brooke, Lord Bacon, 
Selden, Sir John Beaumont; Henry Vaughan, and 

Lord Clarendon) is tacitly significant It is plain, 

for one thing, that the bard of our admiration was 

unknown to the men of that age Doubtless he 

knew his men ; but assuredly his men did not know 

Spedding says : 

"Though numbers of contemporary news-letters, 
filled with literary and fashionable intelligence, 
have been preserved, it is only in the Stationers' 
Register and the accounts kept by the Master of 
the Revels that we find any notices of the publica- 
tion or acting of Shakespeare's plays. In the long 
series of letters from John Chamberlain to Dudley 
Carleton, scattered over the whole period from 1598 
to 1623 letters full of news of the month, news of 
the Court, the city, the pulpit, and the bookseller's 
shop, in which Court masques are described in 
minute detail, author, actors, plot, performances, 
reception and all we look in vain for the name of 

Then of Henslowe's ' Diary ' Collier writes : 

" Recollecting that the names of nearly all the 
other play-poets of the time occur, we cannot but 
wonder that that of Shakespeare is not met with in 
any part of the manuscript. 

In this ' Diary ' there are frequent notices of 
Jonson, Dekker, Chettle, Marston, Drayton, 
Munday, Heywood. Middleton, Webster, 
Rowley, and others, but the name of Shake- 
speare is completely ignored, as it is also in 
the Alleyn Papers, where it does not appear 
among the notices of the large army ot con- 
temporary dramatists and their productions. 
Mr. Fleay, the distinguished Shakespearean, 
writes : 

" Neither as addressed to him [Shakespeare] by 
others, nor by him to others, do any comniendatory 
verses exist in connection with any of his or other 
men's works published in his lifetime a notable 
fact, in whatever way it may be explained. ' 

Mr. Richard Grant White writes : 

" Of his eminent countrymen, Raleigh, Sydney, 
Spenser, Bacon, Cecil, Walsingham, Coke, Camden, 
Hooker, Drake, Hobbes, Inigo Jones, Herbert of 
Cherbury, Laud, Pym, Hampden, Selden. Walton, 
Wotton, and Donne may be properly reckoned his 
contemporaries, and yet there is no evidence what- 
ever that he was personally known to either of 
these men, or to any others of less note among the 
statesmen, scholars, soldiers, and artists of his day, 
excepting a few of his fellow-craftsmen." 

Adolphus in his ' Letters to Heber ' puts an 
analogous case rather patly when he says : 

" How is it to be explained that the author of 
' Waverley ' has taken occasion in his writings to 
make honourable mention of almost every distin- 
guished contemporary poet, except the Minstrel of 
;he Border? The answer is obvious : he could not 
do so, because he was himself that Minstrel ; and a 
man of ingenuous mind will shrink from publishing 
a direct commendation of his own talent, although 
tie may feel confident that the eulogy will never oe 
traced home." 

If so with Scott, why not the same with 
Bacon ? 

So that Bacon, by not mentioning Shake- 
speare in his works if Bacon was not Shake- 
speare appears to have erred in very good 
company the company of well-known con- 
temporaries. GEORGE STRONACH." 


Following up Q. A., MR. WATSON, and 
Wordsworth, may I mention what Mr. John 
Leycester Adolphus, in the letters which he 
published in 1821 to prove that the then 
unknown Waverley novelist was Scott, says ? 

" How is it to be explained that the author of 
'Waverley' has taken occasion in his writings to 
make honourable mention of almost every distin- 
guished contemporary poet, except the Minstrel of 
the Border ? The answer is obvious : he could not 
do so, because he icas himself that Minstrd." 

Surely the Baconians may be permitted to 
make use of the same argument and claim 
for it much the same kind of validity as Mr. 
Leycester Adolphus claims for his ''obvious 
answer" to the question raised as to the 
silence of the Waverley novelist about the 
Minstrel of the Border. 


" PROSPICIMUS MODO " (9 th S. viii. 445 ; ix. 
34, 273). Adverting to the last paragraph of 
PROF. BENSLY'S note, I would refer him to 
Bailey's dictionary of 1727, sub voce 'Hexa- 
meter,' where he will find six very ingenious 
' Versifying Tables for Hexameters,' with full 
directions for each table. Bailey says : "The 
following Tables being a curious and admir- 
able Contrivance, not doubting but that they 
will be acceptable to the curious Reader, I 
present them." I have not tried to work 
them. Hoc opus, hie labor. I prefer the 
uningenious method I was taught many years 

Little Gidding. 

. WEEK (9 th S. ix. 147, 277). Christianity is 
only skin-deep ; almost all the customs of pur 
forefathers survive, only the label is Christian. 
This is a well-known fact, so that I do not 
in any way dream of teaching persons versed 
in the history of culture anything new. Let 

9* 8. X. JULY 5, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


me only mention one more instance. The 
old Germans, as well as the Gauls, counted 
by nights: "Galli se omnes ab Dite patre 
prognatos prsedicant idque ab druidibus pro- 
ditum dicunt. Ob earn causain spatia omnis 
temporis non numero dierum, sed noctium 
finiunt, dies natales et mensium et annorum 
initia sic observant, ut noctem dies sub- 
sequatur"(Csesar, 'B. G.,' lib. yi., xviii.). This 
accounts for sennight, fortnight, night and 
day, and, furthermore, for the fact that all 
the principal Christian feasts have their 
vigils. Not only is Christmas a heathenish 
holy day, but our celebrating Christmas Eve 
is owing to the ancient Germanic and Gallic 
creed. G. KRUEGER. 


ix. 365, 455). The authority for the name of 
Bishop Kennett's mother is probably a life of 
that prelate published in 1730, only two years 
after his death. We read there : 

" His Mother was Mary, the eldest Daughter of 
Mr. Thomas White, a wealthy Magistrate, in that 
then flourishing Town of Dover, who had been a 
Master Shipwright, or Builder of Ships, and after 
the Restauration was employ'd by the Government, 
in that Way." 

I do not find any mention of the death of the 
bishop's father or mother. 

Holy Trinity Vicarage, Rotherhithe. 

The attention of your correspondents may 
be called to the pedigree of the Kennetts 
printed in the late Dr. Howard's Miscellanea 
Gen. et Her., New Series, ii. 287 (1877). 

W. C. B. 

" ONLY TOO THANKFUL " (9 th S. ix. 288, 370, 
457). The use of the word only in this collo- 
cation seems to me to be a natural extension 
of its use in such phrases as "This I grant, 
only remember this," where the signification 
of only partially coincides with that of 
specially or of uniquement. So if I say my 
only joy I mean my special joy. By a well- 
known law of ever-changing language the 
word comes to be used as an absolute synonym 
of uniquely or absolutely. So in Virgil, " Unum 
oro," "One prayer I make especially." Too 
is used exactly like nimis in Plautus for " very 
much." H. A. STRONG. 

University College, Liverpool. 

The use of too as a simple intensive without 
any idea of excess is very common in Southern 
India amongst English-speaking natives, and 
it is very difficult to make schoolboys under- 
stand, or rather remember, that too and very 
are not synonymous. If a boy says that some 
one has "too much money" he does not in 

the least mean that the man has more money 
than is good for him, but merely that he is 
very rich. When explaining the "English 
usage recently I was confronted by the 
phrase "only too true." Too in that case 
evidently means not " more than it ought 
to be," but " more than we should like it 
to be." May not the too in " only too happy " 
and the like be interpreted as meaning 
more than you expect"? Such phrases 
are generally used in reply to a remark which 
conveys a doubt either expressly or implicitly, 
e.g., " Would you like to undertake the work 1 " 
"I shall be only too happy." If my suggestion 
is correct, the too here expresses the fact that 
I am happier to undertake the work than 
you expected me to be, or perhaps than you 
think the offer warrants me in being, and 
the only excludes the supposition that I am 
unwilling to undertake it I have no other 
feeling than happiness. If this explanation 
is not correct, it may be that too is a simple 
intensive ; and the South India practice 
shows that there is a tendency for too to 
become that. If the expression became 
common in the eighties, it may be that it is 
merely a piece of carelessness due to the 
exaggerated expressions prevalent among the 
so-called aesthetes of that time. O. T. T. 

"THE" AS PART 99 TITLE (9 th S. ix. 428). 
S. W. asks under this head a v question 
which has perplexed others. In speaking 
there is no difficulty, but in accurate writing 
or description it is another matter. The 
two examples which he gives, however, are 
not, I think, on all fours. Whether, in 
dealing with titles, one should write of the 
The Times I cannot say, but in a public 
company registered as such the question will 
doubtless be determined by the wording of 
its certificate of registration or other corre- 
sponding document. This, I am aware, is no 
answer to S. W.'s question generally, but it 
may, notwithstanding, assist him, especially 
in such an instance as that which he cites 
viz., The Union Bank. D. O. 

" The Union Bank of London " is, according 
to its deed of settlement of 1839, the correct 
form. On 18 September, 1882, the word 
"Limited" was added. J. P. S. 

Automobile Club, Paris. 

" Box HARRY" (9 th S. ix. 449). This is well 
known in the Northern Counties in the sense 
of doing things "on the cheap." I used it 
only ten days ago. A friend of considerable 
means, who, coming to my town, could well 
have afforded hotel expenses, having tried, 
and to my knowledge failed, to procure offers 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 5, 1902. 

of hospitality, then sought them from me. I 
at once, whilst at the same time inviting him, 
said to my wife, " He is bent upon boxing 
Harry." 'Phrase and Fable' defines the 
expression as "to save expense," quoted as 
from Halliwell, 'to take care after having 
been extravagant." In MR. PAGE'S instance 
the woman seems to have meant she must 
beg some potatoes to make up the deficiency. 


This is a very old and well-known cant 
phrase, used specially by commercial travel- 
lers. These persons are allowed a certain sum 
per diem for expenses, usually a liberal sum ; 
but in the very frequent event that, from con- 
vivial or other causes, the amount has in any 
week been overspent, it is the custom to 
retrench by avoiding so many of the regula- 
tion meals at the hotels as may bring the 
expenditure back to the stipulated allowance. 
This universal practice is called " boxing 
Harry." A man leaving just before the 
dinner hour would naturally reply to an 
acquaintance, "I must box Harry," and 
would be perfectly understood. It is rather 
a matter of etiquette, and considered good 
form on "the road," not to save money "out 
of expenses "; while to " box Harry " is re- 
garded as the proper method of adjustment. 

I have good authority for stating that 
this phrase, in the sense of to do without, 
was fairly common in the neighbourhood of 
Sheffield some thirty-five or forty years ago. 

H. P. L. 

MR. PAGE will find this phrase discussed 
throughout vol. ii. chap. i. of George Borrow's 
'Wild Wales' (London, Murray, 1862), and 
the information there given may be useful, 
although the author confesses himself unable 
to trace the term to its origin. 


'A Dictionary of Words. Facts, and Phrases,' 
by Eliezer Edwards, published by Chatto & 
Windus in 1884, and the ' Slang Dictionary,' 
issued by the same firm in 1887, give : " Box 
Harry, a term with commercial travellers, 
implying dinner and a substantial tea at one 
meal in order to save expense." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

JAMES ECCLESTON (9 th S. ix. 428). Mr. 
James Eccleston, B.A. Trinity Coll., Dublin, 
was appointed head master of the Sutton 
Coldfield Grammar School in 1842. He was 
a fairly popular and successful man. He 
published in 1847 a handsome octavo volume 
of 463 pages entitled 'An Introduction to 

English Antiquities, intended as a Companion 
to the History of England,' which he dedi- 
cated to Sir Francis Lawley, Bart., and the 
other trustees of Sutton Coldfield Grammar 
School. In 1849 he accepted the headship of 
a new educational institution in Australia, 
and died on board ship before he could land. 
The following is a copy of the inscription on 
the tombstone in Sutton Coldfield Church- 
yard : 

Erected to the 

Memory of James Eccleston Esquire, 

For some years Head Master 

of the Grammar School 

of this Town, 
Who died Mch 8 th , 1850, 

Age 34 years, 

Rector of the High School 

of Hobart Town Van Diemen's Land 

Where he is interred. 

Beneath are interred the remains 


James Lester Eccleston 
Born Nov 25 th 1845, 
Died Mch 6 th 1849, 

And of 

Lucinda Maria Anna Eccleston 
Born Dec 5 th 1840, 
Died Mch 8 1849. 

G. S. 

LIBRARY (9 th S. viii. 378 : ix. Ill, 415). Is it 
correct to say "An Heuskarian " ? Even 
assuming the ^silent (of which I am not sure), 
still the article should, I hold, be a, not an, 
as the^ sound following the If is you, though 
the letters are eu. I am fully aware what a 
trouble the aspirate is to a Southron, but this 
does not affect the matter. R. B R. 

"BAR SINISTER" (9 th S. ix. 64, 152, 215, 315, 
376). At 9 th S. ix. 316 it is stated that the 
" old Princess Buckingham " died " childless 
in the usual signification of that word," and 
not only in a heraldo-legal sense. Is not this 
wrong 1 The Lady Catharine Darnley (daugh- 
ter of James II. and Catharine Sedley), whose 
second husband was John Sheffield, Duke of 
Buckingham, married first James, Earl of 
Anglesey, and had by him a daughter 
Catharine, born 7 January, 1700. This 
daughter married William Phipps, son and 
heir to Sir Constantino Phipps, Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland. PCONALD DIXON. 
46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

I venture to break a lance with my old 
friend MR. PICK FORD. "Baton sinister de- 
bruised" seems to me not quite accurate. 
Arms may be " debruised of (or by) a baton 
sinister "C'brise d'un baton "). The arms, not 
the baton, are debruised. As to the Powlett 
and Orde cases, quoted by my friend, the 

9ts.x.ju L Y5,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


wives seem to be the illegitimate persons, and 
their arms, not the coat of the husbands, 
would bear the mark, not of cadency, but of 
illegitimacy, whether borne impaled with, or 
in pretence upon, the husband's shield, and, 
if in pretence, would be quartered by their 
descendants. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

OLD SCHOOL RULES (9 th S. ix. 226). The 
endowed schools in this village were founded 
and bequeathed by John Heygate, Esq., in 
the year 1825. I have in my possession an 
old card of rules which was issued to the 
parents of the children soon after the schools 
were established. Although not so old as 
those which have already appeared, these 
rules are interesting as displaying an example 
of the methods adopted in the early days of 
the nineteenth century by those who studied 
the art of elementary education : 

Rules and Regulations to be observed in the 
Charity School, West Haddon. 

1. That no Child be admitted having any in" 
fectious Disorder, nor under the Age of Five Years- 

2. That all Children are expected to attend 
punctually, washed, combed, and cleaned. 

3. That every Child bring one Penny to the 
Master every fourth Monday, to provide, in Part, 
for themselves reading Books, Slates, &c.; and that 
no occasional Absence exempt them from this rule. 

4. That no child be detained at home, or taken 
occasionally from the School, without a sufficient 
reason being assigned by their Parents or Friends 
to the Master. 

5. That the Hours of Attendance in School are 
from Nine to Twelve in the Morning, and from 
Two to Five in the Afternoon in the Summer, and 
from One to Four in the Winter. 

6. That all Complaints from the Parents or 
Friends of the Children be made to the Trustees of 
the School, and to them only, on the first Sunday in 
every Month, at the School, by Ten o'Clock in the 

7. That any Child breaking a Window or Slate, 
destroying any Book, or wilfully damaging anything 
belonging to the School, shall pay the Master for 
the same. 

8. That such as do not strictly observe the above 
Rules be expelled. 

9. That Application for Tickets of Admission be 
made to the Trustees of the School. 

N.B. It is desired that every Person holding this 
Card will take proper Care of it, both for their 
Guidance with Respect to the Children attending 
the School, and that they may be able to produce it 
when required. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

Allow me to refer your correspondents who 
are interested in this subject to 'Endowed 
Grammar Schools,' 2 vols. pp. 858-953, large 
8vo, by Nicholas Carlisle, published in 1818, 
where much curious information may be 
found, and numerous engravings of the seals 

of arms of schools. The amount of trouble 
taken by the compiler must have been 
immense, and in the preface is a copy of the 
series of questions sent to the masters of the 
different schools in England, to which it is 
added, "N.B. Upwards of One Thousand Four 
Hundred Letters have been sent and received." 
In the brief notice of the author given in 
Allibone's (edition 1872) 'Dictionary' this 
work is not even mentioned. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

NAPOLEON'S LAST YEARS (9 th S. viii. 422, 
509; ix. 274, 373). Mr. J. H. Rose, in his 
recently published life of Napoleon, examines 
very carefully the statement that the em- 
peror's movements at Waterloo were seriously 
hampered by his ill health, and the upshot, 
he says, is that "whatever was Napoleon's 
condition before the campaign, he was in his 
usual health amidst the stern joys of war." 
This, Mr. Rose continues, was 

" consonant with his previous experience : he throve 
on events which wore ordinary beings to the bone : 
the one thing that he could not endure was the 
worry of parliamentary opposition, which aroused 
a nervous irritation not to be controlled and con- 
cealed without infinite effort. During the campaign 
we find very few trustworthy proofs of his decline, 
and much that points to energy of resolve and great 
rallying power after eiwrtion. If he was suffering 
from three illnesses, they were assuredly of a highly 
intermittent nature.*' 

As to the comparative merits, as generals, 
of Napoleon and Wellington, Napoleon's own 
words, quoted by Mr. Rose, are worth repeat- 
ing : " The Duke of Wellington is fully equal 
to myself in the management of an army, 
with the advantage of possessing more pru- 
dence." The italics are Mr. Rose's. 

C. C. B. 

With reference to the repeated assertions 
about Napoleon's ability to have swept 
Wellington and his men from the field of 
Waterloo, I beg to quote what the lamented 
Mr. George Hooper has written on the sub- 
ject in his 'Wellington' (Macmillan & Co., 
1889) : 

" Lord Wolseley also asserts that if Napoleon had 
been the man he was at Austerlitz he would have 
won the battle of Waterloo. It is pure hypothesis, 
and about as reasonable as one which might be 
framed thus If Soult or Clausel, instead of Arabi, 
had commanded the Egyptian army in 1882, Sir 
Garnet Wolseley would not have won the battle of 
Tel-el-Kebir. What is the value of criticism which 
alters all the conditions on one side and does not 
venture to alter them on the other ? Napoleon and 
Wellington and Blucher fought out their fight in 
the circumstances existing between the 14th and 
19th of June. We can only judge them by the light 
of these circumstances. All else is pure phantasy ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 5, 1002. 

and if the greatest general is he who makes the 
fewest mistakes and does not wage war on conjec- 
tural grounds, then Wellington was the greater 
on the fields of Belgium, and acted on fewer and 
less dangerous conjectures than his mighty an- 
tagonist. It is an idle controversy." Vide p. 225. 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, B.W. 

468). Possibly the book inquired for is re- 
ferred to in the following passage from 
Alleyne's 'Dispensatory ' (1733) : 

" There hath lately been published in English a 
treatise of the Misletoe, wherein the author pro- 
fessedly supports his opinions of it's virtues both 
from facts and experience ; and warmly recommends 
it's use as a specific in Epilepsies, and many kinds 
of Convulsions." 

C. C. B. 

' HOP THE TWIG " (9 th S. ix. 189, 314). It 
would be interesting if we could have a dated 
quotation from the dictionary to which De 
Quincey refers. I am unable to identify it 
in the British Museum, but it occurs to me 
that the following notes (made in the course 
of hunting for it) may be of interest, as 
showing the difficulties that the unfortunate 
foreigner encountered in his study of our 

In the " Teutsch-Englisches Lexicon, Worin- 
nen nicht allein die Worter, samt den Nenn- 
Bey- und Sprich-Wortern. Sondern auch so 
wol die eigentliche als verbliimte JRedens- 
arten verzeichnet sind. Aus den besten 
Scribenten und vorhandenen Dictionariis mit 
grossem fleisz zusammen getragen, Das erste 
so iemahls gemacht worden. Leipzig, bey 
Thomas Fritschen, 1716," among other divert- 
ing matter * and immense profusion of 
synonyms, I only find the following under 
sterben : 

" To dy or die ; to decease ; to depart ; to depart 
this life ; to starve ; to breath your last ; to exspire ; 
to give up the ghost ; to kick up your heels ; to pay 
the tribute to nature ; to tip off; to tip over ; to tip 
over the pearch." 

* For example, under the word schmarotzen : 
" Er mag gerne echmarotzen, he loves tid-bits, ragoos, 
kick-shaws, junkets, delicate meats ; he is given to 
his belly : he loves to spunge upon others that keep 
a good table. Er geht iibercul schmarotzen, he sharks 
up and down ; he lives upon the catch ; he goes 
sharking about ; he is a smell-feast. Schmarotzer, a 
smell feast, a parasite, a shark, a sharking fellow, a 
spunger, a glutton, a gormandizer, a robin-good- 
fellow, a boon-companion, a table-friend, a cater- 
cousin, a pot-companion, a greedy-gut, a lick-dish, 
a lick-sauce, a slap-sauce, a trencher-fly, a trencher- 
friend, a hanger-on, a lover of tid-bits, a lickerish 
fellow." Again, under the word verstorben, the 
guileless German was instructed that "Er ist schon 
langst verstorben " might be rendered " he is dead 
and rotten." 

The ' Teutsch - Englisch Lexicon,' published 
at Leipzig in 1745, gives the above verbatim et 

In J. Ebers's ' Vollstandiges Worterbuch 
der Englischen Sprache fur den Deutschen ' 
(Leipzig, 1793), vol. i. 784, I find, "To hop the 
Twig, weglaufen." And in his 'New and 
Complete Dictionary of the German and 
English Languages' (Leipzig, 1799), Ebers 
omits the incorrect "to starve," but other- 
wise represents the English equivalents of 
sterben almost exactly as his predecessors had 
done. The earliest quotation for " Davy 
Jones's locker" in the ' N.E.D.' is dated 1803. 

Q. V. 

'AYLWIN' (9 th S. ix. 369, 450). I read with 
interest MR. HAKE'S notes on the personalities 
introduced into this charming book. I should 
like, however, to have some information re- 
garding the "school of mystics founded by 
Lavater " which Aylwin is said to have joined, 
and "the large book, 'The Veiled Queen,' by 
Philip Aylwin," a quotation from which forms 
a heading to the first chapter, and has haunted 
me ever since I read it. Of course, this book 
may, as some believe, exist only in the 
imagination of the author. I should like to 
know, at all events, something^ definite on 
this question. JAY AITCH. 

LATIN VERSES (9 th S. ix. 447). This is ccxlii. 
of the ' Anthologia Veterum Latinorum,' Bur- 
man, vol. i. p. 670. The version there given 
is slightly different. H. A. STRONG. 

University College, Liverpool. 

THE WEST BOURNE (9 th S. viii. 517 ; ix. 51, 
92, 190, 269, 291, 375, 456). "The study of 
place-names," says Mr. Duignan, in the pre- 
face of his ' Staffordshire Place-Names,' " is a 
modern science." It should at any rate be 
treated on scientific principles. The historical 
method should be applied to each name, just 
as the historical method is applied by Dr. 
Murray and his colleagues to every word in 
their monumental dictionary. In endeavour- 
ing to apply this method to the name of the 
supposititious "West Bourne." I have not 
been able to get further back than some time 
in the nineteenth century. When I asked for 
evidence that would enable me to trace the 
name to a remoter date I, of course, meant 
documentary evidence. Oral evidence can 
only carry us back a very short distance. 
But my friend MR. RUTTON thinks that the 
name itself affords sufficient evidence of its 
antiquity. A very little research will show 
that names are very unsatisfactory evidence 
of facts. Nine people out of ten consider 
that my own name is a French one. Out- 
wardly it has that appearance, but there is 

9 th S. X. JULY 5 1902.] 



historical evidence to show that it is Cornish. 
Or to take an example from the work from 
which I have just quoted. In Staffordshire 
there are three places called " Brocton," each 
of which is situated on a small stream. The 
name of these places is evidently derived 
from the A.-S. broc, a brook. There is also a 
place called "Broughton," which in many 
cases is a dialectal form of Brocton. But the 
Staffordshire Broughton is the Domesday 
Hereborgestone, and clearly means Hereburh's 
town, Hereburh being a feminine proper name 
in Anglo-Saxon. But no one would guess 
this from any evidence afforded by the 
modern name. 

Names ending in bourne must be especially 
treated with caution, for v m many cases 
there is no evidence whatever that they were 
the names of streams. For a final instance 
I will not even go so far as Kent. If MR. 
RUTTON, who lives in Paddingtpn, will merely 
cross the Edgware Road he will find himself 
in the borough of Marylebone. What is the 
meaning of the final syllable? More than 
four hundred years ago the manor was called 
"Mariborne," and there is no doubt in my 
mind that when the church of St. Mary was 
erected the village of which it formed the 
nucleus was called Mary -at -the -Bourne, a 
lengthy designation which soon became con- 
tracted into "Mariborne" and "Maribone." 
But a very accurate and well-informed corre- 
spondent tells me that a local newspaper, the 
Marylebone Mercury, has lately invented the 
name of the " Mary Bourne " for the stream, 
now a sewer, which is commonly known as 
the Tyburn, and that this name also appears 
in Mr. Arnold Forster's little school-reader 
' Our Great City.' It is needless to say that not 
a scrap of historical evidence exists for this 
name. For many years past I have endea- 
voured to investigate the history of my 
native parish, and have never met the " Mary 
Bourne" mentioned in any authentic docu- 
ment. But, occurring as it does in an ac- 
cepted text-book, I feel no doubt that fifty 
years hence the name will be championed 
with as much warmth and ability as that of 
the "West Bourne" is at the present time. 
To the future Peter Cunningham the " Mary 
Bourne " will be an obvious reality, and 
another topographical myth will have ma- 
tured into general acceptance. Probably a 
romantic story will be woven round it into 
the bargain, for such a name as "Mary 
Bourne " possesses great potentialities. 

Many small streams were in ancient days 
only known as the Burne. An instance will 
be found on p. 23 of Mr. Duignan's book, and 
I am violating no canon of probability in 

suggesting that this may have been the case 
with the "West Bourne." And now, with 
MR. RUTTON, I think that dubious brook may 
be allowed to sleep in the subterranean re- 
cesses to which it has retired. I will only 
remark in conclusion that I can see no grounds 
for thinking that Bosworth, in his explanation 
of " bourne," meant more than he actually 
said. A word can be made to mean anything 
if to a lexicographer's definition every reader 
is permitted to append his own glosses. 


BOON FOR BOOKWORMS (9 th S. ix. 406, 453). 
In my library, is a nicely bound copy of 
Hazlitt's ' Spirit of the Age,' in two volumes, 
to each of which is attached a ribbon marker. 
It was published at Paris in 1825. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

I have ' Le Rime del Petrarca ' (Parigi, 1768) 
and a ' Roman Missal ' (London, 1815), both 
of which are furnis'hed with ribbon markers. 


AMBER" (9 th S. ix. 408, 471). I have always 
presumed that " lutes of amber," chairs, and 
mirrors of the same, mentioned by MR. J. 
DORMER, refer to the frequent use of amber 
as an inlay or decoration of the wood of 
which musical instruments, furniture, mirrors, 
and the like were constructed. I have a 
small mirror (probably Florentine, of the six- 
teenth or seventeenth century), the frame 
of which is entirely incrusted with plates of 
geometrical shapes of amber, through the 
transparent substance of which drawings of 
foliage may be seen. I am not quite sure 
that the above is what MR. DORMER means. 
A chair, lute, or mirror of amber is, of course, 
quite out of the question; not so furniture or 
musical instruments inlaid with that material. 

" BUFF WEEK " (9 th S. ix. 329, 353, 372, 473). 
See further under baf, bauch,in 'E.D.D.,' 
and under bauch in ' H.E.D.' and Jaraieson. 
The derivation is from Icel. bdgr, uneasy, 
allied to bdgr, strife. The Icel. bag-, in com- 
position, signifies ill, bad, perverse, difficult, 
and the like. Cf. Norw. baag, obstructive, 
inconvenient, difficult, bad ; and O.Irish bag, 
strife. The baff week is the unprofitable one. 


ix. 346, 493). The mallet used at the laying 
of the foundation stone of St. Paul's is no 
doubt of historic interest, but where is the 
documentary evidence that Wren was a Free- 
mason or Master of a St. Paul's Lodge ? True, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* h s. x. JULY 5, 1002. 

John Aubrey, in his 'Natural History of 
Wiltshire,' MS. Royal Society, 1686, on reverse 
folio 72, dated 1691, says that Wren was " to 
be adopted a Brother"; and Dr. Anderson 
says that Wren was Grand Master in 1685, 
six years before he was, according to Aubrey, 
to be initiated as a Freemason. But there is 
no evidence that Wren was a member of any 
lodge. Mr. Gould, the Masonic historian, 
years ago made an exhaustive search, but not 
a shred of* documentary evidence, even the 
mention of Wren's name in any of the lists 
or MSS. of the old lodges, could be found. 
Anderson's statement is considered apocry- 
phal, and Aubrey only wrote that such an 
event was to take place. Wren's son does 
not allude to it in his writings, and he 
would of all others have knowledge of such 
an event. This story about Wren has been 
repeated for many years, but no evidence of 
any kind that can be relied upon has been 
submitted by those who quote Wren as a 
member of the craft. I have never found a 
line to justify the assertion, and every known 
avenue of proof has been searched by me in 
connexion with the statement. 

Toronto, Canada. 

MISPLACING OF A COMMA (9 th S. ix. 267). 
The enclosed cutting from an Australian 
daily paper (the Adelaide Advertiser, 9 May), 
though not directly answering the query as 
to wnat " Act of Parliament once cost the 
country a hundred thousand pounds," pro- 
vides, at any rate, another version of the 
story : 

" The Prime Minister receives many strange 
letters, one of the strangest being one which reached 
him during the tariff debate, warning him to be 
very careful of his commas. The writer, an 
American, went on to say that one little comma 
cost the United States Government 400,00(W. ! It 
was this way : About twenty years ago the United 
States Congress, in drafting the Tariff Bill, 
enumerated in one section the articles to be 
admitted on the free list. Amongst these were 
'all foreign fruit -plants.' The copying clerk, in 
his superior wisdom, omitted the hyphen and 
inserted a comma after ' fruit,' so that the clause 
read ' all foreign fruit, plants, &c.' The mistake 
could not be rectified for about a year, and during 
this time all oranges, lemons, bananas, grapes, and 
other foreign fruits were admitted free of duty, 
with a loss to the Government of at least 400,000/. 
for that year." 


The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

YARROW UNVISITED (9 th S. ix. 386, 477). 
At the second reference MR. YARROW BAL- 
DOCK states that John Logan " was driven 
from his ministry by the,V? Jlication, and 
subsequent performance at uie Edinburgh 

Theatre, of his tragedy of 'Runnimede.'" As 
it is perilous to express an opinion about 
Logan, it may be useful in reference to this 
assertion to quote the following from a favour- 
able biographer : 

" Logan then printed it [' Runnimede'], and had 
it acted in the Edinburgh theatre ; but in neither 
form did it meet with decided success. This, with 
other disappointments, preyed upon the spirits of 
the poet, and he now betook himself to the most 
vulgar and fatal means of neutralizing grief. It is 
to be always kept in mind that his father had died 
in a state of insanity, the consequence of depressed 
spirits. Hence it is to be presumed that the aberra- 
tions of the unhappy poet had some palliative in 
constitutional tendencies. From whatever source 
they arose, it was soon found necessary that he 
should resign the charge of the populous parish with 
which he had been entrusted." 

After giving his explanation of Logan's 
resignation of his post, MR. YARROW BALDOCK 
further intimates that 

" the Michael Bruce story was long since cleared up 
by Mr. Laing, who established Jonn Logan's claim 
to the authorship of the ' Ode to the Cuckoo,' as 
Dr. Carruthers says in 'Chambers's Cyclopaedia,' 
4 beyond all dispute.' " 

In view of all that has happened since the 
expression of this opinion in the 'Cyclopaedia,' 
the conclusion is irresistible that the author's 
confident assertion was somewhat premature. 
There has been incessant dispute on the sub- 
ject from that remote day to the present 

SIR GEOFFREY POLE, DIED 1558 (9 th S. ix. 
468). Much interesting information relating 
to the family of Pole will be found in a trust- 
worthy volume, ' Reginald Pole, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Canterbury,' by the Rev. 
Frederick George Lee, D.D. (London, 1888). 
Sir Geoffrey Pole was a younger brother of 
the cardinal, whom he predeceased by a few 
days. He left eleven children, five sons and 
six daughters. Of the latter two were mar- 
ried, and one embraced the religious life at 
Syon House, Isleworth. Dr. Lee's record 
gives many interesting details relating to the 
family as a whole. H. BASKERVILLE. 

Oriel College, Oxford. 


The Early History of Syria and Palestine. By 

L. B. Paton, Ph.D. (Nimmo.) 
The Theology awl Ethics of the Hebrews. By A. 

Duff, LL.l). (Same publisher.) 
A NATURAL result of the explorations and dis* 
cpveries so actively carried on of late years on the 
sites of the ancient civilizations has been an 
increased interest in Oriental lore, religious and 
historical, and more particularly the Semitic branch 
of it. To gratify the appetite for information thus 

9ts.x.jtLY5,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


stimulated Mr. Nimmo projected his " Semitic 
Series," to which we have already bidden a hearty 
welcome. Two more issues of this valuable series 
have now appeared simultaneously, if not of equal 
merit, yet ooth of importance to the student of 
Biblical history and antiquities. 

Dr. Paton in his volume undertakes to tell the 
story of the West Semitic peoples from their 
earliest appearance on the scene of history down to 
the establishment of the Persian empire. With 
considerable literary skill he has succeeded in 
weaving the fragmentary and often disconnected 
hints of the monuments into a narrative of living 
interest. It was no easy task to bring up flesh and 
sinew over the extremely dry bones of the mere 
annalist, but Dr. Paton has succeeded in doing so. 
This is eminently the case in his ingenious inter- 
pretation of the Amarna correspondence between 
the vassal -kings Rib-Addi and Aziru and their 
sovereign Amenhotep IV. We congratulate him on 
the ability with which he has brought such scattered 
leaves of the historic Sibyl into order and made 
them reveal their oracle. He holds that the Kha- 
biri of these Amarna letters designate the Hebrews 
only in the general sense of being one of the group 
of confederated tribes who claimed descent from 
Eber as their common ancestor. t 

On the whole, Dr. Paton is a conservative critic, 
but some of his theorizings will require further 
proof his theory, e.g., that Abram, a local hero 
From Hebron, was a distinct person from Abraham, 
the father of the faithful, and that their iden- 
tification is an old mistake due to the resem- 
blance of their names. " Abram the Hebrew " in 
Genesis xiv. 13 must, then, disappear as a gloss and 
afterthought. This chorizontist suggestion is the 
newest thing in Biblical speculation. His account of 
the rise and development of the God-idea (Yahweh) 
among the Israelites, on the whole, is the same as 
that of Budde and Kuenen, and may be regarded as 
fairly established by a consensus of opinion. A 
good bibliography is prefixed though we question 
the right of Campbell's wild book, ' The Hittites,' 
to be included as in any sense an authority and a 
very full index is appended. 

Dr. Duffs work is of a more technical character, 
and consequently less interesting. It is devoted 
chiefly to a discussion of the problem presented by 
the book of Deuteronomy, in which the author 
attempts to reconstruct the documents out of 
which it was formed, holding them to have been 
the normal outcome of the teaching of the great 
prophets of the eighth century B.C. His analysis 
of the prophetic doctrine and the evolution of the 
monotheistic and ethical idea appears to us the 
most valuable part of his book. On the other 
hand, his explanations of some of the psychological 
phenomena of Scripture strike us as strained and 
improbable. We can hardly think it likely that 
the shepherd lad Moses was actuated and set on to 
his high mission of delivering his people by the 
sight of the rising sunbeams gleaming redly one 
morning upon a thorn-bush in the wilderness. In 
tracing the origin of the Cherubim, Dr. Duff would 
have been saved from error by a little more know- 
ledge of Babylonian research. He revives the long- 
exploded notion that the kherftb was a griffin, the 
gryps of the Greeks ; but he is quite original in his 
suggestion that its shape was originally that of 
some fossil or crystalline form resembling a winded 
creature which the Israelites may have fancied 
that they saw in " the seeming hieroglyphic figures " 

that they may have read in the markings discernible 
on the two slabs of stone brought down by Moses 
from the mount. This is no caricature of Dr. Duffs 
theory, with which he is so pleased that he repeats 
it. Another peculiar idea of the author's is that 
the Semitic Sabbath may have been at first a 
female deity of Fate whose name meant " cutting- 
off," and that to this Hebrew Atropos the seventh 
day was sacred. He interprets the first Command- 
ment as ordaining that " no other Elohim is to 
stand before Him (Yahweh) to obscure His face" 
a decidedly private interpretation. The " mixed 
multitude that followed Moses he describes as 
" the 'riff-raff' camp-followers." Some wild etymo- 
logists have seen in the Hebrew word (erebh) the 
origin of our "riff-raff." Dr. Duff, we are sure, 
knows better. 

Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society. 

New Series, Vol. IV. Part II. (Glasgow, Mac- 

Lehose & Sons.) 

THESE Transactions have always held a high rank 
in antiquarian literature, and as time goes on they 
become more and more important as a storehouse 
of facts and of the generalizations of the leading 
archaeologists of Scotland. By far the longest con 
tribution to the present issue is Mr. George Neil- 
son's ' Huchown.' As, however, it has appeared in a 
separate form, and been, in consequence, noticed bi\t 
very recently in our pages, we only make a passing 
reference. Major Ruck furnishes a valuable paper 
on ' The Antonine Lines as a Defensive Design : a 
Comparison in Ancient and Modern Principles of 
Fortification.' The author has, we believe, entered 
on a new field of investigation. There is nothing 
approaching to it in, our language. His paper, if 
somewhat amplified hd accompanied by ground- 
plans and sections,, would form the standard work 
on castrametation, as Jonathan Oldbuck and his 
contemporaries were wont to call it. Walls pro- 
tecting the vast territories of the Roman empire 
are found on its Asiatic as well as its European 
outskirts. The two structures of this kind to be 
seen in Britain have long been known ; indeed, 
it is a question whether they have ever passed 
into forgetfulness among those who livea near 
them. Often, however, the theories to which they 
have given birth have shown a great want of the 
simplest knowledge of military science. Major Ruck 
has the advantage of being a Royal Engineer, and 
has therefore been able to bring to bear the practical 
knowledge gained in his profession. He thus throws 
light on several points which have hitherto been ill 
understood. The Antonine wall was mainly an 
earthen rampart, not a stone building like that 
which crosses England from the Solway to the 
Tyne. Though not so striking to the imagination 
as its English companion, it is quite as important 
from the message which it hands down to us. The 
Antonine wall, when correctly interpreted, throws 
great light on the art of fortification as it had 
become developed during the great time of the 
Roman power. To compare the fortifications of a 
people who did not know of gunpowder with those 
of the present day is a hard task, but it has been 
executed admirably by Major Ruck. The con- 
clusion we arrive at is that the Romans had in 
their armies skilled engineers, who carried out the 
principles of defence almost as scientifically and 
with as much elaboration as the great powers do at 
the present time, when allowance ia made for the 
difference in the arms of those from whom an attack 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 5, 1902. 

is expected. The author has made an estimate of 
the cost of the construction of the Antonine wall 
reduced to the monetary standard of the present 
day. The result arrived at is 317.00W. This will 
surprise many of our readers. We have, however, 
gone carefully through his calculations, and regard 
them as an under rather than an over estimate, if 
slave labour were not employed. Working on the 
same lines, Major Ruck concludes that the stone 
wall of Hadrian was produced by the expenditure 
of 1,268,OOW. ; but, as he points out, there was 
economy displayed in this heavy payment, as it 
would obviously require a smaller proportionate 
garrison to guard it. To recur to the Antonine 
wall, when it was complete were grass seeds sown 
on the top ? if not the rains would soon work great 
damage. If they were, how was the seed obtained ? 
We may conclude, though there can be no certainty 
on the matter, that on this island the business of a 
seedsman was then unknown. 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen's short paper on ' The Early 
Christian Monuments of the Glasgow District' 
is well illustrated. There are few persons who 
have examined so many of these objects as the 
author. He has confined his paper to those which 
are anterior to or about the period of the Norman 
Conquest of England. The greater number are 
memorials of the dead, but some are evidently 
preaching crosses, and others probably mark the 
boundaries of sanctuaries, while perhaps in a few 
cases, though the author does not suggest this, they 
indicate the place where some tragedy has happened 
for the purpose of directing devout persons to pray 
for the souls of the victims. So far as is at present 
known, there are none with legends carved upon 
them. Quoting Jocelyne's life of St. Kentigern, 
written 111 the twelfth century, Mr. Allen directs 
attention to the statement that the pious bishop 
erected many crosses, one of which was made of the 
sand of the sea-shore. Ropes of sand figure in 
Scottish folk-lore, and we have read somewhere of 
a person who doubted the capacity of those who 
constructed Stonehenge to move the blocks of which 
it is composed, and that he solved the mystery to 
his own satisfaction by maintaining that they were 
castings of sand formed by some process now for- 
gotten. But a cross made out of sand is a new 
thing in our experience. 

'The Chateau of St. Fargeau' is by Mr. James 
Dalrymple Duncan. It is an interesting chronicle 
of the successive owners of the castle and domain, 
but contains very little relating to Scotland. 

' Notes on Scottish Costume in the Fifteenth 
Century,' by Mr. Robert Brydall, is an interesting 
paper, put from the nature of things cannot be all 
we desire ; iconoclasm has done its work so effec- 
tively over the Border that few tombs can furnish 

Miscellanea Qenealogica et Heraldica for June, 
edited by W. Bruce IJannerman, opens with an 
interesting obituary notice of its founder, Dr. Joseph 
Jackson Howard, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary. 
He was born on the 12th of April, 1827, entered the 
Post Office in 1851, and became principal clerk in 
1867, retiring in 1888. He was one of the pioneers of 
the Civil Service Supply Association. Early in life 
he acquired a taste for heraldry and genealogy, and 
became a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 
1854. At the time of his death, on the 18th of 
April, he was eighth in seniority of such fellows. 
He took an active part (in conjunction with the 

late Sir A. W. Franks) in the Exhibition of Civic 
Plate held at Somerset House in 1860, and in the 
following year contributed to an Exhibition of 
Seals. In May, 1862, he collected materials for an ex- 
hibition of heraldry which was held in the Society's 
rooms, and he was also a considerable contributor 
to the Heraldic Exhibition of 1894. He was one of 
the earliest to commence a collection of armorial 
hook-plates, and, in addition to this, made a choice 
collection of armorial china. He was one of the 
founders of the Harleian Society, acting as honorary 
treasurer from its formation in 1869 to the end of 
last year. Dr. Howard's charming manner en- 
deared him to all who knew him. No correspondent 
ever wrote to him in vain, and he spared neither 
time nor trouble in giving to all, whether friends 
or strangers, the results of his investigations. He 
was a valued contributor to ' N. & Q.' 

THE Coronation numbers of the Sphere and the 
Queen, received too late for notice last week, have 
now a pathetic interest. Both numbers contain 
interesting papers on archaeology and folk-lore, 
the popular taste for which is largely due to 
' N. Q.' The Sphere in its ' Story of King Edward 
and his Empire from 1862 to 1902' is admirable in 
every way, and forms a record of forty years' pro- 
gress, not the least interesting paper being that by 
the editor, ' The Story of Literature and Education.' 
The Queen, in an historical article by Arthur H. 
Beavan, contains a number of illustrations copied 
from the Lambeth Palace Library by special per- 
mission of the Archbishop of Canterbury. An illus- 
tration of a George III. Coronation teapot is also 
given ; this was among the first examples of the 
method of transfer printing on china invented by 
John Sadler, of Liverpool. 

$0 tier 8 to Comsponirruis. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

E. BIGOK BAOOT (" A headless man had a letter 
to write," Ac.). The answer seems to be 0=nothing. 
See 7 th S. x. and xi. passim. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9>8.x.jnLyi2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 237. 

NOTES : De Laci Family, 21 Birmingham : " Brumagem," 
22 Mr. Thorns "Wyk" and "Wick," 23 Jacobite 
Verses Effigy in Tettenhall Churchyard, 24" Reliable" 
Pseudo-Scientific Novel A Travelled Goat" Elucubra- 
tion," 25 Wearing Hats in Church Ser.jeants-at- Law 
under James I. "Returning thanks" "Hock-bottom 
prices " Weathercock at Exeter, 26 Wassail -bread : 
Wassail-land Disappearance of a Banking Firm, 27. 

QUERIES : Laml.'s Satan in Search of a Wife ' Halley 
Family Admiral Gordon in Russian Navy, 27 Baronets 
of Nova Scotia " Muffineer" Barbadian Registers 
Elizabeth Percy Greek and Russian Ecclesiastical Vest- 
ments Hobbins Family Sanderson Family R. W. 
Smyth-StuartBaxter and Cummings Knighthood, 28 
" Fetlocked " S. T. Coleridge Fountain Pen Statistical 
Data Hebrew Incantations Arms on Fireback, 29. 

RHPLIES :-Arms of Eton and Winchester, 29 Hymn on 
King Bdward VII., 30 -National Flag Dead Sea Level 
C. Babington Armsof Knights, 31 Rossettl's ' Ruggiero ' 

Royal Standard Henry IV.'s Exhumation Green 
Unlucky Defoe " Circular joys," 32 Tib's Eve "Keep 
your hair on " Aix-la-Chapelle, 33 " Lupo-mannaro "- 
Disappearing Chartists " L Fizgert "Evolution of a 
Nose "Daggering" Coronation Dress of Bishops- 
Sworn Clerks in Chancery Staffordshire Sheriffs, 34 
Locomotive and Gas The Author of Evil Fonts 
T. Phaer, 35 Quotation Authors Wanted Gerald Griffin 

Windsor Uniform Black Malibran, 36 Attorney's 
Kpitaph Mont Pelee St. Paul and Seneca Gillespie 
Grumach, 37 Old Songs W. Baxter" Knife "Female 
Fighters-" Upwards of," 38 Lady-day Day, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:-' Nottingham Parish Registers' 
Bennett's 'Archbishop Rotberham '--Reviews and Maga- 

Notices to Correspondents. 



FOR some time past I have ventured, with 
every respect to our best authorities in 
Gloucestershire and beyond it, to entertain 
grave doubts regarding the received notions 
respecting certain early and highly important 
members of this Domesday family, and during 
the past year evidence of a rather startling 
nature has come to hand, not only to accen- 
tuate my scepticism, but to confirm some of 
my conclusions. 

Roger de Laci forfeiting his estates for 
rebellion (excepting one manor) in 1088, 
these were passed over to his brother 
Hugh, founder of Lantony Prima, by King 
William II. 

Mr. A. S. Ellis, in his ' Domesday Tenants 
of Gloucestershire,' states that Hugh " was 
dead without issue in 1121, and the only sur- 
viving brother, Walter, being a monk (abbot, 
1130-39), a nephew named Gilbertson of their 
sister Emma, took the name of De Laci, and 
secured the estates, which descended in his 
heirs." This theory has been faithfully fol- 
lowed by C. L. K. in the ' D.N.B.' (vol. xxi. 
p. 390) : " Henry I. seems to have taken the 

Laci estates into his own hands ; but Gilbert, 
son of Hugh's sister Emma, assumed the name 
of Laci, and claimed to represent the family." 
At p. 375 the last writer states likewise of 
Gilbert : " His father's name is not known. 
After the death of his uncle, Hugh de Laci, 
the family estates were taken into the royal 

No authority for this last statement is 
given ; but the effect of these two accounts 
has been to satisfy students that the 
theory of Mr. Ellis as to the childlessness 
of Hugh de Laci was not to be questioned. 
This writer, discovering neither wife nor child 
for Hugh, seems to have originated the notion 
that Gilbert de Laci changed his unknown 
original name for his uncle's in order to acquire 
the estates. I am not able to prove to the con- 
trary, though the matter seems to me unusual 
and improbable. On the other hand, I am 
able to prove that Hugh de Laci both had 
a wife and did not" die childless, having 
had at least one daughter, whom he endowea 
with certain of his vast lands, and whose 
direct descendants inherited them from her. 

The first document is from a MS. ' Regis- 
trum ' of Lantony Secunda in the possession 
of the Rev. Fitzroy Fen wick at Tnirlestane 
House, Cheltenham : f " Cecilia Comitissa, 
cognita donatione Hifgonis Lacey, ayi sui, 
super eandem ecclesiam de Wyke, nobis earn 
confirmavit," <kc. That is to say, Cecily, 
Countess of Hereford (daughter of Pain Fitz- 
John), aware of her grandfather Hugh de 
Laci's gift of the church of Wyke (now Pains- 
wick) to the Prior and Convent of Lantony, 
confirms it to them, &c. So that Cecily, 
who married Roger, son of Milo, Earl of 
Hereford, and had from her father Pain 
FitzJohn seven librates of land in his 
manor of (Pains)Wick, shows herself to 
be granddaughter to Hugh de Laci. If 
we turn to the charter No. 20, Duchy of 
Lancaster, which Mr. J. H. Round has been 
able to date to a nicety, December, 1137-May, 
1138, and which is a confirmation by King 
Stephen to Roger and Cecily his wife of all 
the lands which her father Pain had inherited 
or acquired, together with her own marriage 
portion, we find the following words : 

" Et omne maritagium quod predictus Paganus 
dedit filiae sure de honore Hugonis de Laceio in terris 
el inilitibus ; et omne illud juris quod ipse Paganus 
habebat in toto Honore Hugonis de Laceio," &c. 

How, then, did Pain FitzJohn come by 
Hugh de Laci's estates ? Mr. Ellis and 
C. L. K. evidently wrote under the impres- 
sion that they were acquired from the king. 
The above charter, however, partly informs 
us : " Et propter hoc quicquid Paganus dedit 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 12, 1002. 

Sibillae uxori sui in dote de hereditate sua ut 
illud teneat ipsa Sibilla de Rogerio et Cecilia 
uxore sua." So that Sibilla, Pain's wife, had 
important possessions, and the serious ques- 
tion arises at once, Who was Sibilla ? 

The answer comes from a charter of hers to 
the Priory of Ewyas Harold, communicated 
to me by the Rev. A. T. Bannister, vicar of 
Ewyas, who intends, I understand, shortly 
to bring out a volume relating to that hold 
of De Laci and FitzJohn : 

" Sibilla de Laceio omnibus ballivis et forestariis 
suis de Ewias salutem. . Sciatis me concessisse 
Waltero Abbati, avunculo meo [113p-39]terram de 

Leghe pro aninia mea et pro anima Pagani filii 

Johannis, mariti mei Witnesses, Walter de 

Scudymer, Gilbert de Eschet, and others." 

It becomes clear, therefore, that Hugh de 
Laci left issue, and that Sibilla his daughter 
passed her portion of his lands, including 
Wyke, to her own issue. As a matter of 
fact, this consisted of two daughters, Cecilia, 
Countess of Hereford (d. s.p.), and Agnes 
= William de Monchensi, whose direct de- 
scendants remained lords of Painswick until 
the death of Aymer de Valence. Sibilla was 
still living in 1138, having survived both her 
father, Hugh de Laci, and her husband, Pain 

Finally, another question arises, Who was 
Hugh's wife? and this too is partly answered 
by a document (deed of gift) in the ' Hist, et 
Cartul. S. Petri Gloucestrise,' vol. i. ccciii. 

"Ab Incarnatione Domini millesimo centesimo, 
Hugo de Laceyo et Adelina uxor ejus, dederunt 
Ecclesise S. Petri de Gloucestria ecclesiam S. Petri 
de Herefordia, &c., pro animabus patris et matris, 
et omnium parentum suorum, et pro suis," &c. 

I am unable to show who Adelina was. Was 
Gilbert de Laci a sister's son indeed, or may 
he not have been Hugh's own son ? 


P.S. I regret, in the interest of students, 
that the Master of the Rolls finds himself 
unable to accede to my respectful application, 
made lately to him, to permit me to examine 
and make use of the ' Cartularium ' of Lan- 
tony Secunda. now at the Public Record 
Office, which has been happily utilized by 
the editors of the ' Liber Rubeus,' " by 
reason of rules made under 40 & 41 Viet., 
c. 55." Sources of mediaeval information 
regarding special localities are not so abun- 
dant that the student can without regret 
see a door closed to him. 

BIRMINGHAM is not mentioned in any 
existing Anglo-Saxon charter, and the first 

record of it is in Domesday Book (1086), where 
it appears as Bermingeham. The next State 
record is the 'Liber Niger,' or Black Book 
of the Exchequer (1166), where we find Peter 
de Bremingeham registered as holding nine 
knights' fees. He was the "dapifer" 
(steward) of Gervase Paynell, a great 
manorial lord, and held under him, as of the 
Barony of Dudley, Birmingham, Edgbaston, 
and other manors. He was the founder of 
the family of "de Birmingham," taking his 
name, as was customary, from his principal 
manor, where he probably resided. In a 
Ridware charter, circa 1158, he is recorded 
as Peter de Brimigharn ; in the Pipe Rolls for 
1165 as De Bremingham ; for 1167 as De 
Bremingeham ; for 1168 as De Bruningeham 
(the n being doubtless a mistake of the scribe 
for m). In the same Rolls for 1170 and 1171 
he appears as De Bremingeham ; in 1207 
his son William is recorded as De 
Bermingeham ; and in the Hundred Rolls 
for 1255 the same William, or his son, 
appears as William de Burmingeham. In 
later times I find the following forms in 
English records : in 1316, Bermingham ; 
1330, Bermincham ; 1333, Burmyncham ; 
1346, Burmyngham and Bermyngham ; 1347, 
Bermingeham and Bermyngeham (3) ; 1352, 
Birmingham ; 1376, Byrmincham ; 1393, 
Byrmingham ; 1403, Burmyngeham ; 1408, 
Birmincham ; 1413, Bermyngeham ; 1584, 
Byrmycham. In 1880 a pamphlet was pub- 
lished by Mr. J. Ward, of Sheffield, showing 
141 ways of spelling Birmingham. The 
forms he gives are mostly between the 
fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. Sixty- 
three of them commence Br- (the vowel 
following) ; in the remaining seventy-eight 
forms (sucli as Ber-. Bur-, Byr-, Bir-, &c.) 
the vowel precedes the r. Of the terminals 
fifty end in -cham, five in -sham, the re- 
mainder in -gham or -ham, but the ge (as in 
Domesday) is repeated in nineteen of them. 

It frequently happens that English words, 
transplanted to America, the colonies, or Ire- 
land, retain their archaic forms with greater 
tenacity than at home, and Birmingham is 
an example. A son of Peter de Bremingeham 
went to Ireland with Strongbow about 1170, 
and there founded a family, which grew into 
a clan known in Irish as Mac Feorais, and in 
English as after mentioned, the forms being 
taken from annals and charters: 1243, De 
Bremingham; 1325, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330, 
De Brimagham; 1391, De Breinighain. In 
the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth 
centuries the name is recorded, in Ireland, 
as Brimidgham, Brymigham, Brymudg- 
ham, Brymugham, Brimugham, Brimigham, 

9* B.X. JULY 12, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Bremengham, Bremincham, Bremyncham's 
country, Bremyngeam, Bermingham, Bre- 
mingham, Bryrnyngham, and Bremyngham. 
Queen Elizabeth, in an autograph letter on 
Irish affairs, dated 6 November, 1599, writes 
the name Bremingham. In 1657 the name 
appears as Bermigham, Bremigham, and 
Bremmingham. From these examples it is 
clear that in the majority of instances in 
Ireland the r preceded the vowel and the 
g was soft. The name is unquestionably 
Anglo-Saxon, and it is impossible to make 
any sense of Bern*- in that language ; it was 
neither a personal name nor a word ; but, if 
assumed to have been originally Brem-, the 
meaning is plain, as Breme was a personal 
name ; it is recorded in Domesday. A Breme 
fell at the battle of Hastings, a,nd Bromsgrove 
was originally Bremesgraf = Breme's grove. 
The meaning of the word is illustrious, 
glorious, famous. 

Now all languages are subject to meta- 
thesis, or shifting of letters, ana it is common 
in connexion with r: third was originally 
thrid (we still say three), bird was Irid, thirst 
was thrist, dirt was drit, &c. The Domesday 
form is plain Berm- ; but Domesday, it must 
be remembered, was compiled by Norman 
clerks and Norman commissioners, from the 
evidence of Anglo-Saxons transcribed into 
Latin. Twelfth-century records, especially 
if local, are better authorities as to spelling 
than Domesday, and here, in them, the Brem- 
prevails. It is not, however, necessary to 
allege error in Domesday. Metathesis is as 
old as Homer, and in this instance may well 
have commenced before Domesday; centuries 
frequently elapse before a change is generally 
accepted, and meantime the spelling 
oscillates. To ask is a case of metathesis. 
That is the old form ; then for centuries we 
said axe, and for the last 300 years we have 
gradually returned to ask ; but how many 
millions still say axe ! 

Assuming the original form to have been 
Bremingaham (dative plural), the meaning is 
clearly "the home of the sons (or descend- 
ants) of Breme," ing in Anglo-Saxon being 
equivalent to the Scotch Mac or the Irish 
0'. As a rule in place-names the a in -inga- 
drops out, but is frequently for a time 
represented by e, as here in the Domesday 
and many subsequent forms. When this is 
the case, although the g was originally hard 
(as it certainly was in Bremingaham), it 
became soft, and hence the various terminals 
in -cham, -sham, and ultimately -gem-. 
Examples of the e softening a preceding g, 
which without it would be hard, may be 
found in hinge, swinge, singe, change, &c. 

Many places which, like Bermingeham, once 
had a medial ge, but have dropped the vowel 
still retain the ancient pronunciation 
Attingham, near Shrewsbury, in Domesday 
is Atingeham, and is now commonly called 
and written Atcham. Pattingham, near 
Wolverhampton (Domesday Patingham), 
probably once had a medial e, for it is, and 
always has been, pronounced Pattinjem. 
Lockinge, in Berkshire, has a soft g. 
Abinger, in Surrey, is pronounced Abenjer, 
though its old form was Abing worth (g hard) ; 
then falling to Abingerth, and finally to 
Abinger, the g softens. 

No etymology of Birmingham could be 
satisfactory which did not account for 
" Brumagem." That form is no vulgarism, 
as commonly supposed, but represents, better 
than Birmingham, the archaic pronunciation 
of Bremingenam. W. H. DUIGNAN. 


ME. THOMS. ' N. & Q.' ought to record 
the fact that by an error in the text and 
index of a volume on ' Westminster ' in " The 
Fascination of London" series, by the late 
Sir Walter Besant and Mr. G. E. Mitton, we 
have the name of Thome for our founder, 
whose connexion with the House of Lords is 
not named, but who is called only " antiquary 
and originator of Nptes & Queries." D. 

"WYK" AND "WiCK." (See 'St. Clement 
Danes.' 9 th S. vii. 64, et seq.)In connexion 
with the late controversy as to the meaning 
of the word Wick, I may mention that the 
United Service Magazine for June, p. 303, in 
" Pages from the Diary of a Boer Officer, by 
Another of Them," part iv., uses the word in 
a very curious sense : 

"The bulk of the Boer forces the burgher 
commandos was organized after a territorial 
system of election, the outline of which may be 
given in a few words. Territorially, the two 
Republics were divided into districts, which in 
their turn were subdivided into wyks. At the 
head of every wylc was a field-cornet, or semi-civil, 
semi-military ^paid official, who was elected for a 
certain period of time by the burghers of the wyk, 
and M'ho could be re-elected at the expiration of his 
term of office. Besides being a justice of the peace, 
a chief, constable, and a military official, the field- 
cornet was very often an Assistant Native Com- 
missioner. The combined wyks of a district formed 
a commando under the leadership of a commandant, 
a non-paid military official, without any civil 
capacities, elected by the burghers of the district. 
This was the peace establishment. In time of war 
.the different groups of burghers, immediately upon 
coming together, chose their corporals and fore men ; 
an impromptu commissariat staff was appointed ; 
and the Government or Council of War. nominated 
vecht - generals (literally fighting - generals, anglice, 
major - generals), who, as lieutenants of the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s.x. JULY 12 ,1902. 

generalissimo, had charge of two or more com 
mandos, and whose tenure of office began and 
ended with the hostilities. As the mobilization 
was a copy of the beginning of the every-year-recur- 
ring shift to the bush-veldt, so the advance of a 
commando, after the concentration of the different 
wyks had been effected, was an imitation .of an 
ordinary trek." 

It is curious to find a wyk the unit, 
territorially speaking, of the military 
organization of the South African Republic 
and Orange Free State. Dutch dictionaries 
give the word as an equivalent for " quarter " 
of a town. The English official name is ward, 
as in Lanarkshire ; cf: Sir Walter Scott's 
'Old Mortality' and Lord Kitchener's pro- 
clamations. But cf. wick in Borthwick. Were 
the London " wards " military units ? H. 

JACOBITE VERSES I have never seen the 
following rimes in print or manuscript, ex- 
cept on the sheet of paper from which I have 
transcribed them. The original is in a hand 
of the early part of the eighteenth century. 
I have no idea as to who was the author : 

James Caesar's Mare : a Farmer in Bedfordshire 

who has lout his mare. 
My Neigb. James I must bewale, 
Who's lost his Mare both head and tayle. 
Honest himself in every thing 
As any man. God bless the King. 

What Villains then were they 

That stole his Mare away : 
A Curs upon such wicked men. 

But Gadbury does tell 

That all things shall goe well 
And the Man shall have his Mare again. 

Some fooles that would their Neighbors fright 
Call James a bloody Jacobite, 
But he was n'er in proclamac'on 
Nor treason acted 'gainst the Nation, 

And of late he did declare 

The fellons he would spare. 
His mercy 's sure above all men. 

Then let us all unite, 

Both Whigg and Jacobite, 
That the man may have his own again. 

Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

In Mr. Charles G. Harper's ' Holyhead Road ' 
there is an account, accompanied by an 
engraving, of a worn and battered monu- 
mental effigy of a woman in the churchyard 
of Tettenhall, near Wolverhampton. The 
figure is now without arms. Mr. Harper 
says they "have been hacked off at the 
shoulders," and recounts the legend that it 
is the memorial of a seamstress who, con- 
trary to the advice of her neighbours, per- 
sisted in working on Sundays, adding, with 
additional profanity, that "if it were wrong 
she hoped her arms would drop off." On the 

following Sunday, while employing herself 
in her ordinary work, her arms aid drop off, 
and simple folk believe that this mutilated 
figure was made as a permanent record of 
her sin and its punishment (vol. ii. p. 59). 

It is worth inquiry as to how far back this 
story can be traced, and whether it has arisen 
by way of accounting for the present state of 
the stone, or whether it preserves, in distorted 
form, the memory of the frightful distemper 
called " the fire," which was once very preva- 
lent across the Channel, though but little 
known in this country, yet it seems pro- 
bable that it occasionally occurred here. As, 
however, it is constantly mentioned in French 
chronicles and lives of saints, our people 
would have heard of it, if they had never 
come in contact with any of the sufferers. 
It was known as the "ignis sacer," "ignis 
Sancti Antonii," and "ignis infernalis," and 
we know, other evidence apart, from the 
testimony of the old saying, "Tres plagse 
tribus regionibus appropriari solent, An- 
glorum fames, Gallorum ignis, Normanorum 
lepra," that it was regarded in a special way 
as a French disease. 

Dr. Creighton in his ' History of Epidemics 
in Britain ' gives a most interesting account 
of the malady and the cause of its origin. 
I need not say that when an outbreak 
occurred in former times it was regarded as 
miraculous. Dr. Creighton tells us : 

" The attack usually began with intense pains in 
the legs or feet, causing the victims to writhe and 
scream. A fire seemed to burn between the flesh 
and the bones, and at a later stage, even in the 
bowels, the surface of the body being all the while 
cold as ice Gangrene or sloughing of the extremi- 
ties followed ; a foot or a hand fell off, or the flesh 
of a whole limb was destroyed down to the bones, 
by a process which began in the deeper textures. 
The spontaneous separation of a gangrenous hand 
or foot was, on the whole, a good sign for the 
recovery of the patient." Vol. i. p. 54. 

The cause of this disease has now been 
discovered. It usually arises from a tainted 
condition of the rye of which the bread of 
the poor was made. After a wet summer, 
followed by a bad harvest, many of the grains 
became enlarged and subject to a parasitic 
mould, and Dr. Creighton is of opinion that, 
by the fermentation of this fungus, the 
meal becomes poisonous. The reason why 
English people were in a great degree spared 
Prom this infliction probably was that wheaten 
bread was the common food of every one 

xcept in times of great scarcity. In more 
modern times England has not entirely 

iscaped. In 1762 a peasant family of Wattis- 
iam, in Suffolk, consisting of eight persons, 
was attacked by what was undoubtedly " the 
ire." Dr. Creighton has compiled a good 

9*" s.x. JULY 12, i902.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 

account of the case from communications 
which were made at the time to the Royal 
Society. In this case it appears that the 
sufferers had been using not rye, but wheat 
of a very poor quality. If the reader is in- 
terested in the subject, he will find further 
information in the Rev. Herbert Thurston's 
' Life of Saint Hugh of Lincoln,' pp. 478-83. 
Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

" RELIABLE." (See 9 th S. ix. 435.) I thought 
the late Mr. Fitzedward Hall had fully vindi- 
cated the right of this word to be considered 
good English, and I do not understand how, 
in face of the fact that it is used by Coleridge, 
Gladstone, John Stuart Mill, John Henry 
Newman, Dean Mansel, and many other 
writers who rank as classics, it can be said to 
have come into the language " as it were by 
stealth," or to be "accompanied by associa- 
tions " which render it "painful " even to the 
most fastidious taste. To the word " rely " 
objection might, indeed, be taken ; but this 
formation admitted, why object to its quite 
regularly formed derivative ? The grounds 
ASTARTE alleges against it are certainly in- 
sufficient : " reliable " and " trustworthy " 
have not always precisely the same applica- 
tion, and the names I have cited from Mr. 
Hall's essay are enough to show that the 
" associations " of the word are not so base as 
its critic seems to suppose. The old objections 
to its use are well put in a passage quoted by 
Prof. Hodgson ('Errors in the Use of Eng- 
lish ') from a writer whom he supposes, no 
doubt correctly, to be Mr. Hall himself : " It 
is unaccount-for-able, not to say laugh-at-able, 
that men will try to force upon the language 
a word so take-objection-to-able, so little-avail- 
of-able, and so far from indi/erence-with-able, 
as reliable " a way of stating the objections 
which is in itself sufficient to dispose of 
them. I believe this word has been discussed 
before in 'N. & Q.,' but I cannot find it 
indexed in any recent volume. C. C. B. 

[Reliable is duly given in the General Index to 
the Seventh Series. DR. MURRAY'S learned defence 
of the word appeared in vol. viii. p. 133.] 

historical novel may be traced up to Xeno- 
phon. The originator of the pseudo-scientific 
romance of which Mr. Wells is admittedly the 
greatest master who has ever written in any 
language was probably the truly wonderful 
Lucian. He also wrote the first " imaginary 
voyage." There are traces of science in the 
'Arabian Nights,' but I pass at once to 
Cohausen,Dr. Campbell's translation of whose 
'Hermippus Redivivus' greatly interested 

Dr. Johnson. In this connexion Sweden- 
borg deserves that notice which he has never 
received. Of him Le Fevre has written this 
pregnant sentence: "At first a naturalist; 
demented in 1745." If only the sections of 
Swedenborg's 'Heaven and Hell' had been 
arranged and connected together by a thin 
thread of narrative (as are the essays which 
constitute ' Rasselas '), no other writer could 
ever have hoped to approach this masterpiece 
of imaginative writing. Then comes Mr. 
Wells, closely following upon the steps of 
the mighty artist Poe, but outstripping his 
master, because he has more knowledge of 
science than ever fell to Poe's share. 


A TRAVELLED GOAT. In his ' Relics of 
Literature' Stephen Collet prints (p. 310) 
some extracts from the diary of a nameless 
person, who, under date 28 April, 1772, records 
that there 

" died at Mile End a goat which had been twice 
round the world ; first'in the Dolphin, Capt. Wallis, 
then in the Endeavour, Capt. Cook. She was 
shortly to have been removed to Greenwich 
Hospital, to have spent the remainder of her days 
under the protection of those worthy veterans, who 
there enjoy an honourable retirement. She wore 
on her neck a splendid collar, on which was 
engraved the following distich, said to have been 
written by the ingenious and learned Dr. Samuel 
Johnson : * 

Perpetui ambita bTs terra praemia lactis 
Haec habet, altrici capra secunda Jovis." 

This goat is mentioned in Bos well's ' Life 
of Johnson ' under date 27 February, 1772. 

" ELUCUBR ATION. " This word is not given 
by Dr. Johnson in the abridgment of his 
' Dictionary ' which appeared in 1786. " Lu- 
cubration," however, is duly entered with a 
reference to the Tatler. The latest edition of 
Stormonths copious and trustworthy dic- 
tionary (Blackwpod, 1895) gives "lucubra- 
tion," but not its longer equivalent. The 
1 Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' which is wonder- 
fully exhaustive and exact, enters "elucu- 
brate" and "elucubration," but marks both 
as obsolete. Perhaps the editor would have 
done better if he had grouped these forms 
with the class that he describes as "those 
which have not dropped altogether out of use, 
but are only rarely found." The author of 
the 'Reliques of Father Prout' admittedly 
revelled amid riotous whims and fancies, but 
his notable scholarship and literary skill 
guarantee for any of his peculiarities at least 
attention and respect. In his introduction 
to the learned paper on ' Literature and the 
Jesuits ' he indulges in some editorial rapture 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JTOY 12, iwa. 

over the accomplishments of his mythical 
author, warmly apostrophizing him in the 
contemplation of nis "chest of posthumous 
elucubrations." Probably the archaism is 
intentionally introduced, but it is there with- 
out mark or comment, and its presence con- 
strains recognition. No doubt it is duly 
noted in the 'H.E.D.,' which at the moment 
is not available. THOMAS BAYNE. 

[Elucubration is in the 'H.E.D.' with quotations 
ranging from 1643 to the above from " Father 
Prout. 55 ] 

WEARING HATS IN CHURCH. (See 6 th S. ii., 
iii., iv. ; 7 th S. i., ii., iii., iv. ; 9 th S. viii. 81). To 
bring this question up to date I may perhaps 
quote a rubric from ' The Form and Order of 
The Coronation of Their Majesties King Ed- 
ward VII. and Queen Alexandra... | On 
Thursday, the 26th Day of June, 1902.' 
Section vi. of the 'Order' provides for the 
sermon, " which is [happily] to be short," and 
proceeds : 

" And whereas the King was uncovered during the 
saying of the Litany and the beginning of the Com- 
munion Service ; when the Sermon begins he puts 
on his Cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, 
and so continues to the end of it," 

i.e., according to the literal meaning of the 
words, His Majesty will continue putting on 
his cap till the end of the episcopal discourse. 
This strikes one as somewhat tiring, not to 
say disturbing to the risible faculties of his 
assembled subjects. O. O. H. 

following extract from the 'Reports' of 
Serjeant Bendloes, or Benlowes, may be of 
interest, ed. 1661, p. 132 : 

"On Thursday, 15 new Serjeants were brought 
to the bar by tipstaves, under subpoena 1000/., which 
in order of antiquity were Sir George Croke, Diggs, 
Guynn, Amhurst, Crew, Damport, Bridgman, 
Darcey, Hoskins, Bing, Thynn, Bramston, Henneage 
Finch, Hedley, and Crawley. And Croke, being the 
eldest, said to Signior Williams, Keeper, Dean of 
Westminster, and Bishop of Lincoln, that they were 
summoned by subpoena ' south payne de 1000/.' to 
appear on that day, &c. 

"Then the Lord Keeper demands of them if they 
are willing to accept the degree : and, they saying 
yea, he commands them to deliver their briefs, which 
are read. Then he excuses himself for not being 
able to tell them their duty, and shews them the 
reason of their name of Serjeants at law, and says 
that at first, in the infancy of the law, great lords 
sent their servants to the judges, to know their 
opinions, and afterwards, when the law increased, 
they were in great estimation, as appears in Chaucer; 
and he shews that they were advanced to this de- 
gree mainly for their erudition. Then they take the 
oath of supremacy, and are led back to the place 
where they were before, viz. to the narrow passage 
between the ' Chancery and bankr.' Sir George 
Croke made a brief speech of thanks, and presented 
a ring (annell enamled) to the Lord Keeper, for the 

King. Nota that they come in round caps, and at 
dinner ' prendront lour liknes come Monks.' Rings 
were given ; and ' Le Posie del Annells fuit, Servit 
Regi qui servit Legi.' These things happened in 
Michaelmas Term, 21 Jacobi." 

Portland, Oregon. 

"RETURNING THANKS." One of the oddest 
and most out-of -place phrases is that of " re- 
turning thanks" which appears in tradesmen's 
business announcements and notices. It is 
understood to be the tradesman's way of 
thanking his customers for their past favours. 
Giving thanks would, perhaps, be better, for 
his customers would scarcely thank him for 
allowing them to deal with him. " Return- 
ing thanks " in this sense is very different from 
that of " returning thanks " to " a health " 
at a public dinner. When did "returning 
thanks " on the part of business people first 
appear in advertisements ? 


<l ROCK-BOTTOM PRICES." I confess that this 
expression is new to me. A hosier in this 
district, in soliciting my custom (per printed 
circular), assures me of the excellence of his 
goods, and guarantees that they are all 
supplied at " rock-bottom prices." 


47, Lansdowne Gardens, S.W. 

to be the oldest existing weathercock in this 
country crowns the octagonal turret on the 
south-eastern corner of the fifteenth-century 
western tower of St. Sid well's Church, 
Exeter. It and the ornamental iron spindle 
upon which it revolves were both made 
(according to the Cathedral Fabric Rolls) by 
a local follower of Vulcan, under the direc- 
tion of Bishop Courtenay, A.D. 1484, and were 
then fixed upon the low spire at that time 
built over the northern Norman tower of 
Exeter Cathedral. There the weathercock 
remained until 1752 (i.e., 268 years), when the 
spire was removed. Stored securely in the pre- 
cincts of the cathedral until 1812, it was then 
iut upon the new spire built in that year over 
it. Sid well's tower, and remained in situ 
eighty-eight years i.e., until 2 May, 1900 
when that spire in turn was taken down. 
The venerable tower since then has been 
renovated, and upon 13 May, 1902, cock and 
accompanying vane were again elevated, and 
now occupy the position indicated above. 
The brave old chanticleer is of hammered 
:opper, made in two plates, soldered together. 
It measures 2 ft. 9 in. from the point of the 
beak to the extreme outside curve of the 

9* a. x. JULY 12, 1902. NOTES AND QUERIES. 

tail, and is 2ft. Gin. high. The steadying 
vertical spindle below is carried up through 
the legs and into the body exactly 12 in. 
above the cup. As we know vanes were in 
use in the time of the Saxons, it would be 
interesting if the relative authentic ages of 
other existing examples were given. The 
quaintest and most numerous wind indi- 
cators I have ever met with are to be seen in 
Friesland, N. Holland. HARKY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

year 1569 the following presentment was 
made from the parish of Shepherdswell, near 
Dover, at a visitation of the Archdeacon of 
Canterbury : 

" That Johanna Stoddar, widow, hath in occupy- 
ing two acres of land called wassell-land, out of 
which there hath been paid two bushels of wheat 
yearly, to be made in wassell-bread and given to 
the poor, as there are divers now alive hath dis- 
tributed the same, and it is with holden, and there 
are witnesses examined before Master Denne of the 
payment thereof." 

Master Denne was an official of the Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 
Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

BANKING FIRM. In the Daily Telegraph of 
16 June there appeared a notification that 
only a few weeks after the regretted death 
of Mr. Reginald Abel Smith, the senior 
partner of Messrs. Smith, Payne & Smiths, 
who died 26 April, they had to record that 
" now this old-established and celebrated firm of 
bankers is about to disappear altogether. Messrs. 
Smith, Payne & Smiths and their country con- 
nections are to be absorbed by the Union Bank of 
London, and the latter will thus acquire a valuable 
business not only in London, but in the provinces 
as well." 

The allied firms of Messrs. Samuel Smith & 
Co., of Nottingham, Derby, and Newark-on- 
Trent; Messrs. Samuel Smith Brothers, of 
Hull ; and Messrs. Smith, Ellison & Co., of 
Lincoln, will also vanish in the absorption. 
The firm of Smith, Payne & Smiths will be 
first found in the ' London Directory : in the 
year 1759, whenitwasknown as Smith&Payne, 
the business being carried on near Coleman 
Street, Lothbury. In 1766 the bank removed 
to 18, Lombard Street, a house known by the 
sign of the Hare, and later an additional 
partner entered the firm, the style being 
changed to Smith, Payne & Smith. In 1830 
a removal was made to 1, Lombard Street, 
where this noted bank has since remained. 
But the firm was not originally a London 
one, as the business was started in Notting- 
ham by Thomas Smith, a mercer of that 

town, in 1688, as documents in the possession 
of the firm go to prove, the London house not 
commencing its operations until the middle 
of the eighteenth century, when it was 
founded by Abel Smith, his grandson (the 
father of the first Lord Carrington), in con- 
junction with Mr. John Payne. This change 
may be considered of sufficient interest to 
be preserved in ' N. & Q.' 

C 2, The Almshouses, Rochester Row, S.W. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

In an unpublished letter of Lamb's, with the 
postmark 14 July, -1831, I find the following 
passage : 

" How capitally the Frenchman has analysed 
Satan ! I was hinder'd, or I was about doing the 
same thing in English, for him to put into French, 
as I prosified Hood's Midsummer fairies ['The 
Defeat of Time,' in Hone's 'Table Book']. The 
garden of cabbage escap'd him [see part ii. stanza i.], 
he turns it into a garden of pot herbs. So local 
allusions perish in translation. 

Can any one help me to this translation 1 
I have tried various likely places, but without 
success. E. V. LUCAS. 

Froghole, Edenbridge, Kent. 

HALLEY FAMILY. I should be very pleased 
to receive information (or the address of any 
person likely to be able to obtain it, for 
reasonable compensation, mutually satisfac- 
tory) pertaining to the origin of the name 
of Halley Street, Stepney, Mile End, and 
of Halley Street, Forest Gate, Stratford, 
Essex ; also as to descendants of Edmund 
Halley, jun., surgeon in Royal Navy, only 
son of Dr. Edmond Halley ; will of E. 
Halley, jun., proved in February, 1740/1, 
No. 39 Spurway, Prerogative Court of Can- 
terbury, Somerset House ; will of Dr. E. 
Halley, proved February, 1741/2, ibid., No. 53 
Trenley. EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

1, Park Row, Room 500, Chicago, U.S. 

In answering a query on Gordon as a 
Russian surname W. S. says that a nephew 
of General Patrick Gordon, of Auchleuchries, 
became an admiral in the Russian navy. 
I presume he refers to Admiral Thomas 
Gordon, Governor of Cronstadt. What is his 
authority for saying that he was a "nephew" 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 12, 1902. 

of General Patrick ] I have quite failed to 
discover the origin of the admiral, who ought 
to be, but is not, in the ' D.N.B.' 

118, Pall Mall. 

obtain a complete list of the creations of the 
above between 1635 and 1670? G. C. 

"MUFFINEER." What is the origin of the 
word " muffineer," used in India by Anglo- 
Indians for a salt or pepper caster ? 

G. W. F. 

[Is it anything beyond the fact that salt is used 
to flavour muffins ? " Muffineer " is common in 
English as well as Anglo-Indian.] 

copy of them be seen ? Names wanted 
Ayshford and Gibbes. The Barbadian 
registers were mentioned at 4 th S. vii. and 

ELIZABETH PERCY. Can any reader of 
1 N. & Q.' tell me what authority there is for 
Miss Strickland's statement, in her life of 
Queen Anne, that Elizabeth Percy, daughter 
of Josciline, last Earl of Northumberland 
(and afterwards wife of the " Proud Duke of 
Somerset "), was known at the Court of 
Charles II. as " La triste Heritiere " ? Also, 
is anything known of the Richard Brett 
who is said first to have aided the Countess 
Dowager of Northumberland to arrange 
Elizabeth Percy's marriage to Thomas Thynne 
of Longleat, and then to have advised that it 
should not be made public ? ( Vide Sir R. C. 
Hoare's ' Modern Wiltshire.') As I am trying 
to put together a biographical sketch of 
Elizabeth Percy, I should be very grateful to 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' who would enlighten 
me on these points. 


30, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

MENTS. The Rev. J. O'Brien, in his ' History 
of the Mass,' at pp. 66, 67, says : 

" The Greek Church uses but two colours the 

whole year round, viz., white and red White is 

their general colour ; red is used in all masses for 
the dead and throughout the entire fast of Lent.' 

On the other hand, it is stated in a note on 
p. 924 of ' A Catholic Dictionary ' that the 
Greeks use black vestments at masses for the 
dead and purple in Lent. Is either, and, if so, 
which, of these statements correct ? Some 
years ago I was present in the Russian Em- 
bassy Chapel on a weekday in Lent when the 
Liturgy of the Presanctified was being offered 
for the dead, and on that occasion the priest 

wore a green chasuble. What are the colours 
in use in the Russian Church ; and when are 
they severally employed 1 I should be very 
glad of any information on these points, and 
also as to the name, origin, and history of 
the metal crown or tiara worn by a Greek or 
Russian bishop on great ceremonial occasions. 

J. B. W. 

BOBBINS FAMILY. In Burke's 'Armory' 
the Bobbins family of Redmarsley appears. 
What became of this family 1 Is there any 
pedigree in existence? There were three 
Hobbinses (William, Joseph, and Thomas) in 
the navy in Nelson's time, and they were 
the sons of William Bobbins and Sindonia 
(Stanton). William was born in 1781 at 
Puckrage in Herts, and Thomas at Falmouth 
in 1788. Their parents are believed to have 
come from Redmarsley in Herefordshire, but 
I cannot trace the parents of William Bobbins 
the elder, neither can I find any particulars 
of the Redmarsley family. Sindonia Stanton 
was of the Stantons of Presteign. Any 
information as to the family previous to 
1780 I shall be very glad to have. 


5, Langham Chambers, W. 

CAMBS. I should be glad of any information 
relating to the above family. They appear 
to have lived in Cottenham for over 300 
years. Any particulars will be thankfully 
received. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

died 1745, was the only surviving natural 
son of the Duke of Mon mouth and Henrietta, 
Lady Wentworth. Can any reader tell me 
what R. stands for ? GEORGE GILBERT. 

GLASGOW. John Baxter was one of the three 
sons of John Baxter (b. 1768, m. 1797, d. 1855), 
of Findo-Gask (co. Perth), and his wife Janet 
Din. He settled at Perth and had three 
daughters, the eldest of whom married a 
Mr. Cummings ; the youngest bore the name 
of Catharine. He had also two sons, who 
are reported to have gone to Glasgow. Is 
anything known of any of the above and 
their descendants ? RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

KNIGHTHOOD. A writ appears to have 
been addressed to the Sheriffs of London, 
anno 1 James I., directing them to make 
proclamation warning all of 401. in land or 
rents in hand to their own use to come in and 
receive knighthood (if not already knights) 

8.x. JULY 12,1008.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


before his coronation. I should like to know 
what action was taken on that writ, and 
whether any knighthoods resulted. LOBUC. 

" FETLOCKED." Mr. Lowell, in the " Camelot " 
edition of his ' English Poets,' is made to say 
(p. 86) that Shakespeare had the advantage 
of using a language " to a certain extent 
established, but not yet fetlocked by diction- 
ary and grammar mongers." Is this use of 
the word "fetlocked" established, and, if so, 
what does it mean 1 C. C. B. 

[Fetlocked appears in the ' H.E.D.' with the defini- 
tion " Hobbled or fastened by the fetlock ; hence, 
hampered.shackled." The illustrative quotations 
are from Pattison in ' Prior's Poems ' (1725) and 
this from Lowell.] 

reason why this author received his second 
Christian name. I do not find it in the 
' D.N.B.' T. WILSON. 


FOUNTAIN PEN. In the diary and corre- 
spondence of Miss Burney (Madame d'Arblay) 
occurs the following, under date 18 August, 
1789 : " I spent the time very serenely, in my 
favourite wood, which abounds in seats of 
all sorts ; and then I took a fountain pen 
and wrote my rough journal for copying to 
my dear Sorelle." I should be much obliged 
by a description of such a pen in use the 
century before last. LIESE M. SHERRING. 

Willesden, N.W. 

STATISTICAL DATA. I should like to know 
of any book or publication containing such 
data as the height of St. Paul's dome, that 
of the Monument, length of Westminster 
Abbey, weight of London Bridge, &c. I want 
to make certain comparisons, on the Holt- 
Schooling method, between the output of a 
large factory and startling figures connected 
with well-known buildings, &c. SIGMA. 

HEBREW INCANTATIONS. I have often had 
it in mind to write a query upon a point over 
which many a literary spirit in 'N. & Q.' 
might unburden his heart. Why is it that 
writers of romance invariably make their 
magicians deliver their incantations in the 
lingua sacra or turn to "some Hebrew 
volume " in the presence of some seeker after 
things hidden from human ken ? I note in 
Douglas Jerrold's story ' The Tragedy of the 
Till ' that the author makes Father Lotus 
who does not appear to be of Semitic seed ; 
the name is far from that" nurse a white 
cat and turn over a little Hebrew volume." 
Jerrold had too large a heart to mean any 
disrespect towards Jews. There must be some- 

thing deeper than this this association of 
the abracadabra of magic with Hebrew. The 
Kabbala, of which the great work is the 
Tohar, is mystical, but not magical. 


ARMS ON FIREBACK, In an old farmhouse 
in Sussex, E. Grinstead Division, at the back 
of what is now the kitchen fire, is an iron fire- 
back with this device on it : an anchor with 
two coils of rope above its arms single barb 
to the flukes surrounded by four fleur-de- 
lys ; above the anchor the date 1588, and 
below this the initials I. F. C. In the same 
house is another fireback bearing on it three 
swords : the centre sword with hilt upper- 
most, point down, the other two swords right 
and left of it, hilts downwards, and each 
within a lozenge-shaped shield. Can any one 
tell me to whom those arms, if such they are, 
belonged ? COLONEL. 


(9 th S. ix. 241, 330.) 

THE following notes, which are mainly the 
outcome of recent inquiries, may possibly be 
of use to MR. UDAL, 

1. The earliest krro'wn common seal of Win- 
chester College bore the founder's personal 
arms. A description of it, from an impression 
attached to a document of 10 Rich. II. (1386), 
is given by Mr. Kirby in Archceologia, Ivii. 

2. Apparently the arms of Winchester 
College nave never been officially recorded 
at Heralds' College. The three lilies attri- 
buted to Winchester College in Guillim's 
' Display ' are also attributed to it in a manu- 
script book at Heralds' College, known as 
Vincent 187 (fol. 67). But this book is not 
an official record, and its authorship is un- 
known. It belonged to Augustine Vincent, 
Windsor Herald, who died in 1625/6, and it 
passed, with 'other books, to Heralds' College 
under the will of Ralph Sheldon, the anti- 
quary, who died in 1684. Sheldon had 
obtained these books from John Vincent, the 
herald's son. Cf. ' D.N.B.,' lii. 23 ; lyiii. 357. 

3. The 'Display' was first published in 
1610. The date of Vincent 187, fol. 67, is 
less certain. It is probably not later than 
the opening years of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; but until more is known about its 
date it seems idle to consider what relation 
this book may bear to Guillim's statement 
about Winchester College. 

4. The three lilies were also attributed to 



s. x. JULY 12, im 

the college by Thomas Dingley, who died in 
1695, in his ' History from Marble ' (see the 
Camden Society's photolithographic repro- 
duction, 1867-8, vol. i. p. xciv). But I sus- 
pect that Dingley borrowed herein from the 
'Display.' His text repeats, with verbal 
alterations, Guillim 's text, as cited (in part) 
at the first reference. In the "Table of 
Contents" to the Camden Society's repro- 
duction the lilies are assigned by mistake to 
New College, Oxford. 

5. In Papworth and Morant's 'Ordinary 
of British Arms' (1874), p. 861, "Sable, three 
lilies proper," are attributed to Winchester 
city as well as to Winchester College. (But 
see also pp. 371, 545-6.) The city was evi- 
dently using its present well-known arms 
(with five castles and two lions) at the end 
of the sixteenth century. See Woodward's 
4 Hampshire,' i. 276, n., where mention is made 
of the seal with these arms set in a ring 
given to the corporation by Edward White in 
1600. Nevertheless, in ' Analogia Honorum,' 
a work appended to the 1679 and 1724 editions 
of Guillim's ' Display,' it was stated that the 
city's arms were " Sable, three lilies proper." 
This book was probably one of Papworth 
and Morant's authorities. I abstain from 
guesswork as to the source of the statement 
in ' Analogia.' The authors of 'The Book of 
Public Arms ' (1894), p. 55, refer to a manu- 
script book in "Ulster's Office," which (they 
say) assigns Sable, three lilies argent, leaved 
vert, to Winchester city ; but they give no 
information about the date of this manu- 

6. Three lilies appear on one of the shields 
which adorn the portrait of "Florence de 
Lunn, Esq r , First Mayor of Winchester, A.D. 
1184," forming the frontispiece to 'The His- 
tory and Antiquities of Winchester' (1773), 
vol. ii But this portrait is a sham antique 
(cf. 3 rd S. viii. 243), and I would suggest that 
its engraver, I. Taylor, produced it by copy- 
ing, with small variations of detail, Grignion's 
engraving of the portrait of Henry Fitz- 
alwine, first Lord Mayor of London, as it 
appears in Entick's ' New History of London ' 
(1766), vol. ii., frontispiece. The resemblance 
between the engravings is too great to be 
the result of mere chance. The question 
whether Taylor intended the lilies for the 
arms of the city is therefore of no great 

7. Pleasant theories as to the origin of the 
lilies in the coats of Eton College and Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, may be built upon 
the hypothesis that lilies were "the old 
arms " of Winchester College, which reckons 
amongst its head masters Waynflete, after- 

wards head master and provost of Eton 
and founder of Magdalen. But that hypo- 
thesis cannot be regarded as safe in the 
absence of satisfactory evidence that Win- 
chester College had a grant of these arms 
or assumed them. Vincent and Guillim are 
great authorities, but bare statements by 
them concerning the college arms seem to be 
outweighed by the evidence which goes to 
show that the college has always used its 
founder's arms as its own, and has never 
borne arms with lilies in them. See the 
extract from Mr. R. T. Warner's book at the 
first reference. 

8. In the article mentioned at the second 
reference Mr. E. E. Dorling argued that 
Guillim confused Winchester College with 
Magdalen, and he explained the confusion 
by suggesting that Magdalen was originally 
known as Winchester College, Oxford. The 
weakness of this explanation seems to me to 
lie in the lack of proof that Magdalen was, 
in fact, known by that name. Its founder 
dedicated it to many patron saints of Win- 
chester Cathedral, but he styled it "Seynte 
Mary Magdalen College in the Universite of 
Oxon vulgariter nuncupatum." See the pre- 
fatory clauses of the college statutes in 
4 Statutes of the Colleges of Oxford ' (1853), 
vol. ii. p. 5. Consequently the statement in 
Dr. Woodward's ' Ecclesiastical Heraldry ' 
(1894), p. 431, that the college was " founded 

under the name of Winchester College," 

seems to be erroneous. H. C. 

In ' The Particuler Description of England, 
with Portratures of the Cheiffest Citties and 
Townes,' by William Smith, Rouge Dragon, 
dated 1588 (B.M., Sloane MS. No. 2596), there 
is on leaf 27 a profile sketch of the city of 
Winchester with a shield Sable, three garden 
lilies slipped proper in the right-hand top 
corner, as if these were the arms of the city. 
Smith makes, however, no statement to that 
effect. E. E. DORLING. 

Burcombe Vicarage, Salisbury. 

(9 th S. x. 1). The note with the well-known 
signature of J. S. S. reminds me of how often 
we sang this hymn in years gone by. It 
was set to Haydn's music, the Austrian 
National Anthem, and was included in Hul- 
lah's Part-Music : Sacred Songs, published at 
first by John W. Parker in 1842, and now 
by Novello & Co. Among many poems by 
Chorley was one, a prayer for peace, " Give 
to us peace in our time, O Lord." This was 
set to the music of the Russian National 
Anthem, and was frequently sung at the time 

9> s. x. JULY 12, 



of the war with Russia. This also belonged tc 
the same series, the secular volumes of which 
likewise include three songs by Chorley 
No. 1, ' May Day,' " The sun already from 
the skies," and No. 2, the well-known harves 
song, "Thro' lanes with hedgerows pearly, 
as well as a fireside song, "O, never fear 
though rain be falling." The hymn for peace 
is included in the 'Congregational Church 
Hymnal.' The 'Hymnal Companion' also 
contains four of the six verses. 

Many of Chorley's poems appeared first in 
the Athenaeum; a list of these is given in 
4 John Francis, Publisher of the Athenaeum 
(Macmillan & Co.). Two of them are quoted 
one, a ' Hymn of the Old Discoverers,' is 
full of beauty. A. N. Q. 

THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 tb S. ix. 485). A fc 
35, Belgrave Square, the residence of a dis- 
tinguished general, there is hanging as a 
Coronation decoration, alongside of our 
national flag, an enormous standard, pro- 
bably captured from our recent enemies in 
South Africa. It has the "Four Colours," 
the band of green by the staff, and crosswise 
from it the horizontal tricolour of the same 
three colours as those of Russia, France, and 
Holland ; the red stripe topmost, which 
gives the flag its close resemblance to the 
so-called "red, white, and blue" flag which 
some ignorant Britons, until corrected by 
' N. & Q.,' believed to be a standard of our 
country. T. N. F. 

DEAD SEA LEVEL (9 th S. ix. 488). The 
Ordnance survey of Western Palestine was 
completed by Lieut, (now Viscount) Kitchener 
in 1878. The level of the Dead Sea below sea- 
level is given as minus 1292'! feet on the P. E. 
Fund's map. Recent observers have reported 
a considerable rise, which has greatly modi- 
fied the coast line, but, of course, not altered 
the main fact that the Dead Sea lies in the 
deepest depression known. C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence. 

^ The discovery of the fact that the Dead 
Sea was very much below the level of the 
Mediterranean was made independently by 
Schubert, on the one hand, and Moore and 
Beek, on the other, in 1837, and confirmed 
by Russegger and Symonds (' Encyclopaedia 
Biblica '). In May, 1848, Lynch calculated 
that the Dead Sea was 1,316 feet below the 
level of the Mediterranean at Jaffa. This 
calculation was made by levelling across 
country. By the barometer he calculated that 
the level was 1,234 feet. The level varies at 
different times of year, but as 39?, to 395 metres 
(1,285-1,289 feet) is given by 'La Grande Ency- 

clopedie,' and about 1,300 feet by the 'Ency- 
clopaedia Biblica,' it -may be taken, that the 
figure is fairly well settled. A number of 
other calculations are given in Smith's ' Dic- 
tionary of the Bible,' 1863, vol. iii. 1175. In 
that work Lake Assal, in East Africa, is 
said to be 570 feet below the ocean, and 
to furnish the closest parallel to the Dead 
Sea. W. R. BARKER. 

10, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

CATHERINE BABINGTON (9 th S. ix. 449). 
Previous correspondents in ' N. & Q.' have 
stated that Catherine Babington was the 
widow of Thomas Babington of the Green - 
fort family when she married Col. John 
Pigott on 2 August, 1740. She died in 
November, 1758. Her maiden name is not 
given. See 6 th S. ix. 490 ; x. 57, 111, 177. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ARMS OF KNIGHTS (9 th S. ix. 328, 398). 
There appear to have been three distinct 
branches of the Sturmey family, all bearing 
different arms. 

Of the Wiltshire family Fuller in his 
' Worthies ' says : 

" They were lords of Woolf-hall in this county ; 
and from the time of King Henry the Second were, 
by right of inheritartte, the bailiffs and guardians of 
the forest of Savernake, lying hard by, s which is of 
great note for plenty of good game, and for a kind 
jf fern there that yieldeth a most pleasant savour : 
in remembrance whereof, their hunter's horn, of a 
mighty bigness, and tipt with silver, is kept by the 
Seymors, dukes of Somerset, unto this day, as a 
monument of their descent from such noble ances- 


William Sturray, miles, of Woolf-hall, was 
High Sheriff of Wilts 6 Henry V., and Henry 
Sturmy from 35 Edward III. for six years, 
and again in 47 Edward III. They used as 
arms Argent, three demi-lions gules. 

A third branch were resident at Dromon by, 
n Yorkshire, and ended with Alice, daughter 
ind heir of John Sturmy, who married Robert 
Constable '(see Constable of Dromonby, 
Visitation of Yorks, 1584-5 '). The arms of this 
ine are variously given as Sable, a lion ram- 
oant argent, and Sable, a lion salient argent. 

In 31 Edward I. William Stormy, jun., 
eld twelve bovates of the Percy fee (in Kil- 
lale) in North Cave , and in Kirkby's ' Inquest ' 
he name several times occurs. 

John Constable, of Halsham, married Al- 
breda Bulmer, relict of John Sturmy ; and 

lizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir William 
Sturmyn, Kt., 26 Edward III., married first 
Sir Laurence Acton, Kt., and secondly Wil- 
iam Kingsman. 

According to Plantagenet Harrison, Sir 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 12, 1902. 

Robert Musgrave, Kt., of Musgrave, married 
Emma, daughter and heir of Thomas Sturmey, 
of Danby and Ormsby-upon-Swale, a state- 
ment which, I think, requires further proof, 
as I am unable to trace this Thomas in any 
contemporary records. H. R. LEIGHTON. 
East Boldon, R.S.O., co. Durham. 


(9 th S. ix. 425, 476). Magicians perform their 
marvellous acts through the agency of spirits, 
and obtain their knowledge of what is and 
of what will be from them. They are some- 
times supposed to exercise their power over 
spirits of water by hydromancy, their power 
over spirits of earth by geomancy, &c. ; and 
their impressions on the ground may be 
an invocation of the earth spirits, though I 
think that geomancy is also used for super- 
natural inquiry without reference to the 
spirits of the earth. When lamblichus evoked 
daemons from fountains he may have done so 
through hydromancy ; for, though that sig- 
nifies divination by means of water, it may 
include the evocation of spirits from water. 
The classical daemons were supposed to in- 
habit the planets and the elements, more 
especially the upper regions of the air, and, 
though they were usually considered by the 
pagans benign beings, they were thought by 
the Christians to be actual devils. Satan in 
' Paradise Regained,' addressing his com- 
panions, says : 

Princes, Heaven's ancient Sons, etherial Thrones, 
Demonian Spirits now, from the element 
Each of his reign allotted, rightlier called 
Powers of Fire, Air, Water and Earth beneath. 

The teraphim were connected with magical 
rites. So says Dr. Smith in his Bible dic- 
tionary. The hell-birth must mean that the 
ork came from hell. A devil evidently was 
obliged by a magician to assume this form. 
Perhaps Proteus was forgotten when the 
lines in the sonnet were written ; but 1 do 
not know the rest of the sonnet, and cannot 
say whether he is mentioned in it or not. 


Some little time ago I had the opportunity 
of perusing the church books belonging to a 
Nonconformist community in this county. 
Under date 30 January, 1829, I noted that 
a member was dismissed for "geomancy and 
falsehood." JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

THE ROYAL STANDARD (9 th S. vii. 268, 353 ; 
viii. 313, 425). I will not enter into a dis- 
cussion upon MR. YARDLEY'S statement at the 
last reference as to the use of the lion as 
heraldry at or before the siege of Thebes. I 
will only refer him to what the late Dr. 

Woodward has said so well on the subject of 
the alleged early origin of heraldic insignia in 
his work on ' British and Foreign Heraldry,' 
of which a new and enlarged edition was 
published in two volumes in 1896. (See vol. i. 
pp. 18-19.) 

May I say that my first contribution to 
' N. & Q.,' now some thirty years ago or more, 
was, if I remember rightly, upon the arms 
of Adam and Eve? J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

EXHUMATION OF HENRY IV. (9 th S. ix. 369, 
433). The late Dean Saunders, of Peter- 
borough, wore a ring in which was a very 
little hair ; this, he told me, was the hair of 
Henry IV., taken from the coffin when the 
king's body was exhumed at Canterbury 
Cathedral. W. D. SWEETING. 

Holy Trinity Vicarage, Rotherhithe. 

121, 192 ; ix. 234, 490). Green has not always 
been regarded as an unlucky colour. Gio- 
vanni Aurelio Augurelli (1441-1524) dedicated 
his alchemical treatise ' Chrysopceia ' to Pope 
Leo X., who in return gave him " a large and 
handsome, but empty purse " ; see Roscoe's 
' Life and Pontificate of Leo the Tenth,' 
1846, ii. 149. Lacinius, in the preface to 
his collection entitled 'Pretiosa Margarita,' 
Venice, 1546, tells us what Roscoe omits, 
that the purse was of green silk, "which 
colour is commonly supposed to indicate 
future hope." The ecclesiastical colour for 
all the weeks after Trinity until Advent is 
green. W. C. B. 

DEFOE (9 th S. ix. 207, 318). In connexion 
with the previous references to Daniel Defoe 
the following note in the Eastern Mwning 
News (Hull) of 8 May is of some little 
interest : 

" We read yesterday that the remains of Miss 
Mary Ann Defoe, the great-great-granddaughter 
and last lineal descendant of Daniel Defoe, were 
laid to rest in Abney Park Cemetery. Like that of 
Sir Walter Scott, the line of Defoe becomes extinct. 
There is no one left to claim as a family possession 
the fame and glory of this great ancestor." 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

"CIRCULAR JOYS" (9 th S. ix. 466). The 
suitability of the circle as an emblem of 
eternity is perhaps best explained by marking 
upon its circumference three points, which 
in order may be named " past," " present," 
"future." It is obvious that although this 
sequence may be repeated upon a perfectly 
straight line, it gains a new significance when 
we proceed to consider it in relation to the 

9>s.x. JULY 12, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


centre of the circle. For the latter, invisible 
may be, yet essential, since it is the basis 
upon which the circumference rests, admits of 
no difference in distance, priority, or import- 
ance in respect of the position of any one of 
these temporal points, since all alike are 
equally related to itself. In this conception 
dwells the fitness of the simile. 

67, Douglas Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 

TIB'S EVE (9 th S. ix. 109, 238, 335). 
Halliwell in his dictionary gives Tibbie as a 
Norfolk diminutive of Isabella. The name 
Isopel is used in the Berners family. In 
1876 I saw Tibbie Shields in the flesh in her 
cottage at the head of St. Mary's Loch, " a 
wren's nest round and theekit wi' moss," 
as it is called in No. xxxvi. of the ' Noctes 
Ambrosianse' (1834). In the 'Monastery' 
we are introduced to the faithful bower- 
woman of the Lady of Avenel, Tibb Tacket, 
who takes shelter with her lady in the tower 
of Glendearg. Sir Walter Scott was skilled 
in sketching faithful domestics. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

According to Dr. Brewer ('Reader's 
Handbook,' &c., and also his ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable ') this expression is equiva- 
lent to " never." He writes, " St. Tibs is a 
corruption of St. Ubes. There is no such 
saint in the calendar ; and therefore St. Tib's 
Eve falls on the Greek Kalends" (also s.v. 
'Never'). C. S. HARRIS. 

" KEEP YOUR HAIR ON " (9 th S. ix. 184, 335). 
Referring to the quotation from Barrere 
by MR. CLAYTON, I heard a janitor of a 
gymnasium complain of unsuccessful remon- 
strance with intruders in these terms : " I 
spoke to them about it, but they began to 

get a bit shirty, so I had to fetch Mr. 

[his superior officer] to talk to them." A 
schoolfellow said once to me : " You are 
sivotting for top place " : an equivalent for 
sweat or grind, no doubt. 


Brixton Hill. 

This expression is common or is frequently 
heard in Gloucestershire. Its origin is 
supposed to be coeval with wigs or the wig 
period. Irascible and aged gentlemen, " when 
mad with passion," have been known not 
only to curse and swear, but to tear their 
wigs from their heads, and to trample them 
under their feet, or to throw them into the 
fire. Very often when I have manifested 
symptoms of anger I have been admonished 
by country fellows, " Kip thee yar on, 

maystur ! " This expression is synonymous 
with keep your temper, or don't get into a 
rage. Whenever I have heard the expression, 
I have invariably associated it with the old 
country squire who got into a thundering 
rage and threw his wig off his bald head 
and trampled it under his feet. Some- 
times a similar expression or mandate is 
used, " Kip the wig on, ould mon." I have 
frequently heard old country farmers and 
farm labourers say, " Daz my wig !" or " Dash 
my wig if I wool," or "I dooes. In the old 
days, if a man wished in his passion to be 
emphatic, he threw off his wig. 


It is surprising to hear that this catch- 
phrase was in use so early as 1853. Since 
this is the case, is it not probable that it 
existed even much earlier, that it may indeed 
be traced to the latter half of the eighteenth 
century, which saw a serious change of fashion 
in the disuse of the peruke and the return to 
the custom of wearing one's natural hair 1 ' 1 
strongly suspect that the phrase has some 
relation in its origin to that of "Wigs on 
the green," for there must be an unusual 
difficulty, where there are " wigs on the 
green " (see 9 th S. iii. 492), in "keeping one's 
hair on." J.'HoLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

I remember in 1885, when I was an articled 
clerk in Derbyshire, hearing a discussion 
between a solicitor and a farmer in a room 
of the comfortable old hostelry which forms 
part of the Derby Law Courts. The farmer 
was endeavouring to end a misunderstanding 
which had arisen by saying, in reference to 
some prior dispute between them, "That 
was where you got your hair off," a phrase 
he repeatea several times, to the great 
annoyance of the solicitor, who happened at 
the same time to be rather young, very bald, 
and extremely irascible. 


Town Hall,, Cardiff. 

At the latter reference a passage is quoted 
from Barrere's ' Argot and Slang.' The last 
word of this quotation ought, I suspect, to 
have been front, and not "front." H. C. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (9 th S. ix. 467j. 
Cultivated Frenchmen pronounce Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Aix-les-Bains, and Aix in Provence 
as Aiks, but your correspondent may well 
have heard people say ^'ss-la-Chapelle, as 
some French people, through what is termed 
paresse de langage, pronounce x very much 
like ss. The dislike of the lower orders to 
the sound of x is general, and it is well 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 12, 1902. 

known that the late President was commonly 
called Felisque Faure by the Parisian popu- 
lace when they did not say Felisque tout 
court. My personal experience is that, 
living in France and having a dog named 
Fox, I used to hear the servants call him 
Fosque, while one or two specially idle ones 
would say Foss. X has, of course, disappeared 
from Italian altogether. M. HAULTMONT. 

As Aix is a phonal abbreviation of the 
plural of Aqua (probably late Latin Aques), 
the pronunciation should be aiks. From 
this point of view ai and aiss are alike 
incorrect. G. W. JACKSON. 

14, Church Hill, Walbhamstow. 

" LUPO-MANNARO " (9 th S. ix. 329, 476). 
My brother, the late Mr. Clement Southam, 
F.S.A., contributed an article on werewolves 
to All the Year Hound, October, 1883. If 
MR. CLARE JERROLD has not seen this, there 
are references which may be of interest to 


251, 391, 496). The latest contribution of 
MR. HOLYOAKE hardly justifies the virile 
octogenarian's dictum therein, that " the 
correction of error is the establishment of 
truth." MR. HOLYOAKE confounds the name 
of MR. W. E. ADAMS, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
with that of MR. F. ADAMS, London, and 
attributes to the latter, instead of to the 
former, the note on ' Disappearing Chartists,' 
in which some trifling errata in communica- 
are pointed out. The spheres of activity of 
MR. HOLYOAKE and MR. F. ADAMS are so 
' widely apart that a certain degree of ignor- 
ance of each other's work is pardonable. 
The veteran " agitator " I use trie term in 
no invidious sense should not, however, have 
permitted himself to assert that "MR. W. E. 

ADAMS has spent his life in reading for 

'literals.'" MR. F. ADAMS unquestionably 
the gentleman MR. HOLYOAKE had in his 
mind when he wrote last to ' N. & Q.' is, 
without disparagement to any of his col- 
leagues, the most accomplished member of 
the reading staff of Messrs. Sppttiswoode & 
Co., and his erudition and lucidity of style 
a somewhat rare combination have been ex- 
hibited, to the delight and instruction of the 
readers of 'N. & Q.,' for a number of yean 

" LE FIZGERT " (9 th S. ix. 487). The mean 
ing of this is " the son of Gert." Fiz, more 
familiar to us as Fitz, was the regular Anglo- 
Norman form of fils. So David is "le fiz 

Tesse " (Garnier's ' Vie de Saint Thomas,' 1. 96), 
Tesus " le fiz Deu " (' L'Evangile de Nicodeme,' 
p. 79, 1. 187, Soc. des Anc. Textes Franc,.), 
and Harold " le fiz God wine " (Wright's 
Feudal Manuals,' p. 80). 

But is not " Gert " an error for " Gent " ? 
' Cresse filius Gente" is mentioned frequently 
Between the dates 1244 and 1282 in the 
ifteenth volume, recently published, of the 
Selden Society's publications. * In the earliest 
of these instances (p. 9) he appears as " Deu- 
ecresse filius Gente," and at p. 38 the name 
" Cresse " is explained in a foot-note as fol- 
ows : " More properly Deulecresse (i.e. , 
Deus eum crescat,' a barbarous Latinization 
of the Hebrew in^nj)." F. ADAMS. 

115, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

EVOLUTION OF A NOSE (9 th S. ix. 445). 
in supposing the Somerset nose came from 
the Leveson-Gowers. It came by the mar- 
riage in 1766 of Elizabeth Boscawen, daughter 
of Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen, with 
Henry, fifth Duke of Beaufort. Admiral 
Boscawen had it in a very marked degree, 
and it has continued in all his descendants, 
Boscawens and Somersets, in none more 
markedly than in his grandson F.M. Lord 
Raglan. The Leveson-Gowers at that time 
had no particular nose. INVESTIGATOR. 

" DAGGERING": " DOGGERING" (9 th S. ix. 507). 

If COL. HOZIER will refer to the ' N.E.D.' 
at the article dogger 1 , he will find that his 
word is a correct reproduction of the West- 
Country pronunciation of daggering, or pri- 
vateering. Q. V. 

S. ix. 506). MR. CHARLES HIATT says, " The 

rochet is in the case of the bishops to 

give way to splendid copes." This would, 
indeed, be a new departure, for the cope is 
worn over surplice, or alb, or rochet, not 
without one or other of these vestments. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

(9 th S. ix. 408, 512). The lists to which DR. 
MACRAY refers do not contain the names of 
the sworn clerks (otherwise known as the 
sixty clerks). J. B. W. 

415, 514). In 1898 the Stationery Office pub- 
lished a "List of Sheriffs for England and 
Wales from the earliest times to A.D. 1831, 

* ' Select Pleas, Starrs, and other Records from 
the Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews,' edited by 
J. M. Rigg, 1901. 

9*s.x. JULY 12, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


compiled from Documents in the Public 
Record Office," incorporating and super- 
seding the list referred to by DR. MACKAY, 
which is now out of print. I am unable to 
say how far it adds to the published lists as 

regards Staffordshire. 

O. O. H. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE AND GAS (9 th S. vi. 227, 
358; ix. 118, 317, 372). The inflammable 
aeriform fluid, carburetted hydrogen, was 
first evolved from coal by Dr. Clayton, in 
1739 (Phil. Trans.). Its application to the 
purposes of illumination was first tried by 
Mr. Murdoch, in Cornwall, in 1792. The 
first display of gas lights was made at Boul- 
ton & Watt's foundry in Birmingham, on the 
occasion of the rejoicings for peace in 1802. 
Gas was permanently used, io the exclusion 
of lamps and candles, at the cotton mills 
of Phillips & Lee, Manchester, where 1,000 
burners were lighted, 1805 (see ' Haydn's Dic- 
tionary of Dates '). Gaslights were first 
introduced in London in Golden Lane, 1807, 
first used in lighting Pall Mall, 1809, and 
were general through London in 1814 (ibid., 
and the Lady's News, 1852). It was the Mr. 
Winsor of whom K. B. speaks who first lit 
the Lyceum Theatre with gas in 1803, and to 
him, says Beckmann in his 'History of 
Inventions' (Bohn, 1846, vol. ii. p. 183), the 
world may fairly be said to be indebted for 
the vast oenefit conferred upon it by gas 
illumination. Soon after one side of Pall 
Mall had been lighted with gas, companies 
were formed for carrying on the manufacture 
of gas upon an extensive scale. 


I understand that Frederick A. Winsor, 
mentioned at the last reference, is buried in 
Pere la Chaise Cemetery, Paris. Will some 
French correspondent kindly supply a copy 
of the inscription over his grave? Any 
particulars concerning the erection of the 
memorial in Kensal Green Cemetery would 
be welcome. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

S. ix. 22, 229). In my paper on 'The 
Essenes' (9 th S. ix. 103) I have succinctly 
outlined the genesis of demonology in 
Judaism. The graft, however, never took 
firm root in the soil, and Jews have ever 
remained loyal to the everlasting principle 
of unity. Too much stress must not be 
laid on the 'Jobeid,' from which a very 
erroneous conception of the Jewish stand- 
point is likely to ensue. With reference 
to Psalm Ixxviii. 49, I have looked at the 
context of the chapter, and as I forecasted, 

so it is. The word rtiallach is used in many 
instances as "agent," " medium," a " messen- 
ger." Mallachi ronge$m=" agents of destruc- 
tion," as MR. BOSWELL rightly discerns. In 
fact, no other significance can be attached to 
the phrase by a genuine Hebraist, and I am 
surprised the Revisionists did not " modern- 
ize " to that extent. " Angels of evil " is a 
contradiction in terms to my mind. 


MR. BOSWELL says that the devil got his 
name of Old Scratch from Skratt, the wood- 
spirit ; and so says Keightley in his ' Fairy 
Mythology' ; but I am inclined to think that 
he got it from the old story, told again by 
Rabelais, in which a man agrees to have a 
scratching match with the devil, and in which 
the devil is utterly discomfited by the man's 
wife. I would also remark that Ovid, who 
mentions the slaying of the serpent Python, 
does not make Apollo the sun. He rightly 
considers him, as .do Homer and Hesiod, a 

quite different deity. 


BAPTISMAL. FONTS (9 th S. ix. 447). A similar 
request appeared many years ago. Some 
correspondents contributed the names of a 
few of the churches in which curious and 
ancient fonts were still to be found, for which 
see 5 th S. xii. 443 ; 6, th S. i. 26, 215, 405. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

467). The statement that Thomas Phayer 
resided in South Wales from 1555 to 1560, 
and that he died and was buried in the latter 
year at Cilgerran, which is situated within a 
few miles of Cardigan, though itself in Pem- 
brokeshire, appears to have originated with 
Wood. Pits, on the other hand, says that he 
died in London in 1550. Bulleyn, in his ' Bui 
warke of Defence ' (part 2), alludes to him in 
these words : " Thomas Faire is not deade, 
but is transformed and chaunged into a new 
nature immortal." This was published in 
March, 1562. ' Where Phayer practised medi- 
cine is uncertain, but it was probably in 
London ; and though the only degree or 
licence with which he is credited was M.D. 
Oxon., 1559, he likely enough practised pre- 
vious to that date. It would be interesting 
to know if he possessed a licence from the 
Bishop of St. David's. 

May I suggest to your correspondent that 
be should search (1) 'The History of Cil- 
;erran,' (2) 'A List of the Sheriffs of Car- 
iganshire from 1539, with Genealogical and 
Historical Notes,' each of these being the 
work of John Roland Phillips ? His 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JXTLY 12, 1902. 

funeral certificate, if extant, would give the 
very information required. So far as I am 
aware there was no other physician of the 

This is the same person as the M.P. for 
Cardigan. His pedigree is to be found in 
Lewys Dwnn's 'Heraldic Visitations of Wales,' 
i. 150, and (with his arms and crest) in the 
' Golden Grove Books,' now deposited in the 
Public Record Office, B. 392. H. O. 

I copy the following from 'The Parlia- 
mentary History of the Principality of Wales,' 
by Mr. W. R. Williams, 1895, under the mem- 
bers for the Cardigan Boroughs : 

" 1555, Sept. 24, Thomas Phaer, of Forest, near 
Cilgerran, son of Thomas Phaer of Norwich (by 
Clara, dau. of Sir William Goodyear, Knt., of Lon- 
don), became a member of Lincoln's Inn, and was 
probably called to the Bar, took the degree of M.B. 
at Oxford University, and admitted to practise 
6 Feb., 1559; M.D. 21 March, 1559; was also solicitor 
to the Council of the Marches of Wales, and soli- 
citor to Queen Mary, J. P. and Custos Rotulorum of 
co. Pembroke, Constable of Cilgerran, M.P. Car- 
marthen 1547-52, Cardigan 1555-8 and January to 
May, 1559 ; married Anne, daughter of Alderman 
Thomas Walter, of Carmarthen; made his will 
12 August, 1560 ; died at Forest the same year, and 
was buried in Cilgerran Church (monumental in- 
scription). Dr. Phaer was a great classical scholar 
and translated several books of Virgil's ' ^Eneid.' 
His neighbour George Owen said of him, ' Thomas 
Phaer, doctor of physic, a man honoured for his 
learninge, commended for his governmente, and 
beloved for his pleasant natural conceiptes.' He 
left two daughters and co-heirs, and his widow re- 
married to John Revell, of Forest." 

I notice that Mr. Williams, when recording 
his election for Carmarthen, October, 1547, 
spells the surname Phayer. There is a still 
further difficulty in the record as given by 
Mr. Williams in the fact that while he states 
Mr. Phaer was member for Cardigan only 
until May, 1559, and that he died in 1560, 
he records no election for the Cardigan 
Boroughs after the election of Mr. Phaer, 
11 January, 1559, until 1563, when John 
G wynne, who had previously sat for the 
borough, was again elected. Would A. W. C. B. 
kindly inform me where I can get a copy of 
the list which he quotes from? D. M. R. 

QUOTATIONS (9 th S. ix. 268). The nineteen 
iambic trimeter lines beginning 

o-nQciv Tracrt [] TOIS a'iois 
6 Gfos, TOIS 8e roiovTOts cr<j>68pa., 
cited by Theophilus ('Ad Autolycum,' i. 5, 
p ; 296 s?.) with the prefatory remark, Ilepl 
fj.fv Qtoi, KCU Trpovoias 'Api'o-rwv e<?7, may be 
found, discussed and emended, on p. ix sq. 
of the "Prsefatio" of Meineke's 'Historia 
Critica Comicorum Grsecorum,' J839 (being 

vol. i. of his ' F ragmen ta Comicorum Graeco- 
rum '). They are also given, with some dif- 
ferences as regards emendation, by F. G. 
Wagner in his ' Poetarum Tragicorum Grseco- 
rum Fragments,,' p. 77 in the edition pub- 
lished by Firmin-Didot, 1878. 

The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (9 th S. ix. 488). 
According to Kirk's ' Supplement to Alli- 
bone's Critical Dictionary of English Litera- 
ture,' vol. i., 1891, " Harper Atherton " was 
an English journalist named Frank Fowler 
(1833 - 63). He was the author of several 
works, and editor of the Literary Budget, 
Lond., 1862. CUTHBERT E. A. CLAYTON. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

GERALD GRIFFIN (9 th S. ix. 508). The lines 
quoted will be found in the life of Gerald 
Griffin, by his brother Daniel Griffin, attached 
to his 'Collected Works,' p. 275 (London, 1843). 
It is said that they were found among his 
papers in a rather incomplete state. The 
third line is printed as follows : 

Like a and a they sit side by side, 

and not as quoted. The ninth line is as fol- 
lows : , 

Compared with such garbage the trash of A. Tenny- 

and not "a Tennyson." W. R. BARKER. 
10, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

WINDSOR UNIFORM (9 th S. ix. 268, 292). 
The following extract, though not quite the 
kind of reference to books desired by COL. 
PARRY, will interest him no doubt : 

"The angelic figures which support the roof of 
the nave had golden wings, and at one time, to 
shew the excessive loyalty of the town, the church- 
wardens took the ludicrous course of painting their 
dresses blue and red, in imitation of the Windsor 

This bonne bouche occurs in the ' Early Recol- 
lections of the Collegiate Church ' of Man- 
chester, by Canon C. D. Wray, M.A., which 
form an appendix to the ' Memorials ' of the 
worthy canon written by his son, the Rev. 
Henry Wray, M.A. The time referred to 
would be about the year 1815. 


BLACK MALIBRAN (9 th S. ix. 367, 390, 494). 
At the last reference it is stated, under 
this distinctly unappropriate heading, that 
Madame Malibran de Beriot (died 1836) was 
finally buried at Brussels. This to a certain 
extent is not quite accurate, as the writer of 
this note, when wandering some years ago 
through the curious cemetery at Laeken, 

9"> S. X. JULY 12, 1902.] 



came across Madame Malibran's tomb, ther 
contained in a small chapel in which als 
was, and is still, a marble statue by Geef: 
Laeken, though a suburb of Brussels, is no 
contained in that city itself. The writer we 
remembers many anecdotes of Madame Mali 
bran de Beriot told to him by a relative, i.e 
how that famous singer, who died at the ag 
of twenty-eight years, used to be quite * 
celebrated horsewoman, and how she used tc 
enjoy talking to the country people and sing 
ing at the top of her voice when out ridinj 
in the country how also, just before he 
death, when compelled by illness not t 
appear at the concert for which she wa 
" billed," she insisted upon her music being 
brought to her, and how she then sang, whil 
in bed at the hotel in Manchester, righ 
through the songs which she would, had al 
been well, have sung at the concert. 

46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

EPITAPH ON AN ATTORNEY (9 th S. ix. 345) 
I have not observed that any correspon 
dent has yet contributed the full version o: 
these Jacobite rimes. It runs thus : 

Here lies poor Fred, who was alive and is dead. 
Had it been his father, we had much rather. 
Had it been his brother, still better than another. 
Had it been his sister, no one would have missec 

Had it been the whole generation, so much the 

better for the nation. 

But since 'tis only Fred, who was alive and is dead- 
There 'a no more to be said. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The following curious epitaph, which has 
at any rate the merit of brevity, is inscribed 
on a tablet in the chancel of the parish 
church at Castleton, co. Derby : 

To the memory of Micah Hall, Gent : Attorney at 

Who died on the 9th day of May 1804. 

Aged 79. 

Quid eram nescitis. 
Quid sum nescitis. 
Ubi sum nescitis. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

MONT PELEE (9 th S. ix. 487, 517) Refer- 
ence to a French-English dictionary shows 
that Peleus is represented in French by P4Ue. 
The origin of the name PeUe may be found 
by transposing it (to " convey " a convenient 
musical terra) into Spanish the language of 
the discoverers of Martinique when it will 
appear as pelata, the past participial adjective 
of pelar, to strip. It is the bare mountain, 

as contrasted with the dense woods that 
covered so much of the. island. In Italian it 
is known as Monte Pilata. O. O. H. 

ST. PAUL AND SENECA (9 th S. ix. 290, 351, 
497). See Prof. W. M. Ramsay's 'St. Paul 
the Traveller and the Roman Citizen ' (Lon- 
don, Hodder & Stoughton, 1900), chap. xv. 
sec. 2, which begins as follows : 

"The question has been much discussed what 
relation, if any, existed between Seneca and Paul 
at this time. A tradition existed in the fourth 
century that they had been brought into close 
relation. It is, however, exceedingly doubtful 
whether this tradition had any other foundation 
than the remarkable likeness that many of Seneca's 
phrases and sentiments show to passages in the 
New Testament. But, however striking these 
extracts seem when collected and looked at apart 
from their context, I think that a careful considera- 
tion of them as they occur in the books must bring 
every one to the conclusion advocated by Light-foot, 
by Aube, and by many others, that the likeness 
affords no proof that Seneca came into such rela- 
tions with Paul as to be influenced in his sentiments 
by him." 

The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

GILLESPIE GRUMACH (9 th S. ix. 486). 
find among my notes that the Weekly 
Intelligencer of the period mentions Hamilton 
having told King Charles that Argyll " had 
as great an imperfection in the eye of his 
mind as in the eye of his body." This Argyll 
was nicknamed "the glee'd Marquis," and 
Sir Walter Scott in the 'Tales of a Grand - 
! ather,' chap, xlix., says of him : 

"He faced death with a courage which other 
passages of his life had not prepared men to expect, 
'or he was generally esteemed to be of a timorous 
disposition. On the scaffold, he told a friend that 
ic felt himself capable of braving death like a 
Ionian, but he preferred submitting to it with the 
jatience of a Christian. The rest of his behaviour 
nade his words good ; and thus died the celebrated 
Vlarquis of Argyle, so important a person during 
his melancholy time He was called by the High- 
anders Gillespie Grumach, or the Grim, from an 
bliquity in his eyes, which gave a sinister expres- 
ion to his countenance." 

Scott, Carlyle, Rawson Gardiner, Hume 
3rown, and others spell the name "Argyle," 
ind this spelling is to be found in many old 
woks and documents. The late Duke of 

rgyll, however, in his 'Presbytery Ex- 
mined,' twice writes the name of his dis- 
inguished ancestor as "Argyll" (see second 
dition, 1849, pp. 131, 185), and I have a copy 
f a letter written by the late Duke about 
he year 1870, in which he says : 

"In very old times all spelling was very un- 
ertain. You will find Argyll spelt ' Argoyle,' as 
rell as 'Argyle' and 'Argile.' But my rule has 
een the signature of the family for many genera- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 9* s. x. JULY 12, 1902. 

tions. I have letters, charters, &c. , for a long way 
back, and the signature has been, almost without 
exception, ' Argyll,' with the double I." 

W. S. 

The following extract from the 'Legend 
of Montrose ' may prove interesting and 
illustrative : 

" His dark complexion, furrowed forehead, and 
downcast look, gave him the appearance of one 
frequently engaged in the consideration of important 
affairs, and who has acquired by long habit an air 
of gravity and mystery, which he cannot shake off 
even when there is nothing to be concealed. The 
cast with his eyes, which had procured him in the 
Highlands the nickname of Gillespie Grumach, 
or the grim, was less perceptible when he looked 
downward, which perhaps was one cause of his 
having adopted the habit." Chap. xii. 

The probable date of the story is 1644, and 
the Marquess is Archibald, eighth Earl and 
first Marquess of Argyll. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

OLD SONGS (9 th S. ix. 388, 492). The march- 
ing tune of the old Royal South Lincoln 
Militia was ' The Lincolnshire Poacher.' The 
regiment trained in the spring, and the beat 
of this air wafted across the fields seemed to 
have as much relation to the season as haw- 
thorn bloom, lilac blossom, and the call of 
the cuckoo. I have been trying to reproduce 
the tum-tum-tum in my solitude, but it does 
not tally with the metre of the lines quoted 
by MR. PEACOCK. These are a pleasant gift, 
though manifestly incomplete, and I should 
be glad if some other Lincolnshire corre- 
spondent could give me a complete version of 
the song in a measure that would fit the 
melody which is now vibrating in my mind. 


486). Doubtless my writing was responsible 
for the name of Findo-Gask (co. Perth) 
appearing as Findo-Gash in this query. The 
last information concerning William Baxter 
was a letter written by him dated 5 March, 1841, 
and containing the words, " I intend leaving 
this country on the 2nd April in the ship 
England for Australia." Is it possible at this 
distance of years to obtain any particulars 
about the voyage, the exact destination and 
safe arrival of the vessel, and the names of 
the passengers ? RONALD DIXON. 

46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

"KNIFE" (9 th S. ix. 468). A knife, i.e., a 
dagger, was formerly a customary item of 
an Englishman's accoutrement. Beckmann, 
writing towards the close of the eighteenth 
century, says that even then, in taverns, in 
many countries, particularly in some towns 

in France, knives were not placed on the 
table, because it was expected that each 
person should have one of his own : a custom 
which the French seem to have retained from 
old Gauls. Hence, perhaps, the saying 
" to have one's knife in " a person. In political 
slang, to " knife" any one is to endeavour to 
defeat a candidate of one's own party in a 
secret or underhand way. " Knife " has always 
been synonymous for sword or dagger. Spen- 
ser (' Faerie Queene,' iii. iv. 24) uses " knife " 
for a sword 

And after all his war to rest hia wearie knife ; 
and Shakespeare certainly alludes to the 
dagger when he says, in ' Macbeth,' I. v., 

That my keen knife sees not the wound it makes. 
The reply of the heroic General Palafox, 
when summoned by the French to surrender 
Saragossa in 1808, "War even to the knife !" 
would certainly not allude to what is to-day 
understood by the implement so named, but 
to close quarters with the dagger a entrance. 
To " get one's knife " in a person has appa- 
rently given birth to the word *' kniferism," 
a facetious form of an aphorism in allusion 
to the cutting character of an anecdote, 
saying, &c. e.g., "Stories of the Don whose 
verbal lapses may be called ' Spoonerisms ' or 
' Kniferisms,' as you please, are numerous in 
clerical circles and keenly appreciated " 
(M.A.P., 18 Feb., 1899, p. 153). 


68, 156, 334). Auguste Kriiger was promoted 
in 1813 to the rank of sergeant (Unterofficier) 
in the Kolberg infantry regiment, and in the 
issue of 17 December, 1816, of the Hande und 
Spenersche Zeitung, a Berlin newspaper, the 
following announcement was read : 

"Notification of birth. It will not be unwelcome 
to the protectors and benefactors of Auguste Kriiger, 
who has become known as a heroic maiden, to read 
that she has presented her good husband, the lancer- 
sergeant (Uhlanen- Unterofficier) Karl Kohler, on 
the 13th inst., with a healthy daughter, and that as 
a happy wife and mother she still remembers with 
emotion the benefits bestowed on her. Berlin, the 
16th December, 1816. By the wish of the happy 
couple." Extract from the ' Unterhaltungsbeilage" 
of the Berliner LokaJ-Anzeiyer, 30 April, 1902. 

The name of the maiden of Liineburg was 
Johanna Stegen, not Staegemann, as I gave 
it erroneously at the last reference. 


" UPWARDS OF " (9 th S. ix. 446, 516). This 
phrase, here in the West, is very commonly 
used in the sense of almost, or nearly, 
perhaps not quite, in point of numbers, and 
by no means certainly to imply more than 

9s.x. JULY 12, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the quantity or number indicated. Whether 
" good colloquial " or not I do not pretend to 
judge, but the term is an ambiguous one, and 
only to be rightly understood by the con- 
text. Dialect speakers would simply use 
" up," where polite persons would say " up- 
wards of." For instance, " I count I 've agot 
up a score " in polite form would be " I believe 
I have upwards of twenty," meaning nearly 
or about twenty in both cases. If either 
speaker had added "or'more" to his sentence, 
then "up" and "upwards of" would alike 
have signified " quite " or " fully." In speak- 
ing of age, " So-and-so must be upwards of 
eighty," it would be understood that over 
eighty was meant. Generally, I should say that 
both " up" and " upwards of " would be taken 
to denote less rather than over the number 
referred to. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

LADY-DAY DAY (9 th S. ix. 447, 517). In 
the chapter devoted to 'Our People' in 'A 
Cornish Parish,' the Eev. J. Hammond, vicar 
of St. Austell, informs us of a similar pecu- 
liarity of speech to that mentioned by MR. 
F. T. ELWORTHY. Instead of widower, the 
St. Austell man will say " widew - man " ; 
" widow- woman " for widow ; " two twains " 
for twins ; and they never speak of April or 
May, but April month and May month. 



Nottingham Parish Registers. Marriages, St. 
Mari/s Church, 1666-1813. Edited by W. P. W. 
Phillimore and James Ward. 2 vols. (Phillimore 

THESE registers have been transcribed by Mr. J. T. 
Godfrey. So far as we have been able to test them 
without having the original manuscripts before us, 
the copy seems to be satisfactory. The editors have, 
we are sorry to say, not given an index ; they 
believe it to be more advisable to secure in print 
as many registers as possible, and to defer the 
work of the index-maker to a future time. There 
is, of course, something to be said for this plan, 
but, all things considered, it is not satisfactory. 
Some few people regard it as a pleasant recreation 
to read through the whole of a parish register we 
are ourselves among the number but to most 
persons it is an irksome labour. To go through the 
whole of these two thick volumes, containing su 
they do some thirty-five entries on a page, wouk 
be distracting work for any one at a time when the 
mind was occupied by one particular race, or even 
a group of families. It is, moreover, a misfortune 
that the entries are abridged, not given in full, a: 
written, for not only is the old flavour impaired 
but in the entries after 1754 we miss the names o 
the witnesses. This is very unfortunate, as these 
often afford to the genealogist hints as to relation 
ships, connexions, and friendships which throw 
light on family history. 

Though we have felt bound to point out that 
hese volumes are not all that could be desired, we 
re glad to have them. Nottingham has always 
een an important town, and St. Mary's parish, on 
ccount of its central position, has all along filled 

great place therein. Before access to London 
ecame relatively easy the local gentry had their 
own houses in Nottingham, as the Devonians had 
t Exeter and North-Countrymen at York, there- 
ore weddings which it would be more natural to 
ook for in other places are frequently found to 
iave occurred at St. Mary's. We are also informed 
hat this church was a place wherein clandestine 
marriages were often celebrated. There is a 
topular opinion that the statute known as Lord 
lardwicke's Act (1753) had, as it was assuredly 
ntended to have, the effect of putting an end to 
hese irregular unions. Such, however, was not 
he case. They flourished in a different manner 
or many years after, and it would be very rash to 
ay that they do not occur at the present day. 

Archbishop Rotherham. By H. L. Bennett, M.A. 

(Lincoln, Ruddock.) 

THE subject of this memoir held a high and honour- 
able position at the Court of Edward IV., rising to 
)e Lord High Chancellor of England and Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge. Mr. Bennett, 
when writing his shorter notice of the prelate for 
;he ' Dictionary of National Biography, found he 
lad some good matter left on his hands that could 
not be utilized in a sketch, but might well find a 
alace on a larger canvas. The result is the present 
>ctavo. The actual facts known about Archbishop 
Rotherham, sooth to say, are scanty enough, and 
the author, in default o* personal details,-has had 
recourse to elaborating the milieu or environment 
in which the great archbishop lived and made his 
mark. In his third chapter, e.g., he gives us a 
pretty full account of life in Cambridge as it was 
in the early part of the fifteenth century, and so 
throughout he expatiates on historical and anti- 
quarian matters, always of interest, and more or 
less germane to the subject. The best claim 
Rotherham has to be remembered consists in his 
splendid benefactions to the places of education 
which he generously fostered. In this respect he is 
worthy of a niche in the temple of fame beside 
Wykeham and Wolsey. Some reproductions of 
ancient prints serve to illustrate the memoir. 

THE arrival of peace will, it is to be hoped, shortly 
bring some change in the contents of the reviews 
and magazines, the pages of which will before long 
be able to devote more space to literature and art 
than has recently been assigned these subjects. 
South Africa, however, still looms large, and the 
July Fortnightly gives, in addition to ' England 
after War ' and ' The Empire and the Coronation,' 
articles on 'Alfred Milner' and ' Magersfontein.' 
Better suited to our columns, if not inherently 
more interesting, are other contributions. ' Dumas 
the Elder,' by Mr. Francis Gribble, deals with the 
later rather than the earlier life of that Cyrano de 
Bergerac of literature. Quaint, but more than a 
little saddening, is the account of his visitors, his 

Earasites, and his mistress : " He never seems to 
ave had a romantic attachment to any woman, 
but the pleasures of la vie galante were necessary 
to him. One might almost say he was fond of 
women, as some people are fond of children. He 
liked to have them about him. There were gener- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 12, 1902. 

ally several of them living in his house at the same 
time. Every now and again he burst into a volcanic 

Eassion and turned one of them out." The end of 
is life is declared to have been tragic : " The lord 
of Monte Cristo became a client of the pawnshop, 
or lived on small loans from publishers and dramatic 
agents and the son of the woman whom he had 
betrayed and abandoned." Anton Tchekhoff, a 
Russian writer, concerning whom Mr. R. E. C. 
Long writes, is little heara of as yet in England, 
but will not be long in making himself known. 
Miss Laurence Alma-Tadema has an interesting 
artice on ' Monna Vanna,' the play of M. Maurice 
Maeterlinck, in regard to which, our English Cen- 
sure has contrived to show itself more idiotically 
incapable than usual. In the Nineteenth Century 
Mr. W. H. Mallock once more espouses the side 
of Mrs. Gallup with regard to the much-discussed 
bi-literal cipher. His advocacy is not very warm. 
While holding that a cipher exists, he thinks that 
Mrs. Gallup nas unintentionally taken the best 
way to discredit her own theory in the eyes of 
sensible people. Mr. Walter Frewen Lord is re- 
sponsible for a Philistine and not very good-natured 
article on M. Maeterlinck and ' Monna Vanna,' 
entitled ' The Reader of Plays to the Rescue.' 
His advocacy is not likely to benefit greatly that 
indiscreet and ill-starred official, who in this case 
may perhaps be regarded as a scapegoat. Mr. Lord, 
however, returns to forms and methods which we 
thought belonged to the past. Mrs. Aria gossips 
concerning playgoers. She is bright and amusing, 
but not always convincing. Mr. Walter Sichel 
finds an attractive subject in ' The Prophecies of 
Disraeli.' Khuda Bukhsh, a late Chief Justice of 
Hyderabad, writes on ' The Islamic Libraries.' The 
information he supplies will be new to most readers, 
and his article deserves to be closely studied. 
In the Poll Mall Mr. R. L. Pocock writes concern- 
ing ' Animals and Confederates.' Very far is he 
from seeing in the service rendered by birds to the 
rhinoceros or the alligator the proof of senti- 
mental attachment such as some have discovered. 
On the contrary, he holds that "Look after yourself 
and your family, and rob your neighbour if you can," 
is " Nature's first and great commandment." Illus- 
tration and letterpress are alike excellent, though 
some of the explanations furnished e.g., those in the 
case of the carpenter bee seem ingenious rather than 
convincing. Auguste Rodin at Home ' is, natur- 
ally, enthusiastic concerning the great sculptor, 
and supplies some admirable drawings of his prin- 
cipal works. ' A Revolution in Railway Signalling ' 
describes some marvellous improvements recently 
effected. Mr. J. H. Yoxall, M.P., is very much 
struck by the name of Yolande de Flandre, whose 
turbulent career he briefly describes. ' The Tragedy 
of Empire,' which deals with recent Cuban history, 
is well illustrated by photographs. Mr. Andrew 
Lang has a further excursus upon Mrs. Gallup and 
Bacon. A ghost story concerning Knebworth is 
romantic, and its origin no less so. An account of 
the volcanic eruption in the West Indies constitutes 
a noteworthy feature in the contents. ' In an Old 
French Garden,' by W. H. Low, which appears in 
Scribner's, is interesting in itself, and abounds with 
those delicately coloured illustrations which are a 
specialty of the magazine. 'In Burma with the 
viceroy,' by Mrs. Everard Cotes, gives a series of 
capital pictures of scenes and personages, and a 
very interesting account of tne latter. / The 
Abitibi Fur Brigade ' supplies a striking account of 

the way in which the last brigade of the once famous 
canoe flotillas collects and carries its precious 
freight. The entire number is excellent. In 
the Cornhill Canon Hensley Henson gives an 
historical and descriptive account of Westminster 
Abbey. Mr. W. Laird Clowes's account of the 
Mutiny at the Nore is profoundly interesting, and 
seems to have historical value. A new ' Dialogue 
of the Dead ' gives a Lucianesque discussion between 
Odysseus and Aristotle. This is humorous, even 
if a trifle extravagant. Mr. Andrew Lang writes 
on ' Bibliomania,' and is, according to custom, 
sensible and brilliant. It would not be difficult, 
however, to answer his paper. Mr. Aflalo writes 
on ' Some Habits of Fishes.' The fiction, both 
short stories and serials, is excellent in all respects. 
' The Exposition of Bridge,' by Mr. J. S. McTear, 
in the Gentleman's, is by a writer with a strong 

Erejudice in favour of whist. At the close some 
tults in the construction of bridge are mentioned. 
Mr. W. J. Lawrence sends ' The History of a 
Peculiar Stage Curtain.' Dr. Japp writes on ' Bird 
Courtship.' In Longman's Mr. Fred. Whishaw con- 
tinues his interesting and well-written sketches ' In 
a Devonshire Garden.' Under the title ' A, B, C,' 
Mr. Frank Ritchie advocates a scheme of spelling 
reform. Mrs. Percy Frankland writes on ' Bacteria 
and Ice.' In ' At the Sign of the Ship' Mr. Andrew 
Lang deals characteristically with forgeries and 
swindles. In the midst of much romance and 
fiction appears, in an excellent number of the Idler, 
' The Search for the Missing Link,' with an account 
of the work of Prof. Ernest Haeckel. To the Play- 
goer Miss Clara Morris contributes some interesting 
recollections of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

M. M. THOMPSON ("The thin red line"). This 
appears in no dispatches, but was written by Dr. 
(now Sir) W. H. Russell of the 93rd Regiment at 
Balaclava. See 8 th S. vii. 191. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. X. JULY 19, 1902.] 




CONTENTS. No. 238. 

NOTES : The 'Craftsman' on Chess, 41 Bacon- Shake- 
speare, 43 Dunwich or Dunmow a Bishop's See, 44 
Of Alley " Motherland " "Curmudgeon" "Coke'' 
Hiddenite, 45 Young's ' Night Thoughts ' Comic 
Scotch" Wedgewood," 46. 

QUERIES : Lowell Quotation Monastic Sheep-farming 
Lambrook Stradling " Tressher" Byron's Bust, 47 
Pronunciation of O Dictionary of Greek Mythology- 
Douglas ' Ghost at the Funeral' Cucking or Ducking 
Stool Sixteenth-Century Duel "Care, vale "" Harry 
Dick hat " : " Adelaide waistcoat " " Armada " Chests, 48 
Stafford Family Projection on a Saw Wellington Pam- 
phlet Chi-Rho Monogram Botanical Szechenyi, 49. 

REPLIES -.Shelley's Ancestry, 50 Guest Family Straw- 
berry Leaves Trinity Monday, 51 Byron's Grandfather 
Honorificabilitudinitas Cockade of George I. Old 
Wooden Chest, 52 Westminster City Motto "Mere- 
steads" Lovel : De Hautville Tedula Almanac 
Medals, 53 Tennis Jews' Way, Gate, &c. " Heroina" 
Metrical Psalter " Ycleping " the Church, 54 " Auto- 
crat " in Russian Merry England and the Mass Arthur's 
Crown "Sixes and sevens," 55 Wilcocks "Babies in 
the eyes " Londres Ainsworth, 58 Mrs. Thrale's Streat- 
ham House" Flowering Sunday," 57 Yarrow Unvisited 
Follett King's Champion, 58 Gladstone : an Italian 
Address Arms of Continental Cities Trentham and 
Gower Families, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Arrowsmith's Registers of Wigan' 
' Catalogue of Deeds in the Record Office,' Vol. III. 
' Folk-lore.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


1. IN its number (376) for 15 September, 
1733, the Craftsman the chief contributors 
to which were Bolingbroke, William Pulteney, 
Nicholas Amhurst, Swift, Arbuthnot, Pope, 
Gay, and Chesterfield published a paper 
styled, in its introduction, ' A Short Essay on 
the Game of Chess.' It had, as was to be 
expected, an undertone of Toryism, but was 
set off by a more or less allegorical display of 
words and phrases drawn from the technical 
vocabulary of chess. It was signed R. 
That this signature throws no certain light 
on the authorship of articles to which it is 
affixed has been shown by Mr. Walter Sichel 
in the recently published second part of his 
' Bolingbroke and his Times ' (pp. 248-54) ; 
but the author's analysis of the Craftsman's 
contents, of great value in respect to so many 
contributions, does not include this essay, 
although the statement is made that " the 
greater portion of those signed 'R.' are by 
Bolingbroke." In an obliging response to a 
private inquiry, Mr. Sichel says, however, 
that " Bolingbroke contributed little, if at all, 
to the Craftsman in 1733," and that " there is 

no trace of his ever having been a chess- 
player " ; while, in regard to the essay on 
chess, he adds : " At all events, I feel pretty 
sure that its author was not Bolingbroke." 
The Craftsman paper was reprinted the same 
year in the Gentleman's Magazine (iii. 473-4). 
Any suggestions tending to identify its writer 
are greatly desired. 

2. Almost immediately after its publication 
appeared a pamphlet in reply to the essay. 
It was dated (21 September) from Slaughter's 
Coffee-house, which was probably then, as it 
surely was a little later, the principal London 
resort of British and foreign chess-players. 
Its title was : ' A Letter to the Craftsman on 
the Game of Chess, occasioned by his Paper 
on the Fifteenth of this Month ' ; it was like- 
wise to some extent political (Whig) in cha- 
racter, though assuming its main object to be 
criticism and correction of the chess language 
employed by the Craftsman's contributor. 
This pamphlet has usually been ascribed to 
Lord (John) Hervey, a well-known London 
figure, at one time Lord Privy Seal, the friend 
of (" Cicero ") Middleton, the object of Horace 
Walpole's odium, but especially remembered 
as the husband of the attractive and intel- 
lectual Lady ("Molly") Hervey. Is there 
any real ground for this ascription? Lord 
Hervey, a few months before, had prefixed a 
dedication (addressed*' to the patrons 1 of the 
Craftsman ") to another pamphlet, ' Sedition 
and Defamation Display d,' in which he had 
ruthlessly assailed Pulteney and Bolingbroke, 
an act which had led (25 January, 1731) to a 
rather harmless duel between the former and 
Hervey. Have not the two pamphlets been 
confounded 1 Did Hervey ever acknowledge 
the authorship of the chess tractate ? 

3. In the year subsequent to its appearance, 
this rejoinder fell into the hands of William 
Cosby, then Governor of New York, who 
showed it to a resident of that colony noted 
for his ability at chess. This was the Rev. 
Lewis Rou (as he signed his name though 
some of his contemporaries speak of him as 
"Louis Roux"), pastor, from 1710 to his 
death, of the most important Huguenot 
church in America, a man of learning, edu- 
cated at Ley den, but born at Paris, where 
his father, Jean Rou, was an " avocat au 
parlement," an influential Protestant, and an 
historical writer of ability. Obedient, as it 
appears, to a request from the Governor, Rou 
penned a response to the brochure under the 
title of ' Critical Remarks upon the Letter to 
the Craftsman on the Game of Chess occa- 
sioned by his Paper of the 15th of Sept., 1733, 
and dated from Slaughter's Coffee-house 
Sept. 21.' In this reply the author paid no 



x. JULY 19, im. 

heed to politics, but devoted himself to point- 
ing out " the several mistakes, errors, or 
blunders committed " by the pamphlet's 
anonymous author. This he does with the 
authority of a connoisseur, exhibiting an 
extraordinary acquaintance, for the place 
and time, with the history and literature of 
the game, no little familiarity with the classics, 
and some knowledge of Spanish and Hebrew. 
His style not infrequently betrays the hand 
of the foreigner, but is, nevertheless, clear, 
precise, and trenchant. This slight but in- 
teresting contribution to American colonial 
letters was never printed. Rou's original 
manuscript existed at New York as late as 
1858, in which year it was borrowed by the 
present writer from Dr. George Henry Moore, 
at that time librarian of the New York His- 
torical Society, and afterwards of the Lenox 
Library as well to whom it had been tem- 
porarily lent by its (now unknown) owner. 
After a small part of it had been copied, and 
some notes made on other portions, the manu- 
script was duly returned to Dr. Moore, since 
which event nobody seems to have seen it or 
heard of it. Several years after Dr. Moore's 
death search was made for it in the two 
public libraries which had been under his 
control, but without avail. Dr. Moore's pri- 
vate collections were scattered by auction ; 
singularly enough they included a brief auto- 
graphic manuscript by Rou, but of an earlier 
date and on a different theme. Is it not 
possible that some one of the numerous 
Transatlantic readers of ' N. & Q.' may have 
something to say concerning the later his- 
tory or final fate of Rou's missing book ? 

4. The sought -for manuscript is a thin 
quarto of twenty-four closely written pages, 
and is divided in to seventeen short, numbered 
chapters or sections. It opens with the title, 
as already given, which is directly followed 
by a dedicatory epistle " To his Excellency, 
William Cosby, Esq., Captain-General and 
Commander-in-Chief in and over the Pro- 
vinces of New York and New Jersey, and the 
Territories thereon depending, in America, 
Vice-Admiral of the same, and Colonel in his 
Majesty's Army," occupying nearly or quite 
a page, signed "Lewis Rou," and dated 
"New York, y e 13th, of Decemb. 1734." At 
the end of the essay is a second date, "Y e 
Xlth Decemb. 1734." The ninth section 
(pp. 22-3) commences thus (the citation from 
the author he is criticizing italicized) : " I 
had almost pass'd by what the author says 
here about the Check-mate given in two or 
three moves at the beginning of a Game, when 
the King seems in full prosperity, <c." After 
further quotation Rou says : ' k I suppose he 

means here the Schollars-mate, or what we 
call among the French the Shepherds-mate, 
VEschec et mat du Berger," which he proceeds 
to explain correctly, snowing the inaccuracies 
of the London pamphleteer. 

5. The manuscript, as it is remembered, 
had all the appearance of a completed work, 
which had received its final emendations and 
was ready for the printer ; but its author 
must have felt the impossibility of issuing 
such a treatise, at that period, in New York 
or elsewhere in America. As he evidently 
took no little pride in his production, it is 
not unlikely that, while retaining one copy 
for himself (the one described, which, it is 
believed, continued for a long time in the 
possession of his descendants), the reverend 
writer may have made another for presenta- 
tion to the dedicatee, who was, of course, 
politically and socially, the foremost per- 
sonage of the colony. Governor Cosby, who 
was of the Irish family of Cosby of Strad- 
bally, died at New York, 10 March, 1736, less 
than fifteen months after the date of Rou's 
dedication. What became of his books, 
papers, and correspondence 1 The object of 
this query is to ascertain whether Rou's 
work his own copy having disappeared 
may not be restored to American literature 
through an examination of the Cosby or 
other family archives. William Cosby left a 
widow (Grace, sister of George Montagu, 
Earl of Halifax), two sons, and two daugh- 
ters. The widow, soon after her husband's 
death, returned to England, surviving until 
1767 ; it was said at the time that she joined 
her elder daughter Elizabeth, who had 
recently (about the beginning of 1733) 
espoused at New York Lord Augustus 
Fitzroy (died 1741), second son of the second 
Duke of Grafton, by whom she had two sons, 
one of whom became the third Duke of 
Grafton. Lady Elizabeth Fitzroy married 
secondly James Jeffries. Of the two sons of 
Governor Cosby, the elder was an officer in 
the army, the younger a captain in the navy 
(died 1753), both apparently unmarried. His 
younger daughter Grace became the wife of 
a Mr. Murray of New York, in which city 
she doubtless remained. What is known of 
this Mr. Murray; and are any of his de- 
scendants living? One of his name, who 
stood in intimate relations to Governor 
Cosby, is described in a contemporary 
account as " the senior counsel at the bar " 
of New York. It is noteworthy that Alex- 
ander,^- an elder brother of William Cosby, 
was Lieutenant- Governor of Nova Scotia 
'under his brother-in-law Governor Richard 
Phillips) ; that this brother likewise had two 

9>s.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


sons and two daughters ; and that he also 
died (1743) while holding his colonial office, 
his second son Phillips Cosby succeeding 
ultimately to the headship of the family and 
the possession of Strad bally Hall. Rou him- 
self had a family of fifteen children, of whom 
ten (owing in part to an epidemic) died 
vary young. His daughter Marie Elizabeth 
married William Richard, while another, 
Denise Marie, wedded John Harrison the 
two husbands presumably American. His 
eldest surviving son Louis went early to 
Curaqoa ; to him his father bequeathed " my 
old [Latin ?] Bible in two large folio volumes 
in folio, printed at Lyons in 1511," directing 
that it should be preserved as an heirloom. 

It will thus be seen that Go\ ernpr Cosby's 
transcript of Rou's dissertation if, indeed, 
such ever existed may have passed through 
the hands of various individuals, and have 
found its resting-place in England, Ireland, 
or America. It should be remarked that 
Rou's tract has a certain bibliographical 
interest as the earliest composition on chess 
(perhaps even as the first mention of the game) 
emanating from the Western continent 
preceding Dr. Franklin's 'Morals of Chess' 
by more than half a century. W. F. 

Reform Club. 

(Continued from 9 th S. ix. 424.) 

DR. THEOBALD devotes much space in his 
book to the learning and diction of Shake- 
speare, which, he says, have caused much 
Srplexity to his critics and biographers. 
3 adduces many examples of Latin con- 
struction, and of words and phrases which 
may be traced to classic sources ; and he 
argues that his evidence conclusively proves 
that the poet not only wrote according to 
the usages of Latin grammar, but that his 
own language would not have permitted him 
to express himself in the manner he does 
if the Latin had not taken such a strong 
possession of his mind. 

The constructions, the words, the phrases, 
and the learning which have such a strong 
Latin and sometimes Greek aroma about 
them are only what one meets with in all 
writers of the period ; and they merely indi- 
cate that in making use of them the poet 
was following in the footsteps of a host of 
scholars whose training through a long series 
of generations had gradually evolved the 
speech that was ready to his hand. 

The writer of the plays and poems, accord- 
ing to Dr. Theobald, coined words. A long 
list of such words is given, all, or nearly all, 

of which can be found in contemporary and 
earlier authors. The following win" show 
how much reliance is to be placed upon the 
list. They are but samples. 

Acknown. This word only occurs once in 
Shakespeare, in 'Othello,' III. iii. 319, and 
Dr. Theobald thinks it is probably an attempt 
by its author to bring the Latin word agnosco 
into the language. 'Othello' was composed 
in or about 1604, yet Puttenham, about 1589, 
and Kyd, about 1593, both use the word : 

" I would not have a translatour to be ashamed 
to be acknowen of his translation." ' Arte of 
English Poesie,' Arber, p. 260. 

But ours of others will not be acknowne. 

' Cornelia,' Act 11. 1. 229, Boas. 

Moreover, in this case, as in many others, 
a little trouble would have saved Dr. Theo- 
bald from making an egregious blunder. 
There are hills beyond Pentland. Acknown 
is the past participle of acknowe, O.E. oncna- 
wan, to recognize. 

Document. In 'Hamlet,' IV. v. 178, Shake- 
speare uses this word "in its classic and 
etymological sense, from Latin doceo, teach ; 
give a lesson or instruction ; documentum= 
a lesson, or example, &c." 

A document in madness. 

Dr. Theobald quotes, cases of the use of the 
word from Spenser afld Sir Walter Raleigh, 
both of whom wrote much earlier than Shake- 
speare did in ' Hamlet.' Some say that Bacon 
also wrote Spenser's work ; and perhaps Dr. 
Theobald wishes us to infer that he wrote 
Raleigh's 'History of the World' as well. 
Raleigh had many contributors, and Bacon 
may have been among the number. How- 
ever, document, as used in ' Hamlet,' is respect- 
able old English, and it occurs in a curious 
old play with the funny title 'The longer 
thou livest, the more fool thou art,' circa 
1553-8 : 

Conscience accuseth the folish beast, 

That he hath forsaken wholsom document. 

LI. 961-2 (Jahrbuch, vol. xxxvi. p. 40). 

Probation. Shakespeare in this case uses 
this word and others " with a meaning 
different from that which they ordinarily 
convey, and which could not have been 
attributed to them by any one who was not 
thoroughly informed as to the precise powers 
of their Latin originals." Ergo, all men in 
Shakespeare's time and before who used 
words derived from the Greek, Latin, French, 
Spanish, Dutch, and other languages which 
helped to enrich English, were " thoroughly 
informed as to the precise powers of their " 
originals. It is a wonderful argument ! To 
resume, in Shakespeare probation sometimes 
means to prove, like the Latin probare ; 



B. x. JULY 19, woe. 

So prove it, 

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop, 
To hang a doubt on. 

' Othello,' III. iii. 365-7. 

Again I turn to the curious old play with the 
queer title, and I find probation used as 
Shakespeare uses it : 

Have we not had manifest probation, 
Have not men of God beene put to silence ? 
LI. 1206-7 (Jahrbuch, p. 46). 

Now for a case where Shakespeare is 
supposed to have consulted Plato in the 
original Greek. I select it because it has the 
place of honour in Dr. Theobald's book, being 
his first shot ; and because it is believed tc 
be a poser. 

In 'Troilus and Cressida,' III. iii. 95-123, 
and in ' Julius Csesar,' I. ii. 51-70, there are 
distinct allusions to the Platonic idea " that 
the eye sees not itself, but from some other 
thing, for instance a mirror. But the eye 
can see itself also by reflection in another 
eye," &c. The passage occurs in 'First 
Alcibiades,' which Dr. Theobald asserts was 
not translated when Shakespeare was living. 
I need hardly observe that it is possible to 
get ideas, whether in the original Greek or 
in Latin, without going to the originals or 
to translations for them. Very little that 
is good in Greek and Latin authors had 
been allowed to sleep in its old garb by the 
many thousands of English scholars who had 
mastered those languages ; and consequently 
our old literature abounds with a variety of 
information, more or less complete, drawn 
direct from original sources. Hence, although 
there may not nave been a set translation of 
Plato's work ready to Shakespeare's hand 
when he incorporated that author's idea in 
his plays, it does not follow that the idea 
could not have been extracted from an 
English writer, and in terms precisely 
parallel to those employed in the original 
Greek. Now it is a very curious fact, and 
one which I always bear in mind when trying 
to fix the date of any of his compositions, 
that the books or other matter wnich had 
most recently attracted or impressed Shake- 
speare are the very ones from which he will 
borrow or to which he will allude ; and it 
sometimes happens that such works will not 
have been issued from the press many months 
or even weeks before the registration or 
acting of some of his poems or plays. Close 
attention to this rule will, in many instances, 
fix the date or.Jbime of composition of some 
of the plays and poems. Here we have a 
case in point. Let us look at some dates. 
' Troilus and Cressida ' was composed in or 
about 1603, 'Julius Caesar' in or about 1600; 

both plays were most certainly written after 
April, 1599, the date of the registration of 
Sir John Davies's ' Nosce Teipsum.' Now it 
was not from Plato at all that Shakespeare 
obtained his idea and the phraseology in 
which he clothed it, but from the poem of 
Sir John Davies, who expounds it at great 
length. The passages necessary to establish 
the fact that Shakespeare borrowed from Sir 
John Davies would take up too much room, 
and it is not necessary to my argument to 
prove the borrowing in this case. The sugges- 
tion is that the Platonic idea must have oeen 
derived from the original Greek, and that 
Shakespeare's ignorance of the latter pre- 
cluded him from consulting Plato, whose 
work was not then translated. Consequently, 
say the Baconians, Shakespeare did not write 
'Troilus and Cressida' and 'Julius Caesar.' 
If I can show that Plato's idea is expressed 
in parallel language in 'Nosce Teipsura,' I 
shall have proved that Shakespeare had no 
need to consult original sources, and that the 
argument of the Baconians is altogether out 
of court. 

Is it because the Mind is like the Eye, 
(Through which it gathers Knowledge by degrees) 
Whose rays reflect not, but spread outwardly ; 
Not seeing itself, when other things it sees ? 

Arber's ' English Garner,' vol. v. p. 144. 

That Power (which gave me eyes, the world to 


To view myself, infused an Inward Light, 
Whereby my Soul, as by a Mirror true, 
Of her own form, may take a perfect sight. 

But as the sharpest Eye discerneth nought, 
Except the sunbeams in the air do shine : 
So the best Soul, with her reflecting thought, 
Sees not herself, without some light divine. 

Ibid., p. 147. 

Other cases of supposed borrowing from 
Greek and Latin sources, which Dr. Theobald 
adduces, could be disposed of more effectually 
than this one, and I need not travel beyond 
Lyly's ' Euphues ' for material to prove how 
utterly unsafe it would be to follow the lead 
of Dr. Theobald, who, apparently, has not 

xtended his studies in old English literature 
beyond Shakespeare and Bacon. 


53, Hampden Road, Hornsey, N. 

(To be continued.) 


The East Anglian bishops are understood to 
lave had their seat at Dunwich until the 
Bishopric was divided between Dunwich and 
Imham. I have reason to believe that rather 
Dunmow was the first seat. Our early anti- 
quaries may be excusftd for having adopted 
the Suffolk town, seeing that they lived at 

9>s.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a period when there was a quite recent 
memory of size and wealth and respecta- 
bility about Dunwich, while Dunmow had 
become insignificant as compared with its pro- 
bable importance as a Roman station. The 
point of size and wealth may, however, be 
dismissed in considering the claim of either 
place, seeing that before the days of Bishop 
Herfast it was not unusual for a small 
town to be distinguished as the seat of a 

Dunwich appears in Domesday as Dunewic, 
Duneuuic. Ever since that date (as appears 
by Gardner's ' History of Dunwich ') the 
form has shown very slight alteration : Dun- 
wyk, Dunwico, Denwyk, Dunwic, Donwico, 
Dunwico, Donewico, Dunwytche, Dunwich. 
All indubitable references to Dunwich since 
Saxon times keep the familiar second syllable, 
signifying a port or harbour. The old eccle- 
siastical historians mentioned the see in- 
variably in the form given them by Bede 
and by the Sax. Chr. (Domuc, Domnoc), as 
Dommuc, Domucensis, Dompne, according 
to Matt. Westm. ; Domuiucensem, Dammu- 
censis, according to W. Malm., &c. And 
there is a form in John Hardyng's poem : 
At Domok then was Felix fyrst byshop of Estangle, 
which must be late in the fifteenth century. 
Before this we do not find an ecclesiastical 
reference having the termination wic, or 
semblance of it. 

Now Dunmow is in Domesday Book Doin- 
mawa, Dommauua. The will of Bishop 
Theodred has Dunamowe. A charter of 803 
has " Tilfred Dammoce episcopus." Camden 
says it was formerly Duninawg and Dunmage, 
as in " some of the Registers of the Bishops of 
London." All the earliest forms above men- 
tioned are clearly allied to Dunmawg, and 
it is noticeable that the one secular reference 
to Dunwich made by Matt. Westm. is thus, 
Wich, when he mentions the ransoming of 
Yarmouth, Dunwich, and Ipswich by the 
barons ; obviously the Dommoc so familiar 
to him was far away from his mind. These 
things have almost brought conviction to 
myself, but it is worth while submitting the 
case to ' N. & Q.' EDWARD SMITH. 


OF ALLEY. (See 9 th S. ix. 463.) When 
MR. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY described, as 
above, the benefactions of Emery Hill 
in Villiers Street, Duke Street, "Office 
Alley," Buckingham Street, and the Strand, 
I think he might have said that " Office 
Alley " is not the right and original name 
of that small member of a group of 
thoroughfares which commemorate a very 

much renowned courtier. The proper name 
to which I refer clung -to the place until the 
whole district passed into the " control " (as 
the local busybodies delight to say) of a 
meddlesome " council " or " board." This 
name should still be " Of Alley," and in that 
manner it completed the sequence of names of 
streets, thus : George Street, Villiers Street, 
Duke Street, Of Alley, and Buckingham 
Street. In a like manner the neighbouring 
Robert, James, and Adam Streets, Adelphi, 
commemorate the distinguished brothers 
and architects. F. G. STEPHENS. 

"MOTHERLAND." This word, lately brought 
into use to denote the friendship existing 
between the United Kingdom and the 
Britains beyond the seas, appears to have 
originated not very long ago in the United 
States of America, an article in the Century 
Magazine mentioning " the poets of our 
Motherland across .the seas." This seems to 
be the earliest use of the word, according to 
the Westminster Gazette. 


Kensington, W. 

[Annandale's four- volume edition of Ogilvie (1882) 
cites Southey for this word, but gives no refer- 

" CURMUDGEON. "-VIn a quarto pamphlet of 
1641, ' The Brothers of the Blade ' E. 238, i(5) 
in British Museum Catalogue I find, at 
p. 7, the phrase "a rich crummuchion of a 
vast estate." This spelling is not given in the 
1 Oxford Dictionary.' V.H. I.L.LC.I.V. 

" COKE." MR. J. DORMER (9 th S. ix. 482) 
quotes the Monthly Magazine of 1797 for coke, 
meaning chalk, wherein it is said to be a 
Lincolnshire form. I do not think the writer 
represented the sound correctly by his spell- 
ing. Cork or, more exactly, cauk comes much 
nearer the sound, as I frequently hear it, and 
I cannot well be mistaken, for a relation of 
mine, a boy of some twelve years old, having 
listened attentively to some men who were 
talking of guarding a dangerous portion of 
the eastern bank of the river Trent with a 
barrier, of chalk, misunderstood what they 
meant, and told me that the bank was about 
to be protected by corks, and inquired how 
this was to be done. It was not a jest on his 
part. I am sure the question was asked in 
all the simplicity of good faith. 


Kirton-in- Lindsey. 

HIDDENITE. So many allusions having 
recently been made in the public press 
to Crown and other jewels, the following 



x. JULY w, MOB. 

extract from Mr. Edwin W. Streeter's valu- 
able work on ' Gems ' will doubtless prove of 
special interest to students of mineralogy : 
" The Hiddenite is a comparatively little-known 
gem-stone, having been discovered only a few years 
ago in North Carolina, by Mr. W. E. Hidden, after 
whom it was named. In appearance it is some- 
thing like the emerald, both in its rough and cut 
states. It is of a brilliant green hue, verging 
towards yellow, and possesses a beauty of its own. 
It is a variety of the mineral called Spodumene. 
Composition : a silicate of aluminium and lithium ; 
specific gravity, 3 ; hardness, 7. Crystalline system, 
monoclinic. Form, prismatic crystals." 

The " form " of the emerald is hexagonal and 
di-hexagonal prisms, variously modified. 

56, Vale Road, Finsbury Park, N. 

NARCISSA. Recently I spent several days in 
the, to me, enjoyable perusal of ' N". & Q.,' a 
full set of which up to date, I rejoice to say, 
I possess. In the First Series, vols. iii., iv., 
and v., there are four communications on 
Dr. Young's pathetic recital of his stealing a 
grave for his daughter-in-law, Elizabeth Lee 
(Narcissa), in the Third Night of his cele- 
brated poem 'Night Thoughts.' All the 
correspondents seem to accept the poet's 
statement as undoubtedly and unquestion- 
ably true, thus inferentially establishing 
the heartless bigotry of the people among 
whom she died. Dr. Young lived in an age 
when any statement made against the 
" Papists " was readily swallowed, I am sorry 
to say, by the highest and lowest classes of 
the English people, and the poet was un- 
scrupulous enough to weave in this clever 
episode, regardless of the commandment, 
"Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbour." He was the pliant tool of 
Wharton before he took orders Wharton, 
whom Pope describes as "the scorn and 
wonder of his age." Yet we find the doctor 
toadying and abasing himself before this 
nobleman for the sake of an annuity. Ac- 
cording to Swift he was a pensioned writer 
at Court : 

Where Young must torture his invention 
To flatter knaves, or lose his pension. 

He took orders in 1728, and was appointed 
chaplain to George II., and Clerk of the 
Closet to her Royal Highness the Princess 
Dowager of Wales. He has been accused of 
endeavouring through some of the king's 
mistresses to obtain higher Church prefer- 
ment. Most of his biographers touch lightly 
on his unclerical weakness in these well- 
established facts. Now, as ' N. & Q.' will be 
a mine of reference for ages to come, and as 
its pages have given space and publicity to 

a false charge against a community and 
nation, uncontradicted during all the years 
since its publication, I hope you will put it 
on record that 'Chambers's Book of Days,' 
vol. i. pp. 502 and 503, fully establishes the 
falsity of Dr. Young's "midnight pious 
sacrilege." EDWARD MCGRATH. 

San Francisco. 

COMIC SCOTCH. In a recent number of 
Punch a poetical contributor makes a " careful 
Caledonian " lament as follows on the pro- 
posal to put an extra penny on cheques : 
Ye banks and brains o' monied men, 

How can my funds the Budget bear ? 
How can I sign my little cheques 

Wi'out a bosom fu' o' care ? 
Ye '11 break me yet, ye little cheques, 
That aince I drew wi' sma' concern. 
Twa pence ! I couldna gi'e awa' 
Sae fell a sum wi'out return. 

There is another stanza, but this will serve 
the immediate purpose. Manifestly the 
parody is based on Burns's 'Bonnie Doon,' 
and it would surely have been only fair, 
therefore, on the part of the writer to 
use words such as Burns would have ap- 
proved. It is possible that, if the occasion 
had arisen for it, the poet might have written 
" monied," for he has " gold and white monie " 
in the song ' To daunton Me,' but he does not 
employ the forms "aince" and "wi'out." 
As has recently been shown in these columns 1 
"ance," for "anis," is one of his words ; but 
when he needs " without " he writes it, or 
he uses " withouten," as in ' Tam Samson's 
Elegy,' at. 7 : 

Ye Maukins, cock your fud fu' braw, 
Withouten dread. 

Etymplogically, as might easily be shown, 
this is a perfectly defensible form, but 
" wi'out " can be characterized only as a 
verbal prodigy. Scotsmen also say " two- 
pence," like other civilized beings, although 
with them, as with others, there may arise 
a necessity for using the expression " twa 
pennies." But it is just possible that the 
Punch humourist may be delineating in his 
'' Caledonian " a Gael wrestling with Lowland 
Scotch. In that case it might have been 
well for him to define his rhapsodist pre- 
cisely, and to keep him off the track of Burns. 


" WEDGEWOOD." The meaning and history 
of this Lancashire dialect word have been 
treated as doubtful, but what appears to be the 
correct account has been given to me by an 
octogenarian who has lived all her days in 
the county or near its border. She said that 
wedgewood is just wedge-wood, and neither 
a personal name nor " wet-shod," as has been 

s.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


supposed ; and that the original expression 
was " as stupid as wedge- wood." One gathered 
that, wedge-wood having become a type of 
the superlative as regards stupidity, in that 
a wedge cannot be got to budge beyond a 
certain point, it later came to be used for 
any superlatively awkward condition, as in 
the phrase "Aw've bin clemmed [starved] 
wurr nor wedge-wood." 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

She of the open soul and open door, 
With room about her hearth for all mankind. 

These lines are attributed in Webster's ' Diet.' 
(Supplement) to Lowell. I shall be glad to 
know where they occur. Please answer 
directly to Dr. Murray, Oxford. 

J. A. H. M. 

muniments of Stanley Abbey, Wilts, cata- 
logued in the thirteenth century (MS. Harl. 
6716), is mentioned a charter of Juliana, 
daughter of Alfred of Gatemore, concerning 
one virgate of land, and a house with two 
acres and three crofts called "Inhokes"*- 
and concerning pasture for three hundred 
sheep and ten beasts ( Wiltshire Archceol. and 
Nat. Hist. Mag., 1875, xv. 250). Below is an 
entry of " Confirmatio Roberti Malherbe 
militis de pastura. iii.t ovium et. x. anima- 
lium." Can some Wiltshire antiquary kindly 
say whether this and the subsequent charters 
of pasture for three hundred sheep in Berke- 
ley are mere confirmations of Juliana's grant? 
I am anxious to have as accurate and full 
particulars as possible of the extent and 
method of management of monastic sheep- 
farms at the end of the thirteenth century. 
Stanley happens to be one of the first chat I 
am investigating. ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 

C.C.C., Oxford. 

LAMBROOK STRADLING. Can any of your 
correspondents give me information respect- 
ing a Lambrook Stradling, of Cardiff and 
Bristol, about 1700? To whom was he mar- 

* Has anything been done to ascertain the geo- 
graphical area of this term ? Some guidance as to 
its origin might result from knowing where it was 

f An obvious misprint for iii c T 

ried ? I seek also for information concerning 
Lambrook Lewis, about 1710 to 1730, sup- 
posed to be some relation to the Stpadling 
and Powlett families. T. P. LEWIS. 

67, Paradise Street, Barrow. 

" TRESSHER." In the volume for the years 
1560-84 of presentments made to the Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury the following was 
made from Goodneston-next-Faversham in 
1560 : 

"Our Parson hath appointed his tressher to be 
our Reader. 

" Our Parson is not resident. 

"Our Reader doth not say his service in due 

Was the " tressher " the man who threshed 

the corn for the rector ? In Kent a " trush " 

is a hassock for kneeling on in church, so a 

maker of these might be a tressher or trusher. 


Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

came of the bust taken by Bartolini from 
Lord Byron in 1822? The following notes- 
(from the 'Letters and Journals,' vol. vi., 
ed. R. E. Prothero, John Murray, 1901) refer 
to this bust, whose ultimate destination is 
unknown : 

Pisa, April 9th, 1822. 
To Joikn Murray. 

Dear Sir, The busts wNl be sent when completed. 
They are already paid for, &c. Vol. vi. p. 47, letter 

The busts which you enquire after have been long 
paid for, but are not even begun. Bartolini is 
famous for his delays, something like yourself. 
P. 62, letter 1001. 

Pisa, Sept. 23rd, 1822. 

The bust does not turn out a very good one, 
though it may be like for aught I know, as it exactly 
resembles a superannuated Jesuit. I shall there- 
fore not send it as I intended : but I will send you 
hers, which is much better ; and you can get a copy 
from Thorwaldsen's. I assure you Bartolini's is 
dreadful, though my mind misgives me that it is 
hideously like. If it is I cannot be long for this 
world, for it overlooks seventy. P. 117, letter 1027. 
Genoa, Oct. 24th, 1822. 

You shall have the busts, also the picture of the 
Countess G. I hear that both are very like her and 
much admired ; but West's picture of me for the 
New York Academy is preferred to Bartolini's bust 
of me done at the same time at the request of both 
artists, for I had resolved to sit no more for such 
vanities. P. 131, letter 1032. 

This bust of Lord Byron was (probably) 
sold, according to his instructions to Charles 
F. Barry (p. 375), together with his other 
effects (1824). Inquiries as to the bust have 
been made of Lady Byron, Lord Lovelace, 
Lady Dorchester, Mr. Murray, the Magazine 
of Art, the Studio, and Mr. Claude Phillips, 
who do not know its whereabouts, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 19, 1902. 

I should be glad to know if any gallery or 
private collection claims to have the original 
bust or a replica of it ; and whether it was 
the custom of Bartolini to execute replicas of 
his work. EMILY JOURDAIN. 

63, Chesterton Road, Cambridge. 

learned in the changes undergone by English 
speech inform me when it first oecame fashion- 
able to pronounce " God " as Gaud, " coffee " as 
cauffee, and " broth " as braiith ? When, too, 
did such words as "go," "note," and "oh !" 
take their present accepted sound, in which 
the vowel is no longer pure, as French 
novelists have noticed, since they write the 
English " oh !" as aoh ! to represent the insu- 
lar pronunciation ? Has any one ever shown 
in which of our counties the various vowel- 
sounds now considered correct are naturally 
current? In which shires, for instance, has 
the a in "glass," "grass," or " path " the value 
of a in " father," and in which does the sound 
more nearly resemble the a in " cat " ? 

G. W. 

there an English guide or dictionary to Greek 
mythology, containing brief accounts of the 
less-known myths, outside the popular cycles? 

L. K. 

[We are aware of no work of the kind other than 
the well-known dictionaries of Lempriere and Smith.] 

DOUGLAS. James and John Douglas were 
admitted to Westminster School in 1768, 
William Douglas in 1771, and another Wil- 
liam Douglas in 1785. Can any correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.' help me to identify these names ? 

G. F. B. B. 

the author of the poem entitled ' The Ghost 
at the Funeral ' ? The first two verses are, 1 
think, in these words : 

The funeral pageant fills the aisles : 
Slowly they come, all robed in black. 

The poem was published anonymously about 
twenty -five years ago, and I understand 
was, at that time, supposed to be written by 
Longfellow. WM. A. PLUNKETT. 

San Francisco. 

(See every General Index.) Among the 
'Ordinaunces of the Towne of Nethe made 
by the Constable, Porterive, and the Burgesses 
of the saide Towne,' in 1542, is the following : 

"item, if any woman doe scoulde or Rage any 
Burgesse or his wyfe or any other person and his 
wife, if shee be found faultye in the same by sjxe 
men, then shee to bee broughte, at the first defaulte 
to the Cooking stoole, and there to sitt one houre, 

at the second defaulte, twoe houres, and at the 
third defaulte, to lette slipp the, pynn or els pay a 
good fyne to the Kinge." P. 4 of the copy in G. G. 
Francis's ' Original Charters and Materials for a 
History of Neath and its Abbey,' Swansea, 1835. 

What is the exact meaning of the words 
italicized? O. O. H. 

[Is not the meaning that the woman was at the 
third offence let into the water by the withdrawing 
of the pin ?] 

not very legible MS. an account of a duel or 
combat, temp. Queen Elizabeth, in which one 
combatant seems to have been armed with 
" baculus cum forcipe et pugione," and the 
other with rapier and (apparently) sica 
the last word not very legible. What was the 
distinction between pugio and sica ? How 
would such a combat oe fought ? LOBUC. 

"CARE, VALE." Who was the author of 
" Care, vale, sed non seternum, care, valeto " ? 


COAT." What were the peculiarities of these 
articles of attire? They occur in a pro- 
gramme of Coronation sports held nere 
28 June, 1838. The items in which they 
occur are : " The celebrated Grecian Game 
called Penny-Loavesand Treacle, for a splendid 
Harry Dick Hat." " Eating Hot Hasty Pud- 
ding, for a dashing Adelaide Waistcoat." 



"ARMADA" CHESTS. How many of these 
made of the oak of the famous fleet still 
survive ? They would at first be numerous ; 
the wood was seasoned, partly worked, was to 
be had in every seaport, and had that subtle 
flavour of honour and glory which suggested 
the tradition (if fact it be not) that our 
famous Middle Temple Hall screen was made 
of it. Yet the name died out, and it was only 
after I had bought my specimen at a country 
farm sale that an old man told me, " Us calls 
them Armada chests." And its appearance 
corroborated it, its original white having 
toned down into paly gold, and its hinges 
being hooks. Experts date it about 1590. 
A very similar one, attributed to Anne Hatha- 
way, occurred in Christie's sale of the 
Hornsby Shakespeariana, 4 June, 1896, 
lot 101,' bought by Mr. Sotheran for 81. 5s. 
These Hornsbys were Stratford folk, probably 
traceable now, claimed descentfrom Joan Hart, 
once tenanted Shakespeare's house, and when 
evicted therefrom opened a museum across 
the road where this chest figured. The sale 
was made by their people. My chest is 
54 in. by 21 in. wide, is carved with scroll- 



work ornament, has four sunk panels divided 
by conventional "trees," and borders carved 
with arches, interlaced ribbon, and diamond 
ornament. The ends bear St. Andrew crosses 
bordered. One would like to know how many 
of these old-time memorials exist, or any 
record of them. May I inquire through 
'N. &Q.'? W. G. THORPE, F.S.A. 

32, Nightingale Lane, S.W. 

[Several so-called Armada chests are mentioned 
at 8 th S. x. 395, 441 ; but at the latter reference 
PROF. LAUGHTON ridicules the idea that they came 
from wrecked ships belonging to the Armada.] 

STAFFORD FAMILY. On pp. 75, 76 of 
Dwnn's ' Heraldic Visitations of Wales ' 
(Welsh MSS. Soc., Llandovery, 1846), vol. ii., 
there appears a pedigree of the Stafford 
family under the heading 'The Kealm of 
Ireland the County of Wesfort the Fsh 
of Oil Rann.' Why is this pedigree inserted 
among the families of the three north-eastern 
counties of Wales ? Did any of the Staffords 
live in those parts? What connexion was 
there between them and Robert Stafford, of 
Fishguard, Pembrokeshire? He died in 1733, 
and I have a rough copy of his will. He 
apparently was unmarried, and leaves his 

Eroperty to his four sisters. Tradition states 
e nad a brother who also died unmarried, 
and that they came from Wexford during 
religious disturbances at the close of the 
seventeenth century. Many Irish seem to 
have settled on the Welsh coast at this time. 
I copied the following note from the registers 
of Cardigan parish church : " Collected at 
the Parish church of Cardigan the sum of 
2l. 2s. 6c. towards the relief of the distressed 
Protestants from Ireland in the first year of 
the Reign of King William and Queen Mary." 
In the above will, a copy of which I shall be 
pleased to send any one interested, Robert 
Stafford mentions "my dear friend Mrs. 
Diana Fenton." She was of the family of 
Richard Fenton, who wrote the ' Historical 
Tour through Pembrokeshire.' 

St. Matthew's Church, Oakley Square, N.W. 

PROJECTION ON A SAW.-^Can any reader 
throw some light on the origin, name, and 
use of the small projection, less than one- 
eighth of an inch in diameter, on the back of 
a carpenter's saw near the tip? This pro- 
jection does not appear, so far as my experi- 
ence goes, on modern saws of American make. 


Princeton, British Columbia. 

phlet which bears the following title : 
' Wellington : Place and Date of his Birth 

ascertained and demonstrated by John 
Murray, A.M., LL.D., <fec. ^Etas incuriosa. 
Printed at the University Press, Dublin, by 
H. Gill." There is a letter " To the Reader," 
which begins : " A former publication edited 
in April, 1850," &c. This letter is dated, 
"Trinity College, Dublin, December, 1852." 
My copy is incomplete p. 22 is the ^last 
but probably only another leaf is missing, as 
the paragraph at foot of p. 22 begins, "To 
conclude." There are many interesting facts 
recorded in this pamphlet, and among others 
the election of two members of the Irish 
Parliament in 1790 for the borough of Trim, 
the candidates being the Right Hon. John 
Pomeroy, the Hon. Arthur Wesley, Skeffing- 
ton Thompson and William Thomas Smyth, 
Esqs. ; and a petition to the Irish House of 
Commons is mentioned as presented by 
Thompson and Smyth. Can any one say 
where a complete copy of this pamphlet may 
be had ? F. D. THOMPSON. 

22, Blenheim Terrace, Leeds. 

CHI-RHO MONOGRAM. Is there any known 
instance of this monogram having reached 
either Ireland or the Isle of Man ? Like the 
Romans it is supposed not to have wandered 
so far afield as the ultima Thule of Europe, 
but is it certain that it never found a home 
in Mona? Celtic crosses (of which the mono- 
gram was the undoubted parent, ate also of 
the Maltese cross) abound in those islands, as 
we know, but it. is strange that no traces of 
this symbol of Christ's name can be found 
in either. Information on the matter will be 
welcomed. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

BOTANICAL. Can any one supply a copy 
of a 'List of Plants of Barmouth, &c.,' by 
the late Rev. T. Salwey, B.D., F.L.S., formerly 
vicar of Oswestry, published about 1863 (?), 
separately, and also bound up with a 'Guide 
to Barmouth,' by David Jones ? 



garian Academy of Sciences has founded a 
museum of Szechenyi relics, MSS., books 
written by or relating to him, &c., and I 
have been requested by the secretary to 
assist him in collecting further materials. 
The Count, who according to Miss Pardoe 
had won a European reputation, which had 
made " his name a watchword with the high- 
minded " (' City of the Magyar,' i. 263), spent 
some years in England in the first half 
of last century, and was in correspondence 
with the leading men of the day. I am 
especially anxious to discover letters written 



. x. JULY w, 

by him to English friends and to obtain 
copies of them, if the owners should not feel 
inclined to present the originals to the 
museum. With regard to articles published 
about him, Poole's ' Index ' has yielded a 
single reference. L. L. K. 

24, Henderson Road, Wandsworth Common. 

(9 th S. ix. 381, 509.) 

THE editor of the Mirror presented to his 
readers a biographical sketch of Sir John 
Hawk wood in the issue of 11 July, 1835. ' It 
was accompanied by a copy of the " engraved 
portrait of him presented to the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1775 by Lord Hailes." I 
extract the following particulars concerning 
his death, burial, and memorials : 

"Hawkwood died 6 March, 1393, advanced in 

years, at his house in the street called Pulverosa, 
near Florence. His death was received with the 
general lamentation of the whole city, and his 
funeral was celebrated with much magnificence. 
His bier, adorned with gold and jewels, was sup- 
ported by the first officers of the republic, followed 
by horses splendidly caparisoned, banners, and 
other military insignia, and the whole body of the 
citizens. His remains were deposited in the church 
of Sta. Reparata, where a monument of him on 
horseback was set up by a public decree. On the 
dome of the same church is likewise a representa- 
tion of Hawkwood mounted on a pacing gelding, 
whose bridle, with the square ornament embossed 
on it, is covered with crimson velvet or cloth, the 
saddle being also red, stuffed or quilted. He is 
dressed in armour, with a surcoat flowing on from 
his shoulders, but girt about his body ; his greaves 
are covered with silk or cloth, but the knee-pieces 
may be distinguished under them ; his shoes, which 
are probably part of his greaves, are pointed, 
according to the fashion of the times. His hands 
are bare : in his right hand he holds a yellow baton 
of office, which rests on his thigh ; in his left, the 
bridle. His head, which has very short hair, is 
covered with a cap not unlike our earl's coronet, 
with a border of wrought work. 

"Sir John had a cenotaph in the church of his 
native town, Hedingham, erected by his executors ; 
and it remains in tolerable preservation near the 
upper end of the fourth aisle. The arch of this 
very interesting tomb is enriched with tracery and 
adorned with hawks and their bells and emblems 
of hunting, as a hare, a boar, a boar sounding a 
conch shell, &c. Under this arch is a low altar 
tomb with five [sic] shields in quatre-foils formerly 
painted. In the south window of the chantry chapel 
are painted hawks, hawks' bells, and escallops, 
which last are part of the Hawkwood arms, as the 
first were, probably a crest, as well as a rebus of the 
name ; ana we find a hawk volant on Sir John's 
^^ ~ In the north and west side of the tower are 
wite, i wks on perches in neat relief, in rondeaux 
men, tbwtb-the wa ll ; which probably denote that 
built the tower. Mr. Morant 

supposes that some of them rebuilt this church 
about the reign of Edward III. ; but none appeared 
to have been in circumstances equal to such muni- 
ficence before our hero ; and perhaps his heirs were 
the rebuilders." 

The engraving at the head of the article, 
which merely shows the upper part of Sir 
John Hawkwood's figure, exactly tallies 
with the description of the monument at 
Sta. Reparata. 

In the Mirror of 14 November, 1835, ap- 

eared a small engraving of the cenotaph to 
ir John Hawkwood at Sible Hedingnam. 
It was from a sketch sent by C. A., who also 
supplied the following notes : 

"Anxious to contribute in illustrating the events 
of bygone days, I inclose a sketch of the tomb of 
Sir John Hawkwood in the south aisle of the church 
at Sible Hedingham, Essex. It is a long, low altar 
tomb, having in front six quatre-foil divisions, each 
charged with a shield ; over this is a beautiful ogee 
arch, ornamented with tracery and supported by 
corbels ; that on the dexter side representing a 
cockatrice, and that on the sinister side a lion 
rampant ; above this are twelve long narrow arches 
with trefoil heads ; the whole being mounted 
with an embattled cornice. The tomb is supported 
on each side with a slender buttress, finished with 
a crocketed pinnacle. The whole is a very good 
specimen of the sepulchral architecture of the four- 
teenth century." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

According to Mr. Augustus J. C. Hare 
('Florence,' p. 105), Sir John Hawkwood's 
body was exhumed by request of King 
Richard II. and sent to England, the munici- 
pal authorities of Florence declaring : 

" Although we should consider it glorious for us 
and our people to possess the dust and ashes of the 
late valiant knight, nay, most renowned captain, 
Sir John Hawkwood, who fought most gloriously 
for us as the commander of our armies, and whom 
at the public expense we caused to be interred in 
the cathedral church of our city ; yet. notwith- 
standing, according to the form of the demand, that 
his remains may be taken back to his own country, 
we freely concede the permission, lest it be said 
that your sublimity asked anything in vain, or fruit- 
lessly, of our reverential humility. 
Mr. Hare says that the frescoed memorial to 
Hawkwood is on the right of the west door 
as one enters the Duomo at Florence. 


Prof. Edward Dowden, in an appendix to 
his well-known life of Shelley, says, " It is 
not quite certain, I believe, whether Beatrice 
Shelley was daughter or granddaughter of 
Sir John Hawkwood," and the ' D.N.B.' im- 
plies that she was the great captain's daughter, 
possibly by his first wife, and born before her 
father's marriage with Donnina Visconti. 

In 1395 the Republic of Florence, at the 
special request of Richard II., granted 

9. s .x.juLYi9,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Donnina the right of transferring her hus- 
band's body to England ; and as her son 
John, coming to England, was naturalized in 
1407, and settled on the ancestral estate of 
Sible Hedingham, it seems most likely that 
his father's bones were finally laid to rest in 
the church of that place. 

The great Hawkwood himself was the 
second son of Gilbert de Hawkwood, a tan- 
ner of gentle blood ; and the tradition that 
he began life as a tailor in London probably 
originated in Italy, and from a corruption 
of his name, which Matteo Villani spells 
Gianni della Guglia (John of the Needle). 
The Italian chronicles usually call him Acuto 
or Aquto ; in Froissart he appears as Hac- 
coude; while he himself spei't his name in- 
differently Haucud, Haucwod, Haukcwod, 
and Haukutd. A. K. BAYLEY. 

The following, from the sale (16 July) cata- 
logue of Messrs. Puttick & Simpson, is of con- 
siderable interest in this connexion : 

"Lot 309. Shelley Family MSS. Collection of 
Memoranda, comprising a settlement of the estate 
of P. B. Shelley, a Pedigree of the Shelley Family, 
and other matters connected with the Poet, 1791- 
1816, compiled by T. H. Hope, solicitor to the 
Shelley Family, 2 vols. hf. bd. (binding slightly de- 
fective) Seec. XIX." 


46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

GUEST FAMILY (9 th S. ix. 508). The name 
suggests from its spelling a Celtic rather 
than a Teutonic origin. The words gwesti 
and gest are used respectively in old Welsh 
and Anglo-Saxon with the same meaning, 
namely "stranger." As a personal name 
Gest is found in both Celtic and Teutonic 
sources. Presumably, therefore, its origin is 
anterior to either. The name occurs in the 
'Laxdaela Saga' (vide Mrs. Press's transla- 
tion, chap. Ixvi.). It appears also in the lists 
of kings contained in the ' Pictish Chronicle ' 
and the Irish Nennius (vide Skene's 'Celtic 
Scotland' and 'Four Ancient Books of 
Wales')- In these lists it is found in com- 
position in the names Gest, Gwrtich, and 
Wurgest, which Mr. Skene says are Cornish 
forms. He points out that Cymric gest takes 
the Irish form gusa, Cymric Ungust and 
Urgest having their Irish and Scottish 
equivalents in Aengus and Feargus, according 
to the phonetic rule by which Cymric gw 
becomes before a consonant u in Pictish, and 
before a vowel/, both in Pictish and Gaelic. 
Thus Cymric Gwrgust= Pictish Urgest= 
Gaelic Feargus. In Anglo-Saxon and English 
Cymric gw becomes w, losing the guttural, 
and corresponding to the Latin v(e. 

georn, Weortgeorn, Vortigern), and on this 
analogy, taking Guest as a Welsh name, it 
would suggest the form West as a commoner 
English one. On the other hand, assuming 
a Teutonic original for the surname, it is 
difficult to account by any phonetic law for 
the spelling that is, for the insertion of the u. 

It is significant also that the Irish edition 
of the ' Pictish Chronicle ' says, in regard to 
the names of the thirty Brudes, or kings of 
the Picts, that these were not only the names 
of men, but also divisions of land, so that the 
name may date back to tribal times, of which 
vestiges are possibly to be found surviving 
in geographical names such as Bar-gest and 
Moel-y-gest, near Portmadoc, and Hergest 
Hall in Herefordshire, once the home of a 
famous book of Welsh MSS. 

On the whole, then, the evidence favours 
a Celtic origin for the name, and that an 
ancient one, probably as old as the tribal 
stage of Celtic society, and possibly dating 
from a period before trie Celtic and Teutonic 
speeches had separated. A CLANSMAN. . 

Guest is, I think, an English, not a Welsh 
family name. As a place-name it occurs in 
Guestling (Sussex) and Guestwick (Durham). 
John Guest, ancestor of Lord Wimborne and 
founder of the Dowlais ironworks, migrated 
there from Shropshire, circa 1747 (see Burke's 
'Peerage,' s.v. Wimborne). In Hutchins's 
' Dorset,' vol. iii., third edition (s.v. Canford), 
the pedigree of John Guest, who was born in 
1722, is traced back to John Guest, of Lind- 
ley, co. Salop, who was born in 1522. During 
the interval between the birth of the two 
John Guests the family remained in Shrop- 
shire, where the surname Guest is not un- 
common. There are several Guests in Kelly's 
' Shropshire Directory. 1 J. A. J. HOUSDEN. 

Canonbury, N. 

STRAWBERRY LEAVES (9 th S. viii. 463, 513; 
ix. 153). May I refer your correspondents 
upon the significance of the use of strawberry 
leaves in thexjoronets of peers to the glossary 
of terms in Woodward's work on 'Heraldry' 
(ed. 1896), vol. ii. p. 444 ? He there states : 
" Strawberry leaves (F. feuilles de ache), the 
conventional term for the foliation of coronets 
and crowns." This would seem to confirm 
the reference on p. 513 (supra) that no par- 
ticular significance attaches to their being 
called strawberry leaves. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

TRINITY MONDAY (6 th S. xii. 167, 234, 523 ; 
7 th S. i. 38). It may be of interest to add a 
few more instances of the use of this title for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 19, 1902. 

the day after Trinity Sunday. It is found 
with increasing frequency in both books 
and newspapers. I have noticed lately 
the following among other instances : Vaux's 
'Church Folk-lore,' p. 19; Baring - Gould's 
' Urith,' chap, xxxix. ; Stubbs's ' History 
of the University of Dublin,' p. 157, et passim ; 
Journal of Education for July, 1890, p. 377. 

1 have before me also a printed notice of a 
meeting to beheld at Trinity House, London, 
which begins thus : " Monday, the llth prox., 
being Trinity Monday," &c. I am under the 
impression that the term is also used in 
Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur'; but I cannot 
put my finger upon the passage just now. 

Trinity College, Melbourne University. 

BYRON'S GRANDFATHER (9 th S. ix. 509). On 
p. 3 of the first volume of Byron's ' Letters 
and Journals ' (1898, ed. Rowland E. Prothero) 
it is stated that in 1785 Miss Catherine 
Gordon married Capt. John Byron at Bath, 
" where, it may be mentioned, her father had, 
some years before, committed suicide." In 
the 'D.N.B.,' moreover, Mr. Leslie Stephen, 
in his account of the poet, says that the saia 
Capt. John Byron diea at Valenciennes, 

2 Aug., 1791, possibly by his own hand " (Jeaf- 
freson, i. 48 ; Harness, p. 33 ; Letter No. 460 
in Moore's ' Life of Byron ' implicitly denies 
suicide). A. R. BAYLEY. 


371, 494). MR. GEORGE STRONACH'S note on 
this word and the quotation he gives from the 
4 Complaynt of Scotland ' much interested me, 
as it bears out exactly what I wrote in a 
paper some time back on Shakspere's classical 
Knowledge. Perhaps I may be allowed to 
quote from my paper, which has not been 
printed : 

" The splendid procession- word honorificabilitudi- 
nitatibn* ( ' L. L. L. ,' V. i. ) has been pressed into the ser- 
vice of the Baconian theory as containing the cipher 
initio hi ludi Fr. Bacono, or some other silly trash. 
The word was no doubt a stock example of the 
longest Latin word, as the Aristophanic compound 
6p9o$oiroovKo<f>avToSiicoTa\aiir(i>poi is of the longest 
Greek word, and was very probably a reminiscence 
of Shakspere's school days, as the distich 

Conturbabantur Constantinopolitani 
Innumerabilibus sollicitudinibus 
is of our own." 

I am pleased indeed to find that my suppo- 
sition has hit the bull's-eye. Your corre- 
spondent Q. V.'s warning (under the same 
heading) against accepting the statements of 
the " Shaconians " without proof is a timely 
one. Mrs. Pott appears to be a particularly 
unveracious supporter of the Baconian theory, 

as has already been shown in your columns 
with regard to the expressions "Good mor- 
row," &c., and as I have myself found in 
regard to her statement that, apart from 
technical expressions, 97 per cent, of the 
vocabulary of Shakspere and Bacon is identi- 
cal. Excluding words common to all writers 
of that period, I should think Shakspere and 
Bacon have not 2 per cent, of their vocabulary 
in common. However, I shall soon be in a 
position to state the proportion exactly, as I 
nave made a list of all the words in Bacon 
that strike a reader familiar with Shakspere. 


COCKADE OF GEORGE I. (9 th S. ix. 428). 
This question has been discussed several 
times in the columns of ' N. & Q.,' but, I 
think, without satisfactory results. Among 
other authorities I may refer to Sir J. Ber- 
nard Burke, Ulster King-of-Arms, who gave 
it as his opinion (only) that commissioned 
officers of volunteer corps are entitled to the 
privilege of having cockades in their servants' 
hats. The black cockade was said to have 
been introduced by George I. See ' N. & Q.,' 
1 st S. iii., xi. ; 2 nd S. vii., viii., ix. ; 3 rd S. vii. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

OLD WOODEN CHEST (9 th S. v. 88, 195, 275, 
465 ; vi. 392 ; ix. 517). At Halesowen in 
Shropshire there is a chest hollowed out of 
the trunk of a tree. It is shaped like a 
trough and bound with iron. Another chest 
hewn out of a single block of wood exists, or 
recently did exist, in the church at Llanabar. 
These old chests appear to have been used 
originally as offertory boxes. In 2 Kings xii. 
9 we read : 

" Jehoiada the priest took a chest, and bored a 
hole in the lid of it, and set it beside the altar, on 
the right side as one cometh into the house of the 
Lord : and the priests that kept the door put 
therein all the money that was brought into the 
house of the Lord." 

In this verse we have possibly the origin of 
these offertory chests. CHARLES HIATT. 

To the examples your correspondents have 
cited of church, chests hewn out of solid 
blocks of oak may be added the chest, at 
Llanfeuno in North Wales, and Penallt, near 
Monmouth, in South Wales. The Welsh 
tongue has a special name for such chests- 
viz., " prenvol," "tree-bowl," from pren + bol, 
sometimes contracted to "prennol." The 
example at Llanfeuno is popularly called 
"Cyff Beuno" (St. Beuno's coffer), "cyff" 
meaning a trunk, particularly the trunk of 
a tree. This one was a money-chest, designed 

9 ts.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to hold coins offered in honour of St. Beuno 
for the benefit of cattle and sheep. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

WESTMINSTER CITY MOTTO (9 th S. ix. 485 ; 
x. 11). I wish just to put .on record the 
following statement. Some little time ago 
I was consulted as to a suitable motto for 
the new city of Westminster, and was told 
that it had been decided that it must be an 
Anglo-Saxon one. It seemed to me that an 
appropriate one exists in 1. 658 of the national 
epic ' Beowulf ' (merely omitting nu). It runs 
thus : " Hafa ond geheald husa selest," i. e., 
" Have (or possess) and hold (or maintain) 
the best of (all) houses " ; with reference to 
the Houses of Parliament. I believe now that 
I have been hoaxed. Indeed, I ought to 
have known that the last thing an English 
city would care to adopt would be a motto 
in that language which the majority of 
Englishmen so heartily contemn. Perhaps 
in the next century it may command the 
respect it deserves. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

248, 437 ; x. 9). The evidence certainly seems 
to show that the original term was meestead 
or meastead, a compound of mease and stead. 
The shortening to misted is normal ; after 
which the changes to meadstead and mearstead 
are due to the erroneous workings of popular 
etymology. The form mease or mese (see 
4 Cent. Dict.,'s.v. 'Mease') is allied to mess-iiage, 
no doubt, but is more familiar to us in the 
form manse. All these \vords are from the 
late Latin mansa, as the ' Century Dictionary ' 
and Webster say, and are due to the Latin 
manere. The sense of mesestead is therefore 
"manse-place, or holding on which a dwell- 
ing-place exists." The Old French forms are 
numerous, and are thus given in Godefroy : 
" Mes, mez, meis, mex, meix, maix, miex, mietz, 
mas, s. m. et f., maison de campagne, ferme, 
propriete rurale, jardin ; habitation, de- 
meure," &c. Here follow thirty examples of 
its use, and some ten examples in place- 
names. In fact, it is extremely common, 
being merely the familiar mais-on without 
the suffix ; and maison represents the Latin 
mansionem. CELER. 

Q. V. asks from what part of England 
Governor Bradford came. The answer is, 
from Austerfield, near Bawtry, and not far 
from here. The Church Covenant of the 
Baptist congregation meeting at Epworth is 
dated 4 January, 1599, and bears the signa- 
tures of John Morton, William Brewster, and 
William Bradford. Of these men Bradford 

was afterwards Governor of the colony at 
New Plymouth, and .Brewster ruling elder. 
Misted is not the only word that connects 
that colony with these parts. I never read a 
New England novel without coming across 
a score of " Americanisms " that are still in 
common use here. C. C. B. 


LOVEL : DE HAUTVILLE (9 th S. x. 9). Over 
the door of Staunton Court, South Worcester- 
shire, is a shield, Lion rampant between cross- 
lets fitche, attributed to De Hautville. The 
same appears in Staunton Church quartered 
with the arms of St. Loe Horton Whit- 
tington De Staunton. At Meysey Hampton, 
Gloucestershire, the arms are quartered with 
those of Jenner Vaux Horton Whittington 
St. Loe. Somewhat the same is found at 
Chew Magna Church in Somerset, where is a 
wooden monument to Sir John de Hautevelle, 
who lived in the time of Henry III , and the 
crosslets were given him for going to the 
Holy Land. He is supposed to have been a 
giant, and to have thrown a great stone from 
the hill of Stan ton Drew. I have some- 
where notes re Hautville and Lovel, and 
should like to meet or hear from T. W. C. 
Was the lion argent or sable? ditto the 
crosslets fitche 1 J. G. HAWKINS. 

Staunton Court, near Gloucester. 

TEDULA, A BIRD (9 th S. ix. 389, 433, 516). 
MR. C. S. WARD will find in Lindsay's ' Latin 
Language,' p. 353, an account of the d suffix 
in Latin, or which the form ednla seems to 
have been used to express the names of 
certain birds and animals ; -edo was used to 
express certain ailments, \ikefrigedo, riibedo, 
&c. It seems not unlikely that a form like 
monedula (conceived to come from monere) 
controlled the form of the words in edula. 
Acredula can hardly be thrush, for in the 
'Philomela' we find it distinguished from 
drosca. H. A. STRONG. 

University College, Liverpool. 

ALMANAC MEDALS (9 th S. viii. 344, 467). 
1 clip the following from the Daily Mail of 
4 July : 

" While excavating at some old cottages at High 
Wycombe, Bucks, yesterday, a workman discovered 
a calendar coin dated 1797. It is of copper, and 
about the size of a four-shilling piece. On one side 
are clearly engraved the dates of the Sundays of 
the whole year, with special reference to Septua- 
gesima, Advent, Lent, Easter, Holy Thursday, 
Whit Sunday, and Trinity Sunday. On the other 
side there is the every-day calendar for the year." 

In a letter to the same newspaper three 
days later the llev. James Sprunt describes 
one of these "copper calendars," dated 1766, 
which is in his possession. A few years ago 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9> s. x. JULY 19, 1902. 

(1895 I believe) bronze medals embossed with 
a calendar for the year and an advertisement 
of a type-writing machine (if I remember 
rightly) were sold in the streets of London at 
a penny each. I bought one of these, but lost 
it by tendering it in mistake for a penny 
piece. F. ADAMS. 

TENNIS : OKIGIN OF THE NAME (9 th S. ix. 27, 
75, 153, 238, 272, 418, 454 ; x. 11). I quite 
see the difficulty, and fear it is impossible 
to find evidence as to all the conditions of 
the game in the fourteenth century in Eng- 
land. Perhaps we might, however, recover 
some of the uses of the verb tenir, and I 
write this merely to record that there is an 
interesting example in 1. 387 of the celebrated 
' Chanson du Roland,' where Ganelon says of 
Roland : " En sa main tint une vermeille 
pume . Tenez, bels sire, dist Rollanz a sun 
uncle," i.e., "He held in his hand a red apple ; 
'Receive it, fair sir,' said Roland to his uncle." 

(9 th S. ix. 508). Jewbury still figures as a 
local name just outside the walls of York. 
There was the Jewish cemetery in the Middle 
Ages : 

"By the Inquisition taken upon the expulsion of 
the Jews from England by King Edward I. in the 
eighteenth year of his reign, it is found that the 
place called ' Le Jewbiry,' which consisted of eight 
seliona or one acre of land, on part of which a 
house was built, was held by the community of the 
Jews of York and Lincoln, ' ubi sepultura eorum 
erat.' The words of the record do not enable us 
to determine positively whether the community of 
Jews to which it refers was confined to the cities 
or extended to the counties of York and Lincoln ; 
but the quantity of the ground would appear to be 
disproportionately large for the purpose intended, 
when compared with the amount of Hebrew popu- 
lation in the cities, so far as that can be inferred 
from our knowledge of the number of Jews in York 
at the period of their expulsion, and therefore the 

Erobability is that Jewbury was the common 
urying-place for the Jews in the counties of York 
and Lincoln, or at least was held by the whole 
community of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Jews for 
that purpose. If any proof were wanting of the 
identity of the place we now call Jewbury with 
that mentioned in the Inquisition of the 18th Ed- 
ward L, it is afforded by an entry on the Patent 
Rolls in the first year of Henry IV. of a grant by 
the King to Robert de Gare of two messuages, two 
cottages, and one croft called Jewbury in Monkgate, 
within the suburbs of the city of York." ' Walks 
through the City of York,' by Robert Davies, 
F.S.A., pp. 40, 41. 

gp O Street, which runs from Coney Street, 
h ea( jtension of the ancient Conyng Street, 
the "dtefflL 81 *^, w . as formerly Jubber- 
one. Mrs. Pott ^Vo ^ ^ ritl , n * s , as , 
unveracious supporter of k anon Rame < Yor)j > 

p. 59) asserted that there was the Jewish 
quarter or Jewry, and he thus endorsed the 
opinion of Drake, which Mr. Davies seemed 
inclined to discredit, that the name "carries 
some memorial of the Jews residing formerly 
in this street." Drake adds, " Tradition tells 
us that their synagogue was here " (' History 
of York,' p. 322). I may fitly mention in 
connexion with this subject that of late 
years Jews have again found their way to 
York. In 1892 Dr. Adler presented their 
community with a scroll of the law, &c., and, 
says the Yorkshire Herald (8 Oct., 1892), 
"Divine service was, therefore, held at the 
beginning of their New Year (3 Oct.) in York, 
for the first time, in all probability, since the 
expulsion in 1290." 

At Lincoln there is a narrow entry called 
St. Dunstan's Lock. "This," says Sir 
C. H. J. Anderson, in his 'Lincoln Pocket 
Guide,' p. 69, 

"is near the Jew's House and the locality occupied 
by the Jews in the Middle Ages, and no doubt is a 
corruption of ' Dernestall,' the place where little 

St. Hugh was born The Lock possibly refers to 

a barrier placed across the entrance of the Strait, 
and secured at night. It might be to shut in the 

Jews We find no St. Dunstan's in Lincoln, so 

that the St. must have been a modern addition." 


"HEROINA" (9 th S. ix. 509).-Coles's Latin- 
English dictionary (1677) enters this word as 
follows : " Herolna, se, /. and herois, fdis, a 
Noble Woman, Lady, Princess"; while Du 
Cange quotes " Herois, La baronissa," from a 
MS. Latin-Italian glossary. 'Hpuun? occurs 
in a Greek inscription (No. 2259), with the 
meaning, according to Liddell and Scott, of 
" a deceased female," but of what rank is not 
stated. If your correspondent has access to 
the ' Corpus Inscriptionum,' he may ascer- 
tain this for himself. F. ADAMS. 

THE METRICAL PSALTER (9 th S. ix. 509). 
In reply to MR. H. DAVEY, the Chapel Royal 
at Whitehall was the last place where the 
new version (Tate and Brady's) pure and 
simple was sung in my recollection ; after- 
wards superseded by the S.P.C.K. book, until 
that building was secularized by becoming 
the United Service Museum, on which occa- 
sion his present Majesty, I believe, presided. 


"YCLEPING" THE CHUR6H (9 th S. Vlii. 

420, 486 ; ix. 55, 216, 394).^ Reading pro- 
miscuously in Gerald Massey's ' Book of the 
Beginnings,' I have happened on a reference 
to the subject which may be interesting. He 
is dealing with the influences of Egyptian 
mythology received by us through the Druid, s, 

9.s.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and is "forced to confess that every great 
day of festival and fast and every popular 
ceremony and rite pressed into the Christian 
theology were pre-identified in these islands," 
and goes on to refer to the Egyptian gene- 
trix, the "goddess of the hinder quarter," as 
follows : 

"In the 'Witches' Sabbath' the eye-witnesses 
tell us how they joined hands and formed a circle, 
standing face outwards, and how, at certain parts 
of the dance, the buttocks were clashed together in 
concert, in the worship of the goddess ; and at one 
time a ceremony was observed at Birmingham on 
Easter Monday, called ' clipping the church,' when 
the first comers placed themselves hand in hand 
with their backs to the church and thus gradually 
formed a chain of sufficient length to embrace the 
building. In our Easter and Pa^sch we have the 
same season doubly derived from Hest and Pasht, 
two Egyptian goddesses. The term Easter denotes 
the division of Hest, the British Eseye and Egyptian 
Isis, who was the earlier Taurt, whence Hes-ta-urt, 
Astarte, Ishtar, and Eostre. She was the Sabean- 
lunar genitrix. Pasht is the later solar goddess, 
whose name denotes the division of Easter. Both 
Hest and Pasht were typified by the seat, the hind 
quarter, which became the seat of worship, as the 
church, just as Stonehenge had been the seat of 

Eseye About the end of the sixth century it was 

discovered that the difference in point of time 
between the British Pasag, as celebrated by the 
natives (as Christians or pre-Christians), and the 
Easter ceremonies as observed in Rome was an 
entire month. This means that the festival had 
been kept in the British Isles for 2,155 years pre- 
vious to the sixth Century, and the people were 
behind solar time to that extent, on account of 
their not having readjusted the time of the feasts, 
fairs, and fasts by which the reckoning was kept." 

From his reference to Birmingham "at one 
time" the researchful author was evidently 
not aware that the ancient pagan rite is, as 
related by your correspondents, still observed 
in certain country districts. I may add, for 
the information of those interested in British 
symbolical customs, that they will find much 
concerning them in the first volume of Mr. 
Massey's work (Williams & Norgate, 1881). 

Savile Club. 

"AUTOCRAT" IN RUSSIAN (9 th S. x. 6). The 
Rev. Jonas Dennis, in ' A Key to the Regalia ' 
(London, 1820), p. 54, says : 

" The Emperors of Russia, on the contrary, while 
they demand the spiritual benediction of the 
Church at their Coronation, refuse to let the Crown 
be placed upon their heads by the hands of eccle- 
siastics, ana actually have the presumption to 
crown themselves. The rejection of the ministra- 
tion of ecclesiastics is evidently the result not of 
accident, but of design, and appears intended to 
support the assumption of the arrogant title of 
Autocrat, or self-created potentate." 

It would be interesting to know which, if 
any, of the statements made in this extract 

are true. For a long time it was an article 
of faith at Moscow that the first Emperor 
of Russia was crowned by a bishop deputed 
for that purpose by one of the Byzantine 
emperors, and that part of the Russian 
regalia could be traced back to that inter- 
esting ceremony. This, however, was a 
pious fiction. W. R. BARKER. 

508). A passage in Becon I have not the 
reference seems to indicate a prevailing 
idea in England that the sight of the Host at 
the elevation brought joy to the heart. Becon 
describes how at this moment in the service 
a man would jostle his neighbour in his 
eagerness to look on the Holy Sacrament, 
exclaiming that he "could not be blithe 
until he had seen his Lord God that day," or 
words to that effect. This possibly accounts 
for the sixteenth -century saying quoted by 

ARTHUR'S CROWN (9 th S. ix. 388, 491). I 
am obliged to MR. KREBS for his reply at the* 
last reference. May I now supplement ray 
first query by asking whether there is any 
evidence extant connecting this crown with 
Arthur ? When is it first mentioned as a 
heirloom of the house of Gwynedd or other 
Welsh kings? , C. C. B. 

"SIXES AND SEVENS" (9 th S. ix. 427). In 
the process of teaching the elements of arith- 
metic, either by means of the abacus or by 
counting the digits of each hand in reckon- 
ing a decade, it would be comparatively easy 
to count as far as " five," while confusion 
would probably arise in the infant mind at 
the second stage of the enumeration, begin- 
ning with " six and seven," and it is worthy 
of note that both Chaucer and Shakespeare 
use the phrase, not in the plural, as the 
modern form has it, but in the singular, " at 
six and seven." In Chaucer's ' Troilus,' 
iv. 622, the sense is evidently that of "to 
confound " : , 

Let not this wreched wo thyne herte gnawe, 
But, manly, set the worlde on six and sevene, 
And if thou deye a martyr, go to hevene. 

In the sense of confusion Shakespeare 
('Richard II.,' II. ii. 122) has : 

All is uneven, 
And everything is left at six and seven. 

I think, therefore, that very probably this is 
the origin of the saying. The horn-book, 
which sometimes bore the numerals as well 
as the alphabet, has given rise to several 
sayings of a proverbial character, as "to 
know one's book," " as plain as A B C," " to 
know B from a bull's foot" or " from a battle- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. x. JULY 19, 1902 

dore." So that it cannot be considered too 
fanciful to suppose that to the teaching of 
the elements of the science of numbers a far 
more difficult operation to the youthful mind 
than mastering the "absey-book" may be 
traced the origin of being "at sixes and 

I find I erred in giving the date of the 
marriage of William Wilcocks to Margaret 
de Nowers, heiress of , Knossington in co. 
Leicester, so early as 1317 ; the true time 
was about the year 1378. See the Latin note 
to the pedigree of Wilcocks on p. 135, as 
given in Fetherston's edition (published 
London, 1870) of Camden's ' Visitation ' of the 
said county, made in 1619. I must add that 
I still hope that some one will give me the 
true origin of the Knossington Wilcocks (or 
Willcox) family. As for myself, I yet think 
that it may be the princely house of Powys- 
Wenwynwyn ; for, after all, Wilcocks ap 
Griffith left two sons, and although the one 
who was his heir (in chief) left no male issue, 
the other may have done so, for I can find 
nothing positive to the contrary. C. 

" BABIES IN THE EYES " (9 th S. ix. 405, 516), 
I quite fail to understand by what process 
of reasoning MR. MACMICHAEL has arrived 
at his interpretation of my suggestion as to 
the meaning of this phrase. I feel sure thai 
if he had read my longer essay on it in 
' N. & Q.,' whether he agreed with it or not 
he would not have written what he has 
done ; nor would he even, I think, have gone 
so far as to speak of any solution of this 
puzzling expression upon which the mos 
competent critics have never ventured to 
come to any certain conclusion as obvious. 

LONDRES (9 th S. ix. 35, 151, 295, 515). 
Permit me to say I have not questioned, anc 
do not question the presence of FitzHamor 
and certain of his "pares" at the so-callet 
conquest of Glamorgan, and that MR. ALFRED 
CHAS. JONAS'S somewhat acrimonious replj 
is uncalled for. I have shown that the 
hitherto received history of this conquest i 
faulty in a material particular, and, if neces 
sary, I could expose other grave errors, i 
further proof were wanting. May I add als< 
there are so many inherent improbabilitie 
in this history, which a small effort of critica 
knowledge will disclose, that I am surprisec 
a gentleman of such discernment as MR 
JONAS has not seen them long since ? Can 
any one in his senses believe FitzHamon 
would take his heavily armed and motle, 

orces, ill mounted, worse provisioned, and 
unpaid, up the densely wooded defiles of the 
and Rhondda, with an intensely hostile 
)opulation all round, to fight a doubtful 
)attle on the northern confines of the county, 
whence even if victorious he must needs 
retreat or starve ; to receive his wages at a 
place called the " miltur aur," or the " golden 
mile," many miles from the field of battle, 
and quite out of the route to his base of 
iupplies? May I suggest, inter alia, that 
'milia aurea" is probably the thousandth 
mile from Rome, and gave the origin of the 
above words, for it is part of the Via Julia ? 

Whatever form the payments of these wages 
book, it certainly was not in gold coin, for 
there was none. Whoever was the author 
of this very doubtful history is not material. 
The Stradling family and their connexions 
have been interpolated improperly, and many 
other important families, unconnected with 
them, left out of it. The reason appears 
obvious. It must have been compiled circa 
1395, and probably formed part of the library 
in Ewenny, where Leland could see and copy 
it. It is unfortunate that Leland was 
credulous or careless enough to accept almost 
any tale which was told him, without critical 
examination. Subsequent authors have re- 
peated and added to his mistakes until 
Welsh history as it is now known is, much 
of it, literary rubbish. 

Will MR. JONAS be good enough to give 
the reference to those "reliable records" 
which chronicle earlier foundations than 
Ewenny or any other church prior to 1138, 
which was, I think, the year William de 
Londre died 1 ? It would be interesting to 
know how long it took for the anathema of 
Pope Honorius to operate upon so stubborn 
and ruthless a man. I have hitherto been 
under the impression that he, like other men, 
eased his conscience at the expense of his 

Unquestionably Stephen confirmed in 1138 
certain donations of Robert FitzHamon, and 
the fact is clear evidence that these Marcher 
lordships were dependent upon the Crown, 
more or less, and their knights must have 
rendered knight service to the king on 
demand, and service of castle guard to their 
immediate over-lord, as the tenure upon 
which their lands were held^ G. E. R. 

. AINSWORTH THE NOVELIST (9 th S. ix. 409 ; 
x> 10). I recently had occasion to purchase 
one of John Dicks's editions of Harrison 
Ainsworth's works, and from a catalogue 
enclosed I gather that the following are his 
sole property, being unexpired copyrights, 

9 th S. X. JULY 19, 1902.] 



and cannot be obtained elsewhere : ' Talbot 
Harland,' 'Tower Hill,' 'The South Sea 
Bubble,' 'The Goldsmith's Wife,' < Chetwynd 
Calverley,' 'The Fall of Somerset,' and 
' Beatrice Tyldesley.' Others, such as ' Merry 
England,' 'The Miser's Daughter,' 'Rook- 
wood,' &c , are also advertised by the same 
firm. May I ask if Ainsworth intended his 
historical novels to follow on in- exact 
sequence ? I have noticed that several of 
them seem to dovetail remarkably well, and 
this, I imagine, can hardly be the result of 
mere caprice. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

(9 th S. ix. 509). Although jt by no means 
fully answers his question, peihaps the follow- 
ing reference may be of use to B. R. J. : 

"Their [the Thrales'] house,. Streatham Place, 
stood in Streatham Park, on the south side of the 
Lower Common at Streatham, Surrey, six miles 
from Westminster Bridge. It was taken down in 
1863,* and no trace of it remains." Button's ' Lite- 
rary Landmarks of London,' p. 163. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

This house was pulled down and the 
materials sold by auction in May, 1863 
(Hone's 'Handbook to the Environs of Lon- 
don,' 1876, pt. ii. p. 590). G. F. R. B. 

"FLOWERING SUNDAY" (9 th S. ix. 508). 
With reference to a query under this head- 
ing, and in connexion with the use of flowers, 
&c., for decorating graves and memorial 
stones of relatives, perhaps the following 
may be of some little interest to your con- 
tributor and readers, or be the means of throw- 
ing some further light on the subject. 

I first noticed the custom in Herefordshire 
on Palm Sunday, 1879, and on inquiry found 
that it prevailed in Monmouthshire and other 
parts of Wales, and also in Gloucestershire, 
and it was then on the increase. Five or six 
years afterwards I lit upon the subject 
treated at some length and in a most in- 
structive and able manner by Mr. George 
Tudor Williams, of Monmouthshire, in 'An 
Historical and Descriptive Sketch,' which 1 
perused with interest in 1886, and made some 
notes and extracts therefrom, which I now 
epitomize in the following. 

The custom is of remote antiquity, dating 
back long anterior to the Christian era. In 
Wales Palm Sunday is called " Sul y Blodou " 
(Flowery Sunday), owing to the custom which 
is of Celtic origin, but which was also prac- 

* In 'Old and New London' (vi. 319) the date is 
given as 1868. 

tised by the ancient Greeks, who used herbs 
to deck their tombs as well as, flowers. 
Parsley was a favourite herb for the purpose, 
and so referred to by Plutarch as far back as 
350 B.C. Aramanthus and other flowers were 
mentioned in connexion with the adorning 
of Achilles' grave by the Thessalians. The 
custom was general in Virgil's time, and 
Anacreon, who wrote 590 years B.C., men- 
tioned the rose as "the amulet whereby 
no ills their tombs molest." Euripides, who 
wrote 400 years B.C., introduces Electra com- 
plaining that a tomb had not been decorated. 
Sophocles, about 380 B.C., makes the daughter 
of Agamemnon, on coming to her father's 
tomb, say, "And flowers of every sort were 
strewed." The tributes were intended to 
express the love and respect borne for the 
departed. The Greeks used ribbons as well 
as flowers, and had special days on which 
they thus respected the memories of the 
departed. The cus.tom was also practised in 
many Oriental countries. Mallet said that 
in Egypt a plant called in Arabic ribau our 
sweet basil was strewn on the graves with 
palm leaves, and that myrtle was also used. 
Chander, in his travels in Asia Minor, de- 
scribed graves with branches of myrtle at 
each end. Dallaway, in 'The Ancient and 
Modern History of Constantinople,' speaks 
of cypress at the endS of tombs. The custom 
was also followed by the Tartars. Shak- 
speare, alluding to the custom of decking 
graves " with fairest flowers," expressly men- 
tioned " the pale primrose," " the azure hare- 
bell," and " the leaf of eglantine." 

In practising this ancient custom on Palm 
Sunday = Flowering Sunday, or other special 
days on which we choose thus to remember 
and respect the memory of our dear departed 
relatives, it would seem to call into play the 
best feelings of the human heart, and, whilst 
tending to beautify temporarily God's acre 
conduce to religious thought and pious 
reflective meditations, and it should on these 
grounds be kept up and conserved. 


Moorland Grange, Bournemouth. 

The custom of adorning with flowers the 
graves of deceased friends on Palm Sunday, 
in South Wales and Monmouthshire, did not 
originate in caprice. Many far-fetched ex- 
planations of this observance have been 
offered j but the facts are simple. In Catholic 
times it was the custom, on the occasion of 
the Palm Sunday procession, to affix branches 
of box or catskin (the local substitutes for 
palm) to the churchyard cross, where the 
procession halted while the ceremonial open- 
ing of the south door was being performed. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 9 th s. x. JULY 19, 1902. 

The churchyard cross being the place where 
prayer for the dead was at all times wont to 
be offered, the affixing of the "palm" to its 
shaft was naturally regarded as associating 
the souls of the faithful departed with the 
solemn rites of Palm Sunday, and easily led 
to the custom of similarly honouring their 
graves. The addition, and finally the sub- 
stitution, of flowers, perhaps grew out of the 
custom of tying up a bunch of flowers with 
the box which ornamented the churchyard 
cross. The flowers must have come in at a 
very early period, as the Welsh name "Sul y 
Blodau " '(Sunday of the Flowers) for Palm 
Sunday is the earliest and only native term 
for that festival ; but in any case there can 
be no doubt that the present elaborate floral 
decorations have been evolved out of the 
ritual of the Palm Sunday procession. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

YARROW UNVISITED (9 th S. ix. 386, 477 : x. 
18). The records of the Presbytery of Edin- 
burgh help very little in the clearing up of 
the actual cause of Logan's resignation. A 
plea of ill health is often tendered when 
other causes are also at work, rendering de- 
mission necessary. It may be well, however, 
to give here the substance of what these 
records contain on this case. 

Mr. Logan's letter, giving ill health as the 
reason of his absence from his parish, was 
dated London, 13 October, 1786. It was laid 
before the Presbytery on 25 October. The 
Presbytery ordered him to appear before 
them on 29 November. On 29 November the 
matter was delayed till next meeting. On 
27 December Mr. Logan sent a letter resign- 
ing absolutely. "Whereupon the Presbytery, 
being well informed of the circumstances 
as they regard Mr. Logan in the parish of 
South Leitn, were unanimously of opinion 
that Mr. Logan's demission be accepted." 
And it was accepted at that meeting. Mr. 
Logan had been absent from his parish for 
about a year. Nothing but the mere fact of 
absence is mentioned. A. M. MCDONALD. 

I can remember seeing in Edinburgh, as far 
back as 1859, several beautiful pictures by Sir 
J. Noel Pa ton, depicting scenes in the ballad 
' The Dowie Dens of Yarrow.' Tradition says 
that the combat took place in a field, still 
pointed out near the Kirk of Yarrow, on the 
road from Selkirk to St. Mary's Loch. The 
original pictures are now, I suppose, in pri- 
vate collections, but they have been beauti- 
fully engraved for the Royal Association 
for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scot- 
land, 1860. The events depicted are said to 

have occurred in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

SAMUEL FOLLETT (9 th S. x. 7). I have 
looked through Roberta's 'History of Lyrne 
Regis,' 1834, but find no mention of this 
name. I am going to Lyme Regis for a 
month or so, and shall be pleased to make 
search. If you like to put me in commu- 
nication witn G. F. R. B. I may be of use to 
him free of charge, of course. I am inter- 
ested in a similar inquiry, which I hope will 
shortly appear. S. S. HASLUCK. 

The Cottage, Lyme Regis. 

KING'S CHAMPION (9 th S. ix. 507). It is 
tolerably certain that the so-called Champions 
were nothing more than faineants. The late 
Canon Lodge (Reetor of Scrivelsby) writes in 
his ' Scrivelsby, the Home of the Champions,' 
the most authentic and exhaustive book on 
the matter, second edition, 1894, p. 110 : 

"With regard to the execution of the office of 
Champion on a Coronation day, it will be remem- 
bered that the right moment for his appearance, in 
full armour and mounted on his charger, was in 
the middle of the Coronation banquet, the right 
place being Westminster Hall. The challenge to 
all gainsayers was in the orthodox fashion, by fling- 
ing down the knight's gauntlet, in the tolerable 
certainty that no one would venture to take it up 
in token of acceptance. As a matter of fact, the 
challenge never has been accepted, although there 
have been occasions when the sovereign's title 

might have been fairly questioned Happily for 

our Champions, this task has always been a blood- 
less one." 

Some of the suits of burnished armour, and 
one discoloured pair of gauntlets, I have 
recently seen preserved in a small enclosure 
to the right of the chief entrance of Scri- 
velsby Court, called the armoury. Scott's 
story in ' Red gauntlet ' of the maiden bear- 
ing the glove away at the coronation of 
George III. is, of course, purely imaginary. 
Lodge states that the Dymokes have acted 
as Champions on twenty-one occasions, and 
gives a list of seven of that family who, 
though Champions, never officiated as such 
at a coronation. That of George IV., on 
19 July, 1821 (not 1820, as stated in MR. 
PICKFORD'S excellent article on ' The Office of 
Champion '), saw the last exercise of the 
office.* Lodge adds : 

"Though its duties are no longer exacted, the 
Championship still remains as an appanage of the 

* In Cassell's ' History of England,' vol. iii. p. 42, 
1863, appears a full-page wood engraving (not at all 
a bad one) of Sir Henry Dympke's appearance in 
Westminster Hall in his official capacity on that 

9>s.x. JULY 19, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

old baronial estate of Scrivelsby, the owner of 
which is by courtesy entitled, in his official capa- 
city, to be addressed A. B., Esq., The Honourable 
the Queen's [or King's] Champion." 

I was informed when at the Court that the 
present holder of the title had been appointed 
standard-bearer (in lieu of a defunct occupa- 
tion) at the now postponed Coronation of 
Edward VII. These details will, I think, 
satisfy the inquiries of your correspondent 
at above reference, and chiefly that which 
rightly surmises that the office of Champion 
was " always pageantry and nothing more." 
J. B. McGovERN. 

[MR. PICKFORD gave 1821 as the date of George 
IV. 's coronation.] 

x. 8). As the query extends to Mr. Glad- 
stone's alleged speeches in modern Greek, 
the following extract may be of interest : 

" I do not know how sure the testimony may be, 
but a seller of curiosities, who has his stall beside 
this locality, affirms that Mr. Gladstone stood also 
on this platform and delivered a speech in classical 
Greek which nobody understood. ' Mr. Paul,' says 
the guide, ' he stand here, be [sic] preach. Mr. 
Gladstone he stand here too, he speakplenty much. 
Greek no understand.' " " In Classic Country; or, a 
Summer Cruise in the Mediterranean Squadron. By 
the Rev. Barton S. Tucker, B.A., Chaplain, Royal 
Navy. London : Henningham & Hollis ; Ports- 
mouth : Griffin & Co. ; Malta : A. Bartolo. Printed 
and published by A. Bartolo, 181, 183, Strada 
Horm, Valletta," p. 40. 

The little book is not dated. I bought my 
copy in Valletta some ten or twelve years 
ago. The date of the cruise is 1888. The 
"locality " is the Areopagus in Athens. 


308, 414, 472). At the last reference mention 
was made of the municipal arms of the cities 
of England, and so possibly it may not be 
altogether out of order to give the name of 
the following book : " The Arms of the Royal 
and Parliamentary Burghs of Scotland. By 
the Marquis of Bute, J. R. N. Macphail, and 
H. W. Lonsdale. 1897. Drawings of the 
Correct Arms, with Heraldic Descriptions, 
4to, white buckram." Only 200 copies were 
printed for sale, and the price of a single 
copy was quoted last year as 2. 2s. 


487), The lordship of Trentham came into 
the possession of the Gower family by the 
marriage of Sir Thomas Gower with the 
sister and coheir of Sir Richard Leveson, who 
died without issue. Sir John Gower, the 
fifth baronet, was created Viscount Trentham 
and Earl Gower, 8 July, 1746, and Marquis 

of Stafford, 1786 (vide Nightingale's ' Stafford 
shire'). Of the Trentham family Erdawicke, 
in his ' Survey of Staffordshire,' says : 

" The Trenthams derive themselves from a 
House of the Trenthams in Shropshire, which in 
Henry VI.'s time were of good account, but now 

Siite decayed or gone, for I know none of the 
ouse remaining, this of Rowcester (the seat of an 
ancient Priory at the confluence of the Churnet and 
Dove) excepted, which it pleaseth God to advance 
in good sort." 

This prosperity was of short duration. Sir 
Simon Degge, in his 4 Observations ' added to 
Erdeswicke, cites this family and numerous 
others to show that ruin pursues the possessor 
of "Monastery-Lands." "Rocester," he states, 
" was granted to Thomas Trentham, whose son, 
Francis, soon after, so settled it that he nor any of 
his sons could alienate it, which if any of them had 
had power to have done, it had been gone, and now 
'tis got into a strange Family, where it is believed 
it will not stay half another Age." 



The Registers of the Parish Church of Wigan, in the. 
County of Lancaster ; 1580-1625. Edited by Jonah 
Arrowsmith ; the Index by Fanny Wrigley. 
(Wigan, Strowger & Son.) 

THE parish of Wiganif^the old days included twelve 
townships, and extended over upwards 6f twenty- 
nine thousand acres. The earliest register, it would 
seem, is lost, as the present one here printed begins 
only in 1580. It will be exceptionally interesting 
to all those engaged in investigations relating to the 
family history of the shire. There is hardly a name 
of the great historic families that is not to be found 
therein ; it will also be of great service to those who 
are desirous of tracing the pedigrees of yeoman 
families, and those of a still lower grade, many of 
whose scions are now holding honourable positions 
in America and our colonies. The work has been 
most carefully edited, and the indexes are all that 
we could wish ; we do not, indeed, remember ever 
to have seen a labour of that kind performed with 
more painstaking accuracy. Names, places, and 
trades are all arranged in alphabetical order, so that 
it will be almost impossible for the student to miss 
any fact which the record contains. We have, how- 
ever, we think, come upon one error it is the only 
one which a rigorous search has revealed to us. 
Whether it be a misprint, an error of the transcriber, 
or a blunder of the person who wrote the original 
document we have no means of knowing. In the 
year 1580 we find that " Grace ye wife of Lyonesse 
Gerrard Esquire" was buried. Lyonesse seems to 
be an almost impossible name for a man, and we 
do not remember ever meeting with it borne by a 
woman ; surely Lyonel must have been the form 
intended. There are very few surnames which strike 
us as peculiar to the district, but there are two 
which we never saw before. Lightowler occurs in 
1596 and Gaylady in 1613 ; we should be sorry were 
we called upon to make a guess as to their origin or 
meaning. Some of the entries are very curious. 
In 1596 we find a record of the burial of "Litle 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 19, 1902. 

Agnes of ye Tunstid head." Were the names of 
father and mother both unknown? Was she a 
child, or does the register call her little because 
small of stature ? The Christian name Ferdinando 
does not, so far as we know, occur in England during 
the Middle Ages ; in fact, it seems to have been well- 
nigh unknown until it was borne by Ferdinando 
Fairfax, the second lord, who was born in 1584. A 
year earlier than this we find that a Ferdinando 
Lang'trie, otherwise Wandie, was buried at Wigan. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds in the 
Public Record Office. Vol. III. (Stationery Office.) 
THIS catalogue must be very useful not only to 
the topographer and genealogist, but also to the 
students an increasing body, we are happy to 
say of the names of persons and places. It does 
not, however, throw very much light on the history 
of our country in that narrow sense in which it was 
in former days almost exclusively regarded. As to 
the Christian names and surnames contained in this 
volume, were we to comment on them as they 
deserve we should require to put forth a portly 
volume. We cannot, however, pass over the fact 
that there are two Odins therein. By an undated 
charter Gerard Odeyn, of Coventry, grants to 
Robert de Ichenton, clerk, land near the church of 
St. Nicholas in that city; and in 47 Edward III. we 
find Roger de Astwyk speaking of a certain Stephen, 
son of Odin, as his ancestor. How far back Odin's 
position in the pedigree may be we have no means 
of knowing, but there is no reason to think that it 
was a very remote one. The names of towns and 
villages have been carefully indexed. We have 
not, indeed, found a single error, and only in one 
instance do we entertain a doubt as to the old 
spelling being rightly put under its modern head- 
ing. Field-names and the less prominent physical 
features of the country, though given in the body 
of the book, are not catalogued. As they occur on 
almost every page, and many of them are of great 
interest, we trust that some day or other a laborious 
person will be found who will give us an alpha- 
betical catalogue. Helwod and Bloodyshot were 
in Tunbridge in 1528 ; Shenkwynnes and Make- 
maydes were in Norfolk, probably in the parish of 
Brunham, in 1466; Ruwesand was in the -reign of 
Edward III. an island somewhere in Suffolk ; Lut- 
lumerssh was in Berkshire at about the same time ; 
and we find a Sortecrofte in an undated document 
relating to Wiltshire. As to the origin of the first 
two names here given it might be possible to make 
guesses not manifestly absurd, but the rest are 
quite beyond us. Grants of bondmen do not occur 
frequently. There is a Hertfordshire example of 
the time of Henry III., but the man was by no 
means a slave in any of the modern senses, as he 
held of his lord lands by villeinage tenure. There 
is another grant of the time of Edward III., but in 
his time manumissions were becoming frequent. 
We have one here by a Nottinghamshire knight, 
Sir John de Loutham, in 44 Edward HI. Sales of 
marriage of heirs rarely occur, but we have en- 
countered more than one. " Sale " is the word used 
in the abstracts, and is no doubt a correct rendering 
of the originals, but it does not convey to modern 
ears an absolutely correct idea, for if an heir were 
obstinate, the purchaser could not enforce the con- 
tract, for the Church held then, as now, that a 
marriage to be valid must have the free consent 
of both the parties concerned. In the reign of 
Richard III. the abbot and convent of Syon demised 

the manor of Charlton by Stenyng to William 
Pellet, of that place, yeoman, for the term of seven 
years, along with certain customs of silver appur- 
tenant thereto, which were called " revesilver, 
watelsilver, and werkesilver," and paid by the 
manorial tenants. The meaning of the first is well 
known, but of the others doubtful. There is an 
indenture of the time of Edward III., written in 
Anglo-French, which it would seem is well worth 
printing in full, as it contains a list of "books, 
vestments, vessels, relics, &c., specified in detail," 
which were surrendered to a certain Geoffrey de 
Luy. It is not said that he was a priest. In a grant 
of a park at Liskeard of the time of Richard II. it 
is said to be within the sanctuary of that place. A 
park within the limits of a sanctuary is an arrange- 
ment we have not previously heard of. 

THE leading paper in Folk-lore for June deals 
with ' The Letter of Toledo ' and its analogues. 
This particular letter, purporting to be sent by the 
sages and astrologers of Toledo to Pope Clement 111. 
and other men of importance, startled mankind by 
announcing that the destruction of the world was to 
take place in 1186. Such declarations were readily 
believed in during the ages of faith, since they 
chimed in with a large mass of tradition that had 
filtered down from remote times in connexion with 
Christian and heathen myths springing from the 
Antichrist legend, which had deep influence on the 
religious and political development of Europe. The 
second article of importance gives an account of 
the spiritualism of the Malays, whose conceptions 
appear to be worthy of so picturesque a people. 
The ' Collectanea ' and ' Correspondence,' as usual, 
add to the hoard of information which is gradually 
being collected on the subject of popular beliefs 
and customs among the barbaric and the super- 
ficially civilized. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

P. SIDNEY (" Tumble-Down Dick"). See 1 st S. 
vi. 391, 469, 590 ; 6 th S. vi. 168, 316 ; vii. 58. 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 <s.x. JULY 26, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 239. 

NOTES :" Corn- bote" in Harbour's 'Bruce,' 61 Landor 
on Singing Birds, 62 Thackeray and Homoeopathy 
"Hoping against hope" Shakespeare Allusions, 63 
Boudicca : its Pronunciation Writing Lessons on Sand- 
Sale of the Old Prince of Wales's Theatre " From the 
lone shieling," 64 Scott's ' Woodstock ' Schoolboys' 
Rights at Weddings, 65 Pam=Knave of Clubs Born on 
the Field of Waterloo, 66. 

QUERIES : References Wanted Hodgskin " I shall pass 
through this world" Beasley, Beesley, &c. Capt. Morris's 
Wife Spearing Governors of Public Schools, 67 
"Charley" in Popular Rimes 'North- West Fox from 
the North- West Passage,' 1635 Gounod Duke of Brabant 
Legend of Lady Alice Lea Butler's ' Erewhon ' King's- 
taper "First love is a rank exotic "Almond Tree and 
Old Age, 68 Black Hole of Calcutta: Last Survivor 
Rockall Austria and the Isle of Man Lady Elizabeth 
Percy. 69. 

REPLIES : Bruce and Burns, 69 Snodprass, 71 Cipher- 
Story Bibliography Napoleon's First laarriage Mourn- 
ing Sunday, 72 ' Dirty Old Man ' Likenesses of Jesus 
Iron Duke "In an interesting condition" German 
Letters, 73 'Comic Annual ' Crossing Knives and Forks 
Silhouettes of Children, 74 Greek Pronunciation 
Gender in German and Russian " Ote-toi de la," &c. 
Cliff ord-Braose Autograph Cottage Lady Morley, 75 
" Barracked "Quant, 76 Lime-tree Baronets of Nova 
Scotia Papal Provisions May Cats Hour of Sunday 
Morning Service Dutch Refugees in London " Ye gods 
and little fishes ! " 77 Hebrew Incantations, 78" Return- 
Ing thanks," 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'New English Dictionary '' The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica,' Vol. III. 

ACCORDING to 'The Bruce' (ed. Skeat, Scot. 
Text Soc., ii. 433) King Robert the Bruce at 
the battle of Methven in 1306, finding the 
fortunes of the day hopelessly adverse, 
directed his followers to retreat : 
Gud is we pass off thar daunger 
Till God us send eftsonys grace 
And jeyt may fall giff thai will chace 
Ouvt thaim torn but sum-dele we sail. 

II. 435-8. 

So the text reads in Prof. Skeat's canonical 
edition based upon two MSS., one at Cam- 
bridge and the other at Edinburgh. A foot- 
note marks the fact that in Andro Hart's 
print of ' The Bruce ' in 1616 the word combate 
takes the place of " torn but " in the above 
passage. Prof. Skeat in his notes interprets 
the last two lines thus : " And it may yet 
happen if they wish to pursue us we shall, 
however, to some extent requite them a turn." 
In his glossary he writes, "Torn, s., a turn ; 
quyt thaim torn, requite them a turn, repay 
them." Jamieson in his edition of 'The 
Bruce' also reads "torn but," and in his 
glossary writes : " Torn but, retaliation." 

Decisive light and correction come from 
the alliterative ' MoHe Arthure. ' Beryll has 
been killed by the King of Lebe, and Cador 
declares he will have revenge : 

" jone kynge," said Cador, "karpes full large 
Because he kyllyd this kene; Cnste hafe thi saule ! 
He sail hafe corne bote, so me Criste helpe \" 
Or I kaire of this coste we sail encontre ones." 

LI. 1784-7. 

In due course "Sir Cador the keen" rides 
at the king, and, striking him on the head- 
piece, leaves him dead on the field. 

Than Sir Cador the kene crye3 full lowde, 

" Thow has corn botte, sir kynge, thare God gyfe 

the sorowe ! 

Thow killyde my cosyn, my kare es the lesse, 
Kele the nowe in the claye and comforthe thi 

selfen ! " LI. 1836-9. 

The context shows that corn-bate, not " torn- 
bote," is the true form, for the alliterations 
throughout are on the letters c and k. On 
the signification of the word I have little 
remark to offer, except that the explanation 
given by Mrs. Banks in the glossary of her 
pretty and admirably equipped edition of 
' Morte Arthure ' appears substantially to 
meet the case : 

" Bot, Botte, s., amends, compensation, 1786, 1837 
qualified by ' corne,' perhaps as a compound ' corne 
bote.' alluding to some legal and technical definition 
of 'bote.'" 

That corn-bote means some sort of quid pro 
quo in kind, some species of manifestation of 
the lex talionis, comes out very clearly from 
the three passages alfove quoted, in - which 
alone it has attracted attention. Nothing 
corresponding to the word occurs in the 
original reference to the death of " Borellus " 
in Geoffrey of Monmouth, amplified and 
varied by the alliterative genius. 

One further point is to be made here. The 
fact that "torn but" is found in the two 
MSS. of The Bruce,' while "combate" 
appears in Hart's print, goes, with numerous 
other elements, towards proof of two things : 
(1) that the scribe or scribes of the Cambridge 
and Edinburgh MSS. did not understand the 
term he or they had to copy, and (2) that 
Hart's print (differing from the Cambridge 
and Edinburgh MSS. in the c, which is correct 
where these MSS. are wrong, and making one 
word where they make two) displays here, 
as so often elsewhere, the soundness of Prof. 
Skeat's method of regarding Hart's version 
as a clue to "excellent MSS. now lost." For 
almost every editorial purpose Hart's version 
has been accorded the rank of a MS., as it 
contains so many invaluable and independent 
readings without which the text drawn from 
the MSS. would not infrequently be un- 

Perhaps some of the learned word-hunters 
of 'N. & Q.' from whose laborious pastime we 
all have derived such continuous entertain- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

ment and profit may be able to enlighten 
us a little further about corn-bote, a term 
behind which there lurks a considerable 
archaic and legal reminiscence. Its use by 
two contemporary Scottish poets, one in 
alliteration, the other in riming verse, may 
argue for a Northern origin, but, broadly 
speaking, there was no Tweed or Solway 
between vocabularies in the fourteenth cen- 
tury. GEO. NEILSON. 

[Sir Cador's use of corn-bote was the subject of a 
query in 9 th S. viii. 44.] , 

No. xix. of ' Dry Sticks ' is entitled ' Sing- 
ing Birds,' and opens thus : 

Merle ! cushat ! mavis ! when but young 
More vulgar names from mother tongue 
Often and often, much I fear, 
Have wounded your too patient ear. 

The poet then proceeds to explain that the 
birds thus designated are respectively the 
blackbird, the wood-pigeon, and the speckled 
thrush, and concludes : 

I doubt if now ye sing so well 

In your fine names ; but who can tell ? 

The fine names had, no doubt, struck 
Landor in his perusal of Scott, whom he 
greatly admired, and to whom he pays this 
stirring tribute in the ' English Hexameters ' 
of the ' Last Fruit ' : 

Reckless of Roman and Greek, he chaunted the 

' Lay of the Minstrel ' 
Better than ever before any minstrel in chamber 

had chauated. 
Marmion mounted his horse with a shout such as 

rose under Ilion : 
Venus, who sprang from the sea, had envied the 

Lake and its Lady. 
Never on mountain or wild hath echo so cheerily 

Never did monarch bestow such glorious meed upon 

Never had monarch the power, liberality, justice, 


It will be remembered that the ballad of 
'Alice Brand' in 'The Lady of the Lake' 
opens with the fresh and captivating lines : 
Merry it is in the good greenwood 
When the mavis and merle are singing, 

thus conjoining prominent songsters of 
spring and early summer. In placing these 
birds together Scott follows early precedent. 
Robert Henryson, Scottish " makkar " of 
the fifteenth century, couples them near the 
opening of his fable 'The Lyon and the 
Mous,' where flowers charm the eye, and 
the songs of birds give a hint of Paradise, 

Sic mirth the Mavis and the Merle couth mae. 
Gavin Douglas, describing May in the Pro- 
logue to 'JEneid, xii., groups in one line 

" the merll, the mavys, and the nychtingale, 
thinking more probably of descriptive effect 
than accuracy of statement ; and the author 
of the quaint and fascinating 4 Complaynt of 
Scotland ' (1549) pits the birds against each 
other as rivals in song, asserting that "the 
mavis maid myrth for to mok the merle." 
The mavis appears in English poems of a 
date earlier than any of the works men- 
tioned. In the 'Romaunt of the Rose,' 
11. 619-20, it figures along with " the nyght- 
yngale and other joly briddis smale"; and 
towards the close of the ' Court of Love ' we 
learn that the turtle-dove took up the parable 
of May, "and therat lough the mavis in a 
scorn." The ' ' mavys " also appears in the 
'Romaunt of the Rose,' 1. 665, along with 
"thrustles and terins," whatever the latter 
may be. 

The cushat (A.-S. cusceote) has been a 
favourite with Scottish poets from Gavin 
Douglas, and perhaps earlier, to Principal 
Shairp. Douglas, in the Prologue just cited, 
says : 

The cowschet crowdis and perkis on the rys, 
that is, it cooes and perches on the copse. 
Montgomerie, in ' The Cherrie and the Slae,' 
st. 4, writes, " The Cukkow and the Cuschet 
cryde," and it is noteworthy that in the first 
stanza of the poem he has " the Merle and 
Maueis micht be sene." It is suggestive to 
contrast with these early references to the 
cushat the descriptive line in Thomson's 

The stockdove only through the forest cooes. 
This again leads to Burns's 'Afton Water,' 
in which we hear of the "stockdove whose 
echo resounds through the glen." Burns, 
however, is loyal to the cushat, which appears 
five different times in his lyrics. Twice he 
uses the term employed by Gavin Douglas to 
describe its song. "A cushat crooded o'er 
me," he writes in the fragment 'As I did 
wander'; and in the 'Epistle to William 
Simpson ' he listens 

While thro' the braes the cushat croods 

With wailfu' cry ! 

Principal Shairp, in his fascinating ' Bush 
aboon Traquair,' uses the popular form 
" cushie," and happily selects i the resonant 
and haunting " croon " to give something of 
onomatopoeic character to the impression he 
desires to convey. The charming result is 
presented as follows : 

And what saw ye there 
At the bush aboon Traquair ? 
Or what did ye hear that was worth your heed ? 
I heard the cushies croon 
Through the gpwden afternoon, 
And the Quair burn singing doun to the Vale of 

8* 8.X. JULY 26, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


To revert for a moment to the merle : it is 
curious to find in the fourth stanza of ' Will 
he no come back again?' (Hogg's 'Jacobite 
Kelics,' ii. 195) that this appears to be con- 
sidered as belonging to a species distinct 
from the blackbird. This is the reading : 
Whene'er I hear the blackbird sing, 

Unto the e'ening sinking down, 
Or merl that makes the woods to ring, 
To me they ha'e nae ither soun', ~ 
Than, Will he no come back again, &c. 

One fancies that Hogg cannot have detected 
this strange lapse, for otherwise he would 
almost certainly have laid editorial hands 
upon the stanza. THOMAS BAYNE. 

In ' The Onlooker's Note-Book,' an anony- 
mous work with an identifying motto,* the 
only instance of the kind with which I am 
acquainted, occurs the following (chap. xxii. 
p. 170):- 

" When Thackeray described the follies of Society 
as he knew it, he used to assign a prominent place 
to homoeopathy. Lady Blanche litzague, if I re- 
member aright, wore a picture of Hahnemann in 
her bracelet and a lock of Priessnitz's hair in a 

Now I am a contemner of homoeopathy, but 
a lover of accuracy, and I believe from in- 
ternal evidence that Thackeray was a con- 
vinced homoeopath is t, and that the "Dr. 
John Elliotson" to whom Thackeray dedi- 
cated ' Pendennis ' in the following flattering 
words was a homoeopathic practitioner : 

" My dear Doctor, Thirteen months ago, when it 
seemed likely that this story had come, to a close, a 
kind friend brought you to my bedside, whence in 
all probability I never should have risen but for 
your constant watchfulness and skill. I like to 

recall your great goodness and kindness at that 

time when kindness and friendship were most 
needed and welcome. And as you would take no 
other fee but thanks, let me record them here in 
behalf of me and mine, and subscribe myself, 
Yours most sincerely and gratefully, W. M. 

I believe from the same evidence that 
Thackeray, up to the time Dr. Elliotson was 
introduced by the "kind friend" (how well 
we know that friend !), was being attended 
by a regular practitioner, who was displaced 
in favour of the disciple of the homoeopathic 

* The full title is : " An Onlooker's Note-Book 
| By the Author of | Collections and Recollections | 
' Another peculiarity of the Russells is, that they 
never | alter their opinions: they are an excellent 
race but they | must be trepanned before they can 
be convinced.' | Sydney Smith : Second Letter to 
Archdeacon Singleton. | London | Smith Elder and 
Co. Waterloo Place | 1902." As is well known, the 
author is Mr. G. W. E. Russell 

I deduce this opinion from a passage in 
the preface to the "Biographical" Edition of 
' Pendennis,' p. xxxix : 

" In one of the Brookfield letters my father writes 
of my little sister: ' M. says, "Oh, papa, do make 
her [i.e., Helen Pendennis] well again ; she can have 
a regular doctor, and be almost dead, and then will 
cornea homoeopathic doctor who will make her well, 
you know.' " 

I do not identify for the moment the Lady 
Blanche Fitzague, cited by " Onlooker " as 
wearing Hahnemann's picture and Priess- 
nitz's hair. She was possibly described 
before the illness of 1849. Some of your 
readers can doubtless localize her at once, 
and also supply her date. 

W. SYKES, M.D., F.S.A. 
47, Southernhay W., Exeter. 

P.S. In a subsequent communication I 
want to identify, with the help of your corre- 
spondents, the Thackerayan topography of 
Exeter the hotel Foker and Major 
Pendennis put up, the shop overlooking the 
dean's garden where the Fotheringay lodged, 
the site of the Exeter Theatre, and any other 
accurate identification which can be estab- 

marks (ante, p. 10) that " hope against hope " 
is "a curious phrased It is curious that 
C. C. M. very nearly a quarter of a century 
ago (5 th S. ix. 68) called it a "nonsensical 
expression." From that particular contribu- 
tion others flowed (ibid., 94, 258, 275, 319, 378) 
which proved its antiquity and value, and 
which are well worth referring to now. 


'Pygmalion and Galatea' (1598) Marston 
proceeds to praise his poem in lines which 
contain this couplet : 

So Labeo did complain his love was stone, 
Obdurate, flinty, so relentless none ; 

seemingly an allusion to ' Venus and Adonis ' 

(200-201) : , 

Art thou obdurate, flinty, hard as steel- 
Nay, more than flint, for stone at rain relenteth ? 

Although numerous paraphrases of the same 
idea, are to be met with in Elizabethan poetry, 
in no other lines is there so pronounced a 
similarity of language. The chief interest of 
the passage, however, is in the fact that if 
he is girding at Shakespeare, Marston has 
sketched for us one of the dramatist's features. 
According to Smith's 'Latin-English Dic- 
tionary,' Labeo =" the one who has large 

Shakespeare must have taken offence at 
this allusion, or a quarrel may have arisen 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< h s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

from some other cause, not now to be dis- 
covered. In the ' Scourge of Villany ' Marston 
replies to some attack of Shakespeare's in 
these bitter words : 

Nay, shall a trencher-slave extenuate 
Some Lucrece rape, and straight magnificate 
Lewd Jovian lust, whilst my satiric vein 
Shall muzzled be, not daring out to 'strain 
His tearing paw ? No, gloomy Juvenal, 
Though to thy fortunes I disastrous fall. 

If, as generally believed, Marston com- 
posed ' Pygmalion and Galatea,' using ' Venus 
and Adonis ' for his model, and protesting in 
the ' Scourge of Villany ' in no uncertain 
words against the obscenity of contemporary 
poetry, it is not so difficult to surmise the 
probable cause of the quarrel between the 
satirist and him of the " tearing paw." The 
" trencher-slave" expression is confirmation, 
also, of the traditional story of Shakespeare's 
humble beginnings after his arrival in London. 
Further, if the " tiger's heart " of the Greene- 
Chettle episode referred to Shakespeare 
(which I have always doubted), the pass- 
ing years seemingly had not altered his 
"gentle" (sic) disposition, if Marston could, 
in 1598, refer to him in such terms. 

Hall, in his satires, devotes some little space 
to one Labeo. Before identifying the above 
allusion, I had long believed that Shake- 
speare was the person alluded to. A note 
about this is reserved for the future. 


New York. 

the inscription "Boadicea (Boudicca), Queen 
of the Iceni," which the London County 
Council have decided upon for the statuary 
group on the Victoria Embankment, there is 
an amusing poem iu Punch (2 July) which asks 
how this new orthography of an old friend is 
to be pronounced. " Is it .Soodicca, or instead 
jSow^Adicca ? " demands the puzzled bard. 
The reply to this question is, in my opinion, 
that it is neither. It is Zfodicca. The syllable 
Bou is to be pronounced exactly like the Bo 
in the name of another familiar heroine, 
Bopeep. In other words, the diphthong here 
is not the French ou, but rather the Penin- 
sular ou, as in the Spanish place-name Port 
Bou, locally pronounced Port Bo, or as iri the 
Portuguese names Douro and Souza, which 
Englishmen too often miscall Dooro and Sooza, 
but which are never so sounded in their 
native land. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

days of village education it was quite usual 
to instruct children in the art of writing by 
using sand for the formation of the letters. 

So recently as 1806, Mr. Tory, a bombardier, 
opened a free school in the Wesleyan Chapel 
at Southwold, " in which the children were 
taught to read and spell, and to write on 
sand." But in 1803 the master of the Wis- 
bech Charity School gave up his appointment, 
chiefly because he was required to teach 
writing on sand. At the Sunday School of 
Roydon, near Diss, in Norfolk (the home of 
the Freres), writing was taught by trays 
of sand, and the children wrote either with 
sticks or their fingers, making letters of any 
size, but generally about three inches high. 



[See 7 th S. ii. 369, 474 ; iii. 36, 231, 358 ; vi. 236 ; 
8 th S. iii. 188,233.] 

THEATRE. The recent sale of this old 
theatre is, I think, worth a passing mention. 
Its frontage as it now exists dates from 1780, 
at which time Tottenham Street, Tottenham 
Court Road, it need hardly be said, was a 
very different thoroughfare from what it has 
since become. Originally Paschali's Concert 
Room, the building was celebrated for concerts 
in the reign of George III., who frequently 
visited it, and for whom a sumptuous box 
and anterooms were built, the name being 
changed in his honour to the " King's Con- 
cert Rooms." After this it became Hyde's 
Concert Room for several years, till in 1802 
it was opened as an entertainment theatre 
and club under the name of the Pickwick 
Society. It was next known as the " Theatre 
of Variety," and was noted for French plays 
and French actors. In 1850 it is advertised 
as the " Fitzroy or Queen's Theatre, formerly 
called the Regency Theatre." 

Under the Bancrofts it became once more 
fashionable, and the early triumphs of those 
delightful actors were achieved on the boards 
of this old theatre. 


" FROM THE LONE SHIELING." (See 9 th S. ix. 
483.) As considerable interest has been 
manifested in the recent attribution of the 
' Canadian Boat-Song ' to John Gait, and in 
view of the numerous versions of the "/song," 
it may be desirable to let readers of ' N. & Q.' 
who are interested in the lines as well as in 
the question of authorship have the piece 
as it appeared in Blackwood's Magazine for 
September, 1829. Robert Louis Stevenson, 
by the way, frequently quoted the second 
stanza, beginning "From the lone shieling," 
though he never did so correctly ; and Mr. 
Chamberlain, in more than one speech he 
delivered in Scotland some years ago, also 



misquoted the verse. With the exception of 
the repeated chorus after each stanza, the fol- 
lowing is an exact transcript from Black- 
wood's : 

CANADIAN BOAT-SONG (from the Gaelic). 
Listen to me, as when ye heard our father 

Sing long ago the song of other shores 
Listen to me, and then in chorus gather 

All your deep voices, as ye pull your oars : 

Fair these broad meads these hoary woods are 

grand ; 
But we are exiles from our fathers' land. 

From the lone shieling of the misty island 
Mountains divide us, and the waste of seas 

Yet still the blood is strong, the heart is Highland, 
And we in dreams behold the Hebrides. 

We ne'er shall tread the fancy-hauiited valley, 
Where 'tween the dark hills creeps the small 
clear stream, 

In arms around the patriarch banner rally, 
Nor see the moon on royal tombstones gleam. 

When the bold kindred, in the time long-vanish'd, 
Conquer'd the soil and fortified the keep, 

No seer foretold the children would be banish'd 
That a degenerate Lord might boast his sheep. 

Come foreign rage let Discord burst in slaughter ! 

O then for clansman true, and stern claymore 
The hearts that would have given their blood like 

Beat heavily beyond the Atlantic roar. 

Prof. Mackinnon, the occupant of the 
Celtic Chair in Edinburgh University, is of 
opinion that the Gaelic version, known in 
the Highlands to this day, " is founded upon 
the Earl of Eglinton's lines, and is not, as 
might be supposed, an earlier form of the 
poem." JOHN GEIGOR. 

105, Choumert Road, Peckham. 

shall be glad if I may call attention to an 
extraordinary mistake made by the author 
in his description of Sir Henry Lee, who is 
represented throughout the novel as an old 
man. In chap. i. we are told that the scene 
is laid in 1652, and in the next chapter, in 
reply to his daughter's question, "You have 
seen Shakspeare yourself, sir?" the knight 
replies, " He died when I was a mere child." 
Shakspeare died in 1616, and if Sir Henry 
was then (say) six years old, he would have 
been born in 1610, and therefore be forty-two 
years old at the opening of the story. How 
can Sir Walter's description of '' a venerable 
gentleman with a long white beard " be 
reconciled with these figures ? In the con- 
cluding chapter of the work, in which King 
Charles's progress from Rochester to London 
in the year 1660 is described, we find our- 
selves in the presence of extreme old age, 
where " the light that burned so low in the 

socket had leaped up and expired in one 
exhilarating flash." Sir Henry Lee would 
then have been fifty, according to my pre- 
vious computation. 

There is also another point on which 
readers of the novel are left in doubt, viz., 
whether Markham Everard really knew of 
the verbal condition expressed to Wild rake 
by Cromwell at their interview at Windsor 
as described in chap. viii. In chap. xiv. 
there is a conversation between Everard and 
Wildrake, in which the latter explains to his 
friend that Cromwell " would have Woodstock 
a trap : your uncle and his pretty daughter 
a bait of toasted cheese ; you the spring-fall, 
which shall bar their escape," to which 
Everard replies, "This tallies with what 
Alice hinted." She had asked him a few 
pages before whether it was false that he 
was engaged to betray the young king of 
Scotland. En the scene, however, where 
Wildrake attempts to assassinate Cromwell, 
the former says that " Everard knew not a 
word of the rascally conditions you talk 
of." Wildrake was not a man to tell a- 
deliberate untruth, and the only solution 
which occurs to a perplexed reader is that 
Sir Walter Scott had forgotten the conversa- 
tion in which the condition on which Crom- 
well had acceded to Everard's request for 
permission to Sir H6*ry Lee to return to the 
lodge could not possibly be misunderstood by 
a man of ordinary intelligence. The views 
of some of your correspondents familiar with 
' Woodstock ' will be welcomed by 



vol. ii. (lettered 11) of the new series of the 
Transactions of the Cumberland and West- 
morland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society (Kendal, 1902) is an excellent paper 
by Mr. Harper Gaythorpe on some of the 
'Church Bells in the Archdeaconry of 
Furness.' The present instalment (pp. 282- 
306) deals only with the parishes of Col ton, 
Kirkby Ireleth, Broughton, Woodland, and 
Seathwaite ; but the work is most thoroughly 
done. In each case Mr. Gaythorpe has made 
inquiry into the ringing customs and related 
usages, and carefully recorded the facts. At 
Kirkby Ireleth, for example, 
"the bells are rung only for special weddings. 
Until 1840 it was the custom at weddings for the 
school children to repeat a homily or ' homminy ' as 
they stood hand in hand in a semicircle round the 
porch outside the church door. The smaller children 
were arranged near the wall, and the larger boys in 
the middle. After repeating the ' homminy ' of 
good wishes, if no coins were scattered the children 
ran before the newly married couple to the church 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 20, 1902. 

gate, and if none were scattered there another 
homminy' was repeated and the wish expressed 
that they might have no good luck and no 

I do not remember seeing an account 
elsewhere of the formal revocation of the 
good wishes where largesse was not given. 
Two or more articles referring to this subject 
have recently appeared in your columns, but 
they are hidden under titles that do not 
disclose their nature to the student of social 
customs. I venture, with diffidence, to 
suggest that the heading of this note is that 
under which such a student would expect to 
find the information, and to beg that a 
complete set of references to this odd insti- 
tution may be collected under it by the 
kindness of those who are acquainted with 
the riches of the stores of ' N. & Q.' 

O. O. H. 

[The articles to which O. O. H. refers will be 
found at 9 th S. vii. 273; ix. 386.] 

PAM = KNAVE OF CLUBS. This subject was 
discussed in a previous series of 'N. & Q.,' 
where two derivations of Pam are mentioned 
the older one from palm, and a newer one 
from pamphile, both of which are contained, 
as alternatives, in the 'Encyclopaedic Dic- 
tionary, (1881-1889). I have had occasion to 
go into the matter, to come to a conclusion 
for my own purposes as to which derivation 
was right ; and below I give the result in its 
draft form. It is desirable that the ' New 
English Dictionary,' which is approaching 
the word, should make a definite and correct 
choice between the two derivations one, at 
least, of which must be wrong. I would have 
sent the editors these particulars direct, as a 
possible help, only that some of your corre- 
spondents might be able to say something 
more in the way of addition or correction. 

Pam is the knave of clubs in the game of 
five-card loo, or pam loo, as it is sometimes 
called. Dr. Johnson, in his ' Dictionary ' 
(1755), derived the term as coming " probably 
from palm, victory ; as trump from triumph ; 
in which he is supported by Ash in his dic- 
tionary, twenty years later. PROF. SKEAT 
writes in ' N. & Q.' (7 th S. i. 358) : 

"It is surprising that Johnson's 'Dictionary' 
should be seriously consulted for etymologies. His 
derivation of Pam from palm, because Pam 
triumphs over other cards, is extremely comic. 
Of course, Pam is short for Pamphile, the French 
name for the knave of clubs ; for which see Littre's 
4 French Dictionary.' " 

Littre, however, only says that the card is 
so called in the game of pamphile, where it 
(Pamphile, like Pam in loo) is the principal 
trump. Considering that loo is a much older 

game than pamphile (which is first described 
in the continental Academic of 1756, while 
loo, under its old title of lanterloo, appears 
in the 'Compleat Gamester' of 1674), and 
that not only does Pope more than forty 
years previously refer to Pam in connexion 
with loo in his well-known 'Kape of the 
Lock '(1712) 

Ev'n mighty Pam, that Kings and Queens o'er- 

And mow'd down armies in the fights of Lu, 

but also that the term is defined as the knave 
of clubs still earlier in the 'Dictionary of the 
Canting Crew ' (1690), while some old writers 
actually spell it Palm* the professor must 
be regarded as putting the cart before the 
horse, and the doctor's derivation accepted 
as the correct one at least, until a better is 
found. The game of pamphile is a variation 
of the French game of mouche, and both are 
undoubtedly taken from loo. In fact, the 
original name of loo is found in the descrip- 
tion of pamphile. Even if it were conceivable 
that pamphile was contemporaneous with, or 
previous to loo, it would be highly improbable 
that the then undescribed foreign game 
would be so familiarly known in England as 
to originate a nickname in another game. 
From the foregoing facts it is fifty times 
more probable that "pamphile" was derived 
from Pam than " Pam " frompamphile. 

J. S. McTEAR. 
[See 7 th S. i. 228, 317, 358.] 

time when we are so far, far away from the 
period of "Boney" and "Old Nosey," it 
may, perhaps, be of some slight interest 
to allude to a small incident, as reported 
in the columns of the Weekly Irish Times, 
28 June, and doubtless in many another 
paper : 

" It was claimed the other day for Mrs. Moon, of 
Rolvenden, Kent (whose portrait the King recently 
accepted), that she was the last survivor of 
Waterloo, but it appears she must now share this 
honour with at least one other subject of His 
Majesty a respectable old man named William 
Battersby, living near High Wycombe, in Bucking- 
hamshire, who actually first saw light on the field 
of Waterloo two days before the memorable battle! 
Mr. Battersby, who last week celebrated his eighty- 
seventh birthday, was the son of a sergeant in the 
32nd Foot (Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry), 
attached to Picton's Brigade. During the sergeant s 
absence his wife, who had gone over as a military 
nurse, gave birth to a boy, who in time grew as tall 
as his father six feet. The son never joined the 
army, but followed the trade of a shoemaker." 


* For instance, the writer of the essays in the 
1 Annals of Gaming.' 

9'" S.X. JULY 26, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

REFERENCES WANTED.!. A wily abbot. 
"He was not like that insolent Abbot that did 
cast off his humility with his cowle, and being 
asked by his brethren why he was then so proud 
that was formerly such an humble monk, made 
answer, that in his monachisme, when he went so 
low and stooping, he was searching for the keyes 
of the Abbey ; but now having found them, he did 
hold up his head to ease himself." 
Who was the wily abbot ? > 

2. The torpedo, or cramp fish. 
Arcanas hyemes et caeca papavera ponti, 
Abdo sinu et celerem frigida vincla necem. 

3. General ruin and decay. 

Jam ruet etbustum, titulisque in marmore sectus, 
tumulis autem morientibus ipse, 
Occumbes etiani : sic mors tibi tertia restat. 

4. A saw, the original of Bunyan's "He 
that is down need fear no fall." 

Qui jacet in terra non habet unde cadat. 
[Alain de Lille, lib. Parab. c. 2.] 

5. A seventeenth- century hymn on hell : 
"Ex quo poli " is probably not the real begin- 
ning of it : 

Ex quo poli sunt perfecti 

Audet numero complecti 

Stellas cceli, stillas roris, 

Undas aquei fluoris, 

Guttas imbris pluvialis, 

Floccos velleris nivalis, 

Quot sunt vere novo flores, 

Quot odores, quot colores, 

Quot vinacios autumnus, 

Poma legit et vertumnus, 

Quot jam grana tulit a?stas, 

Frondes hyemis tempestas, 

Totus orbis an i mantes, 

Aer atomos volantes, 

Pilos ferae, pecus villos. 

Vertex hominum capillos ; 

Adde Httoris arenas, 

Adde graminis verbenas, 

Tot myriades annorum, 

Quot momenta sseculorum ; 

Heus, adhuc seternitatis 

Portus fugit a damnatis. 

Sternum, aaternum ! Quanta hsec duratio, quanta ! 
Quam speranda bonis, quamque tremenda malis ! 

I know several parallels and close resem- 
blances to 2, 3, and 5 ; but I am in search 
of exact verifications. Smallest favours in 
that department would be most thankfully 
received. (Miss) L. I. GUINEY. 

12, Walton Street, Oxford. 

THOMAS HODGSKIN. I should be very 
pleased to receive information about the life 

of Thomas Hodgskin (1791 ?-l 860 ?), author 
of an 'Essay on Naval Discipline' j(1813), 
' Labour defended against the Claims of 
Capital ' (1824), ' Popular Political Economy ' 
(1828), and ' Natural and Artificial Right of 
Property Contrasted '(1832), and successively 
a leader-writer in the Morning Chronicle and 
Economist. Are any friends and relations, 
close or distant, of his still living ? 

ELIE HALEVY, Docteur-es-Lettres. 


Can any one tell me the author of the follow- 
ing sentiment? 

" I shall pass through this world but once, there- 
fore any good deed I can do, any kindness I can 
show to any human being, let me not defer, nor 
neglect it, for I shall not pass this way again." 



[At 8 th S. xi. 118 C. stated that Mr. Moody had 
informed him that he obtained this motto from a 
member of the Massachusetts Legislature who was 
then (1897) dead.] 

Perhaps some one of your readers who bears 
this surname may be able to give me some 
information as to its derivation and the 
locality in which it originated. If not, I 
should be grateful frr any guidance as to 
how I may furnish myself with such infor- 

Bulbourne, Tring. 

CAPT. MORRIS'S WIFE. I should much like 
to get the poet Capt. Morris's marriage cer- 
tificate and the lineage of his wife, but have 
no idea where to look, as his marriage was 
prior to the records of Somerset House. 
Capt. Morris was my husband's great-grand- 
father, and married the widow of Sir William 
Stanhope. Had she any previous family 1 


5, Warwick Mansions, Kensington. 

[MR. J. RADCLIFFE stated at 9 th S. viii. 533 that 
the lady's maiden name was Anne Hussey Delaval, 
daughter of Francis Blake Delaval, of Seaton 
Delaval. 1 

SPEARING. I should be grateful for any 
information concerning Capt. Spearing, who 
was present at the capture of the Manillas, 
and died in India, on board the Bristol, in 
1783. He married Ann Ashdown. Can any 
of the family give me the name of his father 1 

F. V. 

obliged for information as to the prevailing 
practice in English public schools with re- 
gard to the conduct of meetings of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. o s. x. JULY 25, 1902. 

governing body. Does the head master 
usually preside? Further, is the head master 
ordinarily a member of the governing body 
of the school ? PERTINAX. 

Charley Wag, Charley Wag, 
Ate the pudding and swallowed the bag, 
And left the strings for his mammy to gnag, 

has already been commented upon. There 
are, however, several other well-known rimes 
on this unfortunate name. Here are two : 
Charley, barley, butter and eggs, 
Lamb-toes and barley-pegs. 
Charley, Charley, chuck, chuck, chuck, 
Went to bed with two young ducks ; 
One died, and the other cried, 
Charley, Charley, chuck, chuck, chuck ! 

Why should this name be so distinguished 
above all others ? C. C. B. 

[The lines, as we heard them in youth, ran : 
Charley Chuck married a duck, 
The duck died, and Charley cried. 
Good bye [.night] to Charley Chuck. 
We fancy that other of the commonest English 
names, such as William and Tom, are equally dis- 
tinguished in popular folk-lore.] 

NORTH- WEST PASSAGE,' 1635. I shall be glad 
to hear of the whereabouts of copies of this 
book, of their condition, of their history, and 
whether they contain the original map and 
the globe. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

GOUNOD. Was this famous French com- 
poser a Protestant ? Date and place of his 
death wanted. J. T. T. 


[Gounod was a Roman Catholic. He died at 
St. Cloud 18 October, 1893.] 

DUKE OF BRABANT. May I hope to have 
through the medium of your interesting 
columns information as to the ancestry and 
connexions of Godfrey, (styled) first Duke of 
Brabant, whose daughter Adeliza was second 
wife to Henry I. ? H. L. 

years back (I forget the date) I clipped the 
following from the Western Morning fleivs : 

" One of the most singular legends of North Corn- 
wall is that connected with the name of Lady Alice 
Lea, whose family resided in the parish of Morwen- 
stow in the sixteenth century. Her lovely eyes and 
gorgeous dress made the country folks aver that 
she had the eyes of a seraph and the robes of a 
queen. Her heart was set on winning the love of 
Sir Bevil Grenvile, of Stow. In vain did her mother 
entreat her to commend her desires to Heaven, and 
not to trust to beauty or apparel. To all such 
advice she gave scornful reply. At length Lady 

Alice could nowhere be found, while on her favourite 
lawn appeared a little molehill, and a priest in 
passing by took from its top her ring, on which 
were graven these words : 

The earth must hide 

Both eyes and pride. 

This story of the proud and vain lady who was 
turned into a mole is one of the strangest to be met 
with in Cornwall." 

Where can I find this legend 1 There is no 
mention of it amongst the numerous legends 
collected by Mrs. H. P. Whitcombe in ' By- 

one Days in Devon and Cornwall.' Also, 
id such a personage as Lady Alice Lea ever 
exist : and, if so, what was her parentage ? 

D. K. T. 

BUTLER'S 'EREWHON.' Chap. xix. is headed 
'World of the Unborn.' Is it possible that 
the author obtained his ideas for this chapter 
from 'Lucina sine Concubitu,' first pub- 
lished in 1750, and reprinted 1761 by Dodsley, 
with a number of other short articles, in 
'Fugitive Pieces on Various Subjects ' ? See 
vol. i. pp. 151, 152. HERBERT SOUTHAM. 


KING'S-TAPER. Is there, perhaps, somewhere 
in any district of the United Kingdom or of 
the British Empire such a local name as the 
king's-taper given to the mullein, or high- 
taper, or Jupiter's-staff ( Verbascum thapsus) 1 
It is a well-known and little-cultivated field- 
plant, provided with large woolly leaves and 
yellow flowers, which shoots up its high stalk 
not seldom to a height of six feet, whence it 
bears, among various others, its significant 
names high-taper and Jupiter's-staff. Con- 
sidering that this field and garden plant 
appears to be especially conspicuous during 
this summer in England, growing and blos- 
soming, so to speak, in praise and honour of 
her people's popular king, may one suggest 
to add the above-stated name, the king's- 
taper, to its many other less appropriate 
names, if it does not already occur? I have 
searched after it in vain in Prof. Wright's 
' English Dialect Dictionary ' and in the ' New 
English Dictionary' among the compounds 
of " king." H. K. 

does Ruskin say, " First love is a rank exotic 
that must be pruned to make room for the 
fair delight of flowers"? I am anxious to 
discover the exact place of the quotation, if 
by chance it should occur in any of his greater 
works. M. R. 

In the last chapter of the book of Eccle- 
siastes, in the beautiful description of the 

9*s.x.JuLY26,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


physical failure of old age, occurs the sentence, 
" The almond tree shall flourish " (Revised 
Version "shall blossom"). I should like to 
ask -why the almond tree is chosen in this 
connexion, and if it be quite certain that the 
original word used indicates the almond. 
The peculiarity of the almond tree is that it 
flowers before the leaves appear rather an 
emblem, apparently, of precocious youth than 
of the failure of age. There appears, however, 
to be an Eastern tree which more fitly meets 
the requirements of the comparison. In 
Rudyard Kipling's story ' In Flood Time ' 
(' Soldiers Three, and other Stories ') occurs 
the following sentence, which struck me in 
this connexion : " The mind of an old man is 
like the numah-tree. Fruit, bud, blossom, 
and the dead leaves of all the years of the 
past flourish together. Old and new and 
that which is gone out of remembrance, all 
three are there ! " The aptness of the com- 
parison here is much more evident than in 
the Biblical illustration, and I cannot help 
wondering if there may not be a mistake in 
the translation of the latter. 

W. SYKES, M.D., F.S.A. 

SURVIVOE. In the list of " Those who sy.r- 
vived the Black Hole Prison," printed in 
J. Z. Holwell's "Genuine Narrative of the 
Deplorable Deaths of the English Gentle- 
men, and others, who were suffocated in the 
Black Hole in Fort William, at Calcutta, in 
the Kingdom of Bengal, in the Night suc- 
ceeding the 20th Day of June, 1756. London : 
Printed for A. Millar in the Strand. 
MDCCLVIII," now before me, p. 40, the only 
lady named is Mrs. Carey. In the Asiatic 
Journal, vol. ii. p. 99, of July, 1816, the 
obituary contains the following : 

"Nov. 20 [? 1815J Mrs. Knox, aged 74 years she 
is the last of those who survived the horrid scene 
of the Black Hole in 1756. She was at that time 
24 years of age, the wife of a Ur. Knox." 

I do not find the name " Knox " in Holwell's 
list; but he mentions "John Meadows, and 
twelve military and militia blacks and 
whites, some of whom recovered when the 
door was open." 

The case of Mrs. Carey is discussed by Dr. 
Busteed, ' Echoes of Old Calcutta,' second 
edition, p. 30. She was 58 years of age in 
1799. She would therefore be about 15 years 
old at the time of the tragedy. May I ask if 
anything is known of Mrs. Knox? 


Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

ROCKALL. Has any scientific account ever 
been written of Rockall, an island or rock in 

the North Atlantic 1 So far as I know the 
late Capt. Hans Busk was the only person 
who had landed thereon. Is it a volcanic 
peak ? ASTARTE. 

OF BERWICK. In an opinion, Rex v. Cowle, 
1759, Burrow's 'Reports,' p. 851, Lord Mans- 
field alludes to "a complaint of Austria 
claiming the Isle of Man," referring to Rymer, 
608. What claim was this? The opinion 
contains a valuable collation of the history, 
the constitution, the charter, and the laws of 
the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed. 


Portland, Oregon. 

Percy i*> said to have been married to the 
Rev." William Nicholson, M.A., rector of 
Derrybrusk (Derrybrughas), co. Fermanagh, 
who was murdered at Taulbridge, co. Down, 
in 1641. The only 'Lady Elizabeth Percy I 
can trace at the period, the daughter of 
Thomas, seventh Earl of Northumberland,- 
was married' to Thomas Woodruffe, of 
Woolley, Yorkshire, whom she may have 
survived. The family tradition represents 
her as a member of the Northumberland 
family. Is there any evidence (documentary 
or otherwise) of La4y Elizabeth's marriage 
with Mr. Nicholson 1 ? 


29, Woolwich Common, Kent. 


(9 th S. vii. 466 ; viii. 70, 148, 312, 388, 527 ; 

ix. 95, 209, 309, 414, 469, 512.) 

IN my last communication on this subject 
I adduced certain passages from other poems 
of Bruce as illustrations of the thought and 
style exemplified in the ' Ode to the Cuckoo.' 
It seems necessary now to say that in doing 
so I had no' intention of claiming for the 
poet a monopoly of the ordinary words of 
the English language. I trust that very few 
readers, received such a fantastic impression 
as that this was the purpose of what I wrote. 
The poems from which the citations were 
made were in the volume published by Logan 
in 1770 as ' Poems on Several Occasions by 
Michael Bruce,' and he did not afterwards 
claim them publicly as his own. 

In his preface to the little book to which 
he gave the title just quoted Logan wrote as 
follows : 

"Michael Bruce, the Author of the following 
Poems, lives now no more but in the remembrance 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

of his friends It was during the summer vaca- 
tions of the college that he composed the following 

Poems To make up a miscellany, some poems, 

wrote by different authors, are inserted, all of them 
original, and none of them destitute of merit. The 
reader of taste will easily distinguish them from 
those of Mr. Bruce, without their being parti- 
cularized by any mark." 

With this somewhat self-contradictory and 
perplexing statement before him as a means 
of guidance, it is not very clear how " the 
reader of taste " could be expected to show 
his discernment, especially as nothing of 
Bruce's had previously appeared. One 
obvious thing to do would be to assign to 
the author named on the title-page the best 
things in the book, and thus the ' Ode to the 
Cuckoo,' as the masterpiece of the collection, 
would from the first be considered the work 
of the poet eulogized in the introduction. The 
" miscellany," on the editor's own showing, 
was a collection of the poems of Michael 
Bruce, associated with whom were certain 
unnamed authors, included, apparently, for 
the sake of padding, and introduced with a 
somewhat apologetic commendation. This 
was the way to exalt Bruce and to depreciate 
his companions, whose claims to attention 
would naturally be regarded by comparison 
as somewhat insignificant. The confusion 
began when Logan in 1781 included the 
' Cuckoo ' in a volume published under his 
own name. 

As regards Campbell's assertion that " the 
charge of stealing the ' Cuckoo ' from Bruce 
was not brought against Logan in his life- 
time," it may simply be said that this is one 
illustration of Campbell's imperfect acquaint- 
ance with the subject. The matter was judi- 
cially examined over a ' Bill of Suspension 
and Interdict,' by which in 1781 Logan at- 
tempted to prevent _the reissue of the 1770 
volume by Bruce's friends. He then declared 
himself the " proprietor " of the poems sug- 
gestively avoiding the specific claim of 
authorship and asserted, in his instructions 
to his agent, that " Mr. Logan was entrusted 
by Michael Bruce, previous to his death, with 
these very poems." As this was untrue, he 
naturally failed to secure evidence, the case 
went against him, and the volume was printed 
at Edinburgh " by J. Robertson for W. Ander- 
son, bookseller, Stirling." This is what is 
known as the reprint of 1782. Surely, if 
Logan had been the author of the ' Ode to 
the Cuckoo,' and the other pieces in the 
" miscellany " that his advocates have claimed 
for him, this was the occasion for establish- 
ing his rights. As a matter of fact, what he 
did establish, by clear inference from his own 
words, was that the poems were Bruce's. 

Mr. Young, his law agent in the case, ex- 
pressed his estimate of his client with out- 
spoken frankness to Dr. Mackelvie. " Logan," 
he remarked, "certainly never said to me 
that he was the author." Again, when Mac- 
kelvie's edition of Bruce appeared, the same 
candid witness gave his emphatic testimony 
to the editor's labours in these terms : 

" I really am at a loss to express to you my appro- 
bation of the manner in which you have executed 
the work, and the justice you have done to the 
talents and memory of a most extraordinary youth, 
more especially by rescuing them from the fangs of 
a poisonous reptile." 

It is apparently proposed to discredit 
David Pearson's evidence on the ground that 
it was not given till after Logan's death ; 
and Dr. Mackelvie is quoted as writing that 
Pearson "had almost no education, under- 
standing by that term training at school." 
Pearson's views on the subject would be per- 
fectly well known from the first where they 
were likely to be understood and appreciated, 
but the difficulty would be to gain the atten- 
tion of a wide audience. Had there been 
at the time an appreciable body of public 
opinion, Logan would hardly have dared to 
publish as his own, without a word of 
explanation, a revised version of Dr. Dod- 
dridge's hymn ' O God of Bethel ! ' The 
man capable of thus utilizing a poem that 
had been before the world for nearly thirty 
years had a boldness of appropriation that 
must have been determined by his contempt 
for the general intelligence and the special 
knowledge of his time. Difficulties and 
scruples would vanish when he had to handle 
merely the unpublished MSS. of an obscure 
poet, who had died before tasting fame, whose 
relatives were poor and lowly, and whose 
intimate friends lacked position and power. 
Those were not the days of the popular news- 
paper and the monthly magazine, in which 
grievances, literary and other, could be dis- 
cussed, and Pearson, although a versifier, and 
a strong, upright, and independent character, 
was not a professional man of letters. While 
Mackelvie's estimate of his school education 
is probably correct, it is also true that 
Michael Bruce respected his abilities and 
gave him his fullest confidence. Dr. Ander- 
son, also, of the 'British Poets,' who came in 
contact with him, considered him " a man of 
strong parts, and of a serious, contemplative, 
and inquisitive turn, who had improved his 
mind by a diligent and solitary perusal of 
such books as came within his reach." This 
is a testimonial that might have been written 
for Shakespeare himself. Pearson prepared 
a memoir of Bruce after Anderson had 



assigned to Logan the ' Ode to the Cuckoo,' 
and in reference to this Anderson wrote to 
him thus : 

" I have since seen your account of Bruce, which, 
so far as it goes, is pleasing and interesting. I 
hope, however, you will do me the justice to 
cancel the sentence relating to me. I dp not com- 
plain of its coldness, but of its unfairness. In 
my narrative I followed Dr. Baird's authority in 
assigning the ' Ode to the Cuckoo ' to Logan." 

Here we have a very important admission. 
Dr. Baird was the Principal of Edinburgh 
University, who had at first believed in 
Logan, but in 1796 he published an edition 
of Bruce's 'Poems,' in which he included the 
' Ode to the Cuckoo' without comment. He 
had seen reason to change the opinion by 
which Anderson had guided himself, and the 
explanation given (in a letter quoted by Dr. 
Mackelvie) is to the effect that "Dr. Baird 
has found the ' Cuckoo ' to be Michael Bruce's, 
and has the original in his own [Bruce's] 
handwriting." Either this copy, or another 
like it, was seen by Prof. Davidson of Aber- 
deen, son of Bruce's medical adviser in 
Kinross. Davidson says his father never 
doubted Bruce's authorship of the poem 
knowing it familiarly and apart from Logan's 
publication, as Pearson and other friends 
knew it and he adds for himself that, " in 
1786 or thereby," he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the poem in the author's own hand- 
writing. It was " written upon a very small 

quarto page, with a single line below it 

and signed * Michael Bruce.' " Underneath 
the poem, he adds, was the remark, " You 
will think I might have been better employed 
than writing about a gowk " (provincial 
Scotch for cuckoo). This is the kind of 
" documentary evidence " that would be of 
the last importance if it were available, but, 
pendingitsproblematicalrecovery, why should 
there be any hesitation in accepting the 
statements of honourable witnesses? These 
men had nothing to gain by disseminating 
falsehood, and they all knew the full signifi- 
cance of their words. 

Dr. Baird's change of front is specially 
notable. It is, perhaps, too much to hope 
that the MS. by which he was convinced will 
yet come to light ; but things equally remark- 
able have happened. Meanwhile the copy 
or copies seen by him and Prof. Davidson 
more than counterbalance the importance of 
the version in Logan's handwriting, which is 
said to have come under the notice of his 
cousin, Mrs. Hutcheson. That Logan would 
circulate the poem as written out by himself 
is a perfectly plausible surmise, and, at any 
rate, he had ample opportunity for making 

such an experiment, as Bruce's MSS. were in 
his possession for about three years before 
he published the " miscellany." On this 
point, however, Dr. Anderson's view may 
suffice. In the life prefixed to Logan's 
' Poems ' he writes : 

" If the testimonies of Dr. Robertson and Mrs. 
Hutcheson went the length of establishing the 
existence of the ode in Logan's handwriting in 
Bruce's lifetime, or before the MSS. came into 
Logan's possession, they might be considered de- 
cisive of the controversy. The suppression of 
Bruce's MSS., iu must be owned, is a circumstance 
unfavourable to the pretensions of Logan." 

Anderson thus shows his desire to be per- 
fectly fair, just as he elsewhere does wnen 
declining to be swayed by the possible par- 
tisanship of Robertson on the one hand, and 
David Pearson on the other. He also displays 
his sense of just and reasonable decision 
when he defers to the influential judgment 
of Baird. Here we find the beginning of the 
editorial currents. ' Principal Baird's original 
position led Anderson to the conclusion he 
adopted, and it also produced a line of editors 
and commentators who had neither oppor- 
tunity nor inclination for direct investigation 
of the subject. This accounts for the atti- 
tude of Chalmers, Southey, D'Israeli, Camp- 
bell, and so on. Again, Dr. Mackelvie and 
Dr. Grosart, accepting Principal Baird's deli- 
berately revised, decision, have hot only 
assigned the poem to Bruce, but, by rare and 
assiduous diligence and editorial skill, have 
accumulated overwhelming evidence in favour 
of his authorship. When the attention given 
to the matter by all other editors and antho- 
logists together is com pared with the laborious 
and untiring devotion, the consuming zeal, 
and the judicial attitude of these scholarly 
experts, the contrast presented is as that of 
moonshine unto sunshine or as that of water 
unto wine. THOMAS BAYNE. 

In ' Between the Ochils and Forth ' (Black- 
wood, 1888) the author, David Beveridge, 
says (pp. 86, 87) : 

" There can be little doubt, both from the evi- 
dence of Bruce's letters and that furnished by con- 
temporaneous testimony, that a base and unworthy 
fraud was committed by Logan in appropriating 
the authorship of the ode." 

And after an allusion to the singeing of fowls 
story he adds : " Logan long enjoyed his chief 
reputation as a poet on the strength of this 
unrighteous spoliation." I quote the above 
without pronouncing any opinion on the 
merits of the case. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

SNODGRASS, A SURNAME (9 th S. ix. 366, 496). 
The late Mr. Robert Langton, one of the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JOT.Y 26, 1902. 

very few careful commentators on Dickens, 
was of opinion that the " editor " of the ' Pick- 
wick Papers ' borrowed the name Snpdgrass 
from one Gabriel Snodgrass, a shipbuilder of 
Chatham. Gabriel, it will be remembered, 
also occurs in ' Pickwick ' as the Christian 
name of Grub, the sexton. Col. Mockler- 
Ferryman, editor of the Oxfordshire Light 
Infantry Magazine, informs me that a Capt. 
Snodgrass, who, as likely as not, was a relation 
of the aforesaid Gabriel, attained some dis- 
tinction in the Peninsular war as leader of a 
Portuguese regiment. Young Dickens's know- 
ledge of military Chatham was mostly picked 
up between 1817 and 1827, when the Peninsula 
and Waterloo were still things to talk about. 
The Oxfordshire Light Infantry is com- 
posed of the 43rd and 52nd regiments, two 
of the three regiments mentioned in ' Pick- 
wick '; and I may add that one of the sisters 
of Mr. Spong, of Cobtree, who is believed to 
have suggested the character of " Old Wardle," 
married Capt. (afterwards Field-Marshal Sir) 
William Rowan, of the 52nd, whose uncle 
and two brothers served in the same regi- 
ment, and who celebrated his twenty-sixth 
birthday at the battle of Waterloo. It has 
always seemed to me an interesting coinci- 
dence that 'Pickwick' and 'Vanity Fair' 
the two most popular works of the two most 
popular novelists of the Victorian era both 
touch on military life at Chatham, and while 
one brings the cannon's roar of Waterloo 
more nearly home to us than any history, the 
other gives the honour of inviting Mr. Jingle 
to Rochester to the 52nd the regiment which 
claims that it routed the last charge of the 
Imperial Guard. HAMMOND HALL. 

509). It may interest DR. KRUEGER to know 
that before Mrs. Gallup's days a 'Biblio- 
graphy of the Bacon-Shakespeare Contro- 
versy, with Notes and Extracts,' was compiled 
by Mr. W. H. Wyman (Cincinnati, Peter G. 
Thomson, 1884). G. F. R. B. 

371). Some account of this romantic inci- 
dent is to be found in the 'Life of Napo- 
leon,' by George Moir Bussey, vol. i. p. 43 
(London, 1840), illustrated with two vignette 
engravings after Horace Vernet. One repre- 
sents Eugene Beauharnais when a b )y begging 
his father's sword from General Bonaparte 
in 1795, and the other depicts the old 
negress, an Obi woman in the island of 
Martinique, prophesying to Josephine when 
a girl that "sne should one day become 

greater than a queen, and yet outlive her 
ignity." A lady of high rank, to whom 

Tosephine had mentioned the matter, related 
;his circumstance to Sir Walter Scott when 
Napoleon was just beginning to attract 
general notice. Her name is given as Marie 
Josephine Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, and she 
s said to have been married when very young 
x) Viscount Beauharnais, who was guillotined! 
in 1794. 

In Thiers's ' History of the Consulate and 
Empire' (book vi.). translated by Thomas W. 
Redhead, the prophecy is given in a different 
:orm : " On this subject she recalled the 
strange prediction of a woman, a sort of 
pythoness then in vogue, 'You will occupy 
ihe first place in the world, but only for a 
brief period.'" JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

NewDourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

MOURNING SUNDAY (9 th S. ix. 366, 390, 497). 
Quite fifty years ago this was the custom 
in all the Derbyshire villages, and is still 
ontinued, though hardly to the same extent. 
On the Sunday after the " berryin' " the 
whole family, together with those who had re- 
sponded to the " funeral askings," met at the 
house where the death had occurred. Funeral 
cakes or finger biscuits, with a few glasses of 
elderberry wine, were usually passed round, 
and then the whole party went to church, 
the nearest to the dead heading the proces- 
sion. Seats were reserved for them oy the 
sexton, who showed them to their places. 
All sat, and usually remained seated during 
the whole of the morning service, the women 
with downcast heads and kerchiefs to their 
eyes. In those days all the " berryin's " were 
" b't parson," and chapel folk went to church 
like the rest as a rule ; but chapel folk had 
also " berryin' Sundays," or else the mourners 
went to church in the morning and to chapel 
in the afternoon. The customs varied some- 
what, but, as a rule, the family and mourners 
took little or no part in the services. Some- 
times male mourners not relations did not 
enter the church, but waited in the church- 
yard until the " berryin' party " came out at 
the end of the service. The Sunday was 
always called " Berryin' Sunday." 



In a parish that I know in South- West 
Yorkshire it is customary for " mourners " to 
come to church on the Sunday after the 
funeral, and to occupy the front seat in the 
have. When the present vicar first came to 
the parish in 1864, all sat through the whole 
of the service, but now Church people do as 
the rest of the congregation do. Dissenters 
sit still all the time. If offered Prayer-books 
they do not know how to use them, but they 

*H S .x.JiTLY26,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


will sometimes look at a hymnbook. On 
one occasion a woman stood, and a neighbour 
pulled her dress and pointed out to her 
that she was not "showing proper respect." 
Sometimes they go to church in the morning 
and to their own place in the evening. I 
believe it to be a survival from early times. 
If a Sunday intervene between the death 
and the funeral, some people think it is not 
"showing proper respect" if you go to 
church before the following Sunday. 

J. T. F. 

The practice described is still almost uni- 
versally prevalent in the northern part of 
Northamptonshire. The farHly, and gener- 
ally all the bearers, whether Church people 
or not, attend church on the Sunday follow- 
ing the funeral, the family always remaining 
seated throughout the service. At the funeral 
itself none of the mourners would think of 
standing up while the Psalm was being read. 

Holy Trinity Vicarage, Rotherhithe. 

* THE DIRTY OLD MAN ' (9 th S. ix. 428, 512). 
The original lines in Household Words 
give Leadenhall Street. A note of mine on 
the subject will be found 9 th S. vii. 354 (but 
by inadvertence I put Chamberss Journal), 
also a reference to various engravings relating 
to the house in Leadenhall Street. MR. 
COLEMAN is quite right in supposing that the 
present name is an advertisement. 


ix. 481). It may interest your readers to 
know that the miracle of our Lord's portrait, 
"which Nicodemus gave as a present to 
Gamaliel," was the subject of a special festival 
in the old Welsh ecclesiastical calendar, being 
commemorated on 9 September under the 
title of " Y ddelw fy w " (" the living image "). 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

LINGTON (9 th S. ix. 466; x. 11). It were a 
pity that the origin of this sobriquet should 
be left in uncertainty, if it be possible to 
ascertain it. I cannot throw any light upon 
it, but can only repeat the tale as told by 
others, namely, that an iron steamship a 
novelty at the time was launched in the 
Mersey and christened the Duke of Welling- 
ton. It was called for short the Iron Duke, 
and the fitness of that designation for the 
eponymus of the ship was too obvious not 
to find favour. MR. EDGCUMBE affirms that 
the term was applied first to the Duke 

himself, but he does not offer any evidence 
or reference in support of that statement. 
I think the other version is the more probable, 
but neither can I produce evidence to support 

MR. RICHARD EDGCUMBE'S contention that 
the title of the Iron Duke was popularly 
bestowed on Arthur, Duke of Wellington, 
many years before the launching of the large 
ship at Liverpool, does not agree, I beg to 
remark, with the information on the subject 
in question contained in the very latest 
life of the illustrious Duke, namely, that 
in two volumes by the Right Honourable 
Sir Herbert Maxwell, M.P., published by 
Sampson Low & Co., London, 1899. The 
following is taken from my copy of the third 
edition, 1900, vol. i. p. 304 : 

" The sobriquet conferred on Wellington of the 
' Iron Duke,' it is true came to him in a roundabout 
way. An iron steamship, a novelty at the time, 
was launched in the Mersey and named the Duke 
of Wellington. The vessel came to be known as 
the Iron Duke, and the transition from the subject 
to the eponymus was too easy and obvious not to 
be effected." 


119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 


328, 431). Here is Another euphemism. In 
' Some Records of the Later Life of Harriet, 
Countess Granville,' there are extracts from 
a letter of Lady Georgiana Fullerton refer- 
ring to a visit . paid to Louis Philippe at 
Claremont. The king said : 

" We went away [from Paris] at last in little 
broughams. Vous savez, mesdames, ce que sont 
des broughams. Clementine souffrait, etant dans 
ce que vous appellez, Ladies, ' the happy way.' " 
-Pp. 32, 33. 


GERMAN LETTERS (9 th S. ix. 509). Consult, 
for instance, the correspondence between 
Goethe and Schiller (in 6 vols.), between 
the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grirnm, 
and between the brothers Alexander and 
Wilhelm von Humboldt, as well as their 
various letters written to many distin- 
guished men and women of science and 
art. Of more recent date and widely 
interesting are the letters of Bismarck 
and Moltke, especially those written by 
Moltke from England to his wife, which may 
rival any French works of the class in 
epistolary skill and facility as well as in 
literary value. A great variety of letters 
written by Germans of note may also be 
found in the Deutsche fiundschau, one of the 
leading periodicals, published in Berlin during 
the last twenty-eight years. H. K. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

' COMIC ANNUAL' (9 th S. ix. 188, 338). I 
can remember the amusement caused by this 
annual, sparkling with wit, much of which 
was reproduced in Hood's Own, a monthly 
periodical issued in shilling parts about 1842. 
It certainly was the wit that carried off the 
woodcuts, not their execution. The fancy 
portraits were most amusing as Capt. Back, 
Prof. Silliman, natives of the Scilly Isles, 
Mrs. Trimmer, and Theodore Hook. Much 
of the poetry may be found in Hood's col- 
lected poems, 'Comic and Serious.' About 
that time, or more recently, copies of the 
Comic Annual could be bought for very small 
sums at Lacey's in St. Paul's Churchyard. I 
can also remember large sheets of engravings 
from Hood's Own hanging in booksellers' 
windows in order to procure subscribers. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

325, 433 ; ix. 14, 357). At the first reference 
this superstition is thought to date from the 
French Revolution, but I think its approxi- 
mate origin may almost certainly be traced 
to ultra-Protestant days, when it was the 
fashion to scent the Pope in the bare sugges- 
tion of a cross. And what tends to emphasize 
this probability is the fact that the Italian 
invention of the fork for ordinary eating 
purposes does not appear to have been in 
general use until, the Restoration, while its 
introduction into this country, according to 
Thomas Coryat in his ' Crudities,' was owing 
to his own initiative in the early years of 
James I.'s reign. " Hereupon I myself," says 
the "Odcombian leg - stretcher," "thought 
good to imitate the Italian fashion by this 
forked cutting of meat, not only while I was in 
Italy, but also in Germany, and oftentimes 
in England since I came home." He came home 
in the year 1608, and the account of his tour 
was published in 1611. See also Ben Jonson's 
' Devil's an Ass,' brought out in 1616, Act V. 
sc. iv. The objection to a crossed knife and 
fork seems to have been new to such a keen 
observer as Addison, whose Spectator, No. 7, 
on such superstitions as were current in his 
time, contains, 1 think, sufficient answer to 
MR. BUTLER'S inquiry as to how far in the 
past the usage can be traced : 

" I despatched my Dinner as soon as I could with 
my usual Taciturnity ; when to my utter Confusion 
the Lady seeing me quitting my Knife and Fork, 
and laying them across one another upon my Plate, 
desired me that I would humour her so far as to 
take them out of that Figure, and place them side 
by side. What the Absurdity was which I had 
committed I did not know, but I suppose there was 
some traditionary Superstition in it ; and there- 
fore, iu obedience to the Lady of the House, I dis- 

posed of my Knife and Fork in two parallel Lines, 
which is the figure I shall always lay them in for 
the future, though I do not know any Reason for it." 

In Southern Russia this objection would 
not, of course, obtain, so that it is customary 
there, as ROBIN GOODFELLOW points out, to 
place the knife and fork, preparatory to a 
meal, in the form of a Greek cross, without 
any fear as to what may happen in conse- 
quence. J. HOLDEN MAcMlCHAEL. 

I agree with ST. SWITHIN that neither 
religion nor superstition had anything to do 
with the prescription fifty years ago. To 
leave the knife and fork side by side, in 
certain grades of provincial society, was an 
indication to the waiter that no more was 
required ; on the other hand, a crossed knife 
and fork was a silent call for another helping. 

See Gay's ' Fables,' l The Farmer's Wife and 
the Raven ' : 

Alas ! you know the cause too well : 
The salt is spilt, to me it fell. 
Then to contribute to my loss, 
My knife and fork were laid across ; 
On Friday too ! the day I dread ! 
Would I were safe at home in bed ! 

F. R. R. 

353, 396, 436 ; v. 190 ; vi. 255, 356 ; vii. 417). 
Supplementary to the interesting circular 
of Mr. Miers, mentioned by MR. WELFORD, 
there is a silhouette portrait of Lieut. John 
Blackett Watson (see 9 th S. ix. 388), now in 
the possession of Mrs. Henry Leighton, of 
East Boldon, which has pasted on the back 
of it the following advertisement : 


Profile-Painter & Jeweller 

No. Ill opposite Exchange, Strand, 


Continues to execute Likenesses in Profile Shade, 
in a style peculiarly Striking & elegant whereby the 
most forcible animation is retained to the minute 
size for setting in 

Rings Lockets Bracelets, &c. 

N.B. Mr. Miers preserves all the Original 
Sketches, so that those who have once sat for him 
may be supplied with any number of Copies without 
the trouble of Sitting again. 

Flat or Convex Glasses with Burnished Gold 
Borders to any dimensions for Prints, Drawings, &c. 

The portrait is unlike any other silhouette 
I have ever seen, being beautifully painted 
in black upon a piece of French chalk 3f in. 
by 3 in. in size, and about half an inch thick ; 
the detail in the officer's wig and lace ruffle 
is very neat. 

On the back of the chalk is written in 
pencil : 

Mr. J. Black' Watson. 



The frame is ebonized wood, and, needless 
to say, contains a "Convex Glass with Bur- 
nished Gold Border," there being four stripes 
of blaok, two wide and two narrow, running 
through the gold. The date is probably 
about 1805. 

As Lieut. Watson was a native of New- 
castle, it seems probable that the London Mr. 
Miers is identical with the Nova-Castrian 
visitor J. Miers, and query if he was a pupil 
of Charles 1 the above evidently resembling 
the portraits mentioned by MR. DRURY. 

It would be of interest to know what 
became of Mr. Miers's "original sketches." 

East Boldon, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

GREEK PRONUNCIATION (9 th S. vii. 146, 351, 
449; viii. 74, 192, 372, 513; ix. 131, 251, 311, 
332, 436, 475). I have read PROF. SKEAT'S 
note with great interest, even though it was 
written to correct astatementof mine. I think, 
however, that PROF. SKEAT should not lay the 
whole blame upon his careless readers. I also 
venture to think that PROF. SKEAT'S own 
view of the etymology of the word salt has 
been modified. If this is not so, I do not see 
why in his 'Etymological Dictionary,' 1884, 
second edition, he should put salt A.-S. 
sealt (the symbol he tells us is always to 
be read "directly derived from or borrowed 
from "), and then, in his ' Concise Etymolo- 
gical Dictionary ' of 1885, second edition, leave 
out this symbol ; though he still makes no 
mention at all of the Old Mercian word 
salt. It is true that in the ' Etymological 
Dictionary' of 1884 he gives a caution in 
the preface, p. xv, about words said to be 
derived from A.-S. ; but the ordinary reader 
looking out the derivation of any word 
would not necessarily read the whole of the 
long preface, and the caution is quite apart 
from the explanation of the symbols used. 
In any case, if PROF. SKEAT had put in his 
former dictionaries salt, M.E. salt. Old 
Merc, salt, A.-S. sealt, as it stands in his 
revised one of 1901, which I do not possess, 
it is clear that no reader, even though " un- 
initiated," could have mistaken his meaning. 


SIAN (9 th S. ix. 445). May I supplement the 
note of my excellent friend DR. H. KREBS 
with the observation that Prince Bismarck, 
an able European linguist, considered that 
Russian might be substituted for Greek with 
advantage for educational purposes, on ac- 
count of the mental discipline involved in 
learning the declensions of substantives 1 In 
the other Slavonic languages, as I have had 

the honour of pointing out in *N. & Q.,' the 
declensions are confused. Bulgarian has 
borrowed a postponed definite article from 
non-Slavonic languages. I venture to think 
that Russian prose is more intelligible than 
cultivated German, with its frequent involu- 
tions and interpolations. 

Brixton Hill. 

xi. 348, 416). A remarkable sonnet by Giu- 
seppe Giusti, the Tuscan poet, written in 
1849, concludes with these lines : 

Vedrai che 1' uom di setta e sempre quello, 
Pronto a giocar di tutti, e a dire addio 
Al conoscente, all' amico e al fratello. 
" E tutto si riduce, a parer mio " 
(Come disse un poeta di Magello), 
"A dire : esci di 11, ci vo star io." 

The poet of Magello was Filippo Pananti, 
born at Ronta, in Magello, 19 March, 1766, 
and who died at Florence 14 September, 1837. 
The expression referred to is taken from 
canto xciv. sestina 2 of the ' Poeta di Teatro,"" 
his best work : 

E donde nascqn le rivoluzioni ? 
Dai lumi dei filosofi ? dal peso 
Dell' ingiustizia, delle imppzioni ? 
So che questo si dice, anche is 1' ho inteso : 
Ma tutto si riduce, al parer mio, 
Al dire : esci di n, ci vo star io. 


CLIFFORD - BRAOSE (9 th S. v. 355, 499; vi. 
75, 236, 437). I cited from the old (MS.) 
Calendar of Close Rolls at the Record Office 
[p. 206, No. 4) an entry " concerning certain 
lands [in Sussex] which m. de Wyk held of 
Honora de Thony, who was wife of Roger de 
Thony, lately defunct," &c. By comparison 
with the original roll I afterwards found 
:>hat the words I have italicized were a 
Dlunder of the translator's, no such person 
3eing referred to in the original, where the 
statement is that the lands were "held 
of the Honour of Tony." Happily the old 
VIS. Calendar has recently been superseded 
:)y a new printed one, and in the latter a 
correct version is given. 


AUTOGRAPH COTTAGE (9 th S. ix. 368, 454). 
[ am obliged for MR. JULIAN MARSHALL'S 
dnd offer, which I shall be pleased to avail 
myself of when most convenient for him. 
Probably the catalogues record many items 
of Islingtoniana. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

ELIZABETH, LADY MORLEY (9 th S. ix. 388). 
Since forwarding this query I have been 
fortunate in obtaining information which 



x. JULY 26, 1902. 

largely solves the difficulty mentioned. For 
this successful issue I am much indebted to 
the kind offices of MR. ALFRED T. EVERITT 
and MR. JOHN RADCLIFFE, two of the most 
valued contributors to ' N. & Q.' 

1. It appears that the 'Dictionary of 
National Biography ' is wrong in stating that 
William de la Pole, first Duke of Suffolk 
(murdered 1450), by his wife Alice Chaucer 
had only one child, John (i.e., the second 
duke). For : 

a. The ' Catalogue of Honor,' by Robert 
Glover, 1610, p. 537, says the issue of William 
de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, and Alice Chaucer 
was John, afterwards duke, and William de 
la Pole. 

b. Burke speaks of John, second duke, as 
having been the eldest son of William, first 

c. The late Mr. Charles Frost, F.S.A., in 
his ' Notices relating to the Early History of 
the Town and Port of Hull,' 1827 a work of 
much local value says that William, first 
duke, and his wife Alice Chaucer, had three 
children : John, second duke, William de la 
Pole (who married Katharine, third daughter 
of William, second Lord Stourton), and Anna 
de la Pole. 

2. It appears that Mr. J. Pym Yeatman, in 
the ' Early Genealogical History of the House 
of Arundel.' is also incorrect in stating that 
Elizabeth de la Pole, who married Henry, 
Lord Morley, was the daughter of William, 
first duke. For : 

a. The inquisition taken on the last day 
of October, 5 Henry VII., 1489, after the death 
of Henry, Lord Morley, states 

"the said Henry took to wife at Wyngfeld, co. 
Suffolk, Elizabeth, daughter of John, Duke of Suffolk, 

but afterwards died without issue the aai d Hen ry 

Lovell, Lord Morley, died 13th June last. Alice, 
wife of William Parker, Knt., aged 22 and more, is 
his sister and heir." 

b. Banks, in his ' Extinct Baronage,' states 
that Elizabeth, who married Henry Lovel, 
Lord Morley, was the youngest daughter of 
John, second Duke of Suffolk ; also that 

" Elizabeth survived her husband many years ; and 
though a woman of more than common beauty, 
resisted all temptation of a second marriage, and 
died in the fifty-second year of her age ; and lies 
buried in the church of Hallingbury Morley, in 

The husband, Henry Lovel, Lord Morley, who 
was born in 1465, had died in 1489 without 

c. The late Mr. Charles Frost also stated 
that his researches proved that "Eliza- 
beth de la Pole, died s.p. aged 51," who 
" married Henry Lovel, second and last Lord 
Morley of that surname, died s.p. ," was the 

youngest daughter of John, second Duke of 

The writer in the ' D.N.B.' may have strong 
evidence for his statement that William de la 
Pole, the first Duke of Suffolk, and Alice 
Chaucer his wife, had only one child John, 
but the 'Catalogue of Honor,' by Robert 
Glover (edited by Thomas Milles), 1610, at 
p. 537, says their issue was two sons : John, 
who succeeded his father in the dukedom, ana 
William de la Pole. Burke, writing on the 
same person, seems to agree with Glover, and 
ends thus : "All the duke's honours, &c., de- 
volved on his eldest son John." There is 
evidently an error in Mr. Yeatman's work, or 
it has been misread in perusal, for it was 
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of John de la 
Pole, the second Duke of Suffolk, and Lady 
Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Richard, 
Duke of York, and sister of King Edward IV., 
his wife, who married Henry Lovel, Lord 

"BARRACKED" (9 th S. ix. 63, 196, 232, 355, 
514). As to larrakin, it is remarkable that 
none of your correspondents has referred to 
Prof. Skeat's ' Concise Dictionary ' (1901), s.v. 
' Lark ' (2), wherein 7 th S. vii. 345 is quoted. 
It appears still questionable whether the 
Irish rolled r does not account for the form 
as soundly as the Professor's lavrocklarrick. 
To the etymological student, however, far 
greater interest arises in the fact that Prof. 
Skeat derives " to lark " in the above edition 
from the note C? or movement) of the bird, 
and in his 1887 edition from A.-S. ldcan,to 

Elay, sport. Here r is treated as intrusive 
>r the phonetic laak, and referred to are A.-S. 
lac, sport, play ; Icel. leikr ; Goth, laiks, 
dance, laikan, to skip for joy, &c. A.-S. 
Idcan appears very early ('Gnomic Verses') 
of the soaring of birds, it is true ; but it 
cannot surely be derived from Idwerce, a lark 
(bird), the Gothic equivalent of which we do 
not know. "Laike," "layke," vb. and sb., 
sport or play, so common in Mid. Eng. and 
obviously from Idcan, seem to have dis- 
appeared, to be succeeded by the modern 
Eng. " lark," as to which we await informa- 
tion from the ' N.E D.' H. P. L. 

[The ' H.E.D.' says of lark, to frolic : " The origin 
is somewhat uncertain. Possibly it may represent 

the northern Lake, v On the other hand, it is 

quite as likeljtthat the word may have originated 
in some allusion to Lark, sb."] 

J. QUANT, 23 MAY, 1791 (9 th S. ix. 486). 
The following is not an answer to A. C. H.'s 
query, but it may interest him. A search 
through the Gentleman's Magazine or the 
' Annual Register ' of the perioa named in the 



query may result in a discovery. Abraham 
Weber, a Swiss sculptor, aged twenty-four, 
settled in England, anglicized his name, and 
married an Englishwoman named Quandt. 
This looks like Quant. Their son was John, 
the famous landscape painter. The Webbers 
lived in London in 1771 ; he died single 1792. 


LIME-TREE (9 th S. viii. 42). Bacon's essay 
' Of Gardens ' (ed. Arber, 1871, p. 556) tells 
us : " In July, come Gilly-Flowers of all 
Varieties ; Muske Roses ; the Lime-Tree in 
blossome [&c.]." Had the compositor played 
PROF. SKEAT false 1 O. 0. H. 

In vol. ii. of G. E. C.'s ' Complete Baronet- 
age,' now in progress, will be found full 
particulars of these baronetcies between 
1625 and 1646, the after creations to follow in 
due course. At pp. 275-7 the various lists are 
fully described, and their differences ex- 
plained. One of these, stated by G. E. C. to 
be " by far the most valuable," is printed in 
Joseph Foster's ' Baronetage ' for 1883. 

W. D. PINK. 

G. C. will find a full account of the institu- 
tion of the above order, with lists of members, 
some created between the years required, in 
Sir T. C. Banks's ' Baronia Anglica Concen- 
trata,' vol. ii., published 1844. 


PAPAL PROVISIONS (9 th S. x. 6). YGREC will 
be glad to know that ' A History of the 
English Church ' is not " discontinued." The 
fourth volume (Henry VIII. Mary), by Dr. 
James Gairdner, was published last month. 
Perhaps the following, from the Statute of 
Provisory (25 Edward III.), may furnish the 
information asked for : 

"Auxibien a la suite le Roi come de partie, et 
qen le mesne temps le Roi eit les profitz de tielx 
benefices, issint ocupez partielx provisours, forspris 
Abbeies, Priories, et autres mesons qont college 
ou Covent ; et en tieles mesons eient les Covent et 
colleges les profitz, sauvant totefoitz," &c. 

C. S. WARD. 

MAY CATS (9 th S. x. 9). So long ago as 
January, 1851, a contributor to the 'Folk- 
lore' column of ' N. <k Q.' stated that in 
Wilts, and also in Devon, it is believed that 
cats born in the month of May will catch 
neither mice nor rats ; will bring in snakes 
and slow-worms, and are held in general con- 
tempt. Another correspondent said that in 
Hampshire May kittens were always killed. 
In Pembrokeshire they are called " May- 
cletts," and the same custom of killing pre- 
vails. In Huntingdonshire it is a common 

saying that a "May kitten makes a dirty 
cat." The County Palatine folk-lore says, 
" It is unlucky to keep May kittens ; they 
should be drowned." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

As a child I used to be told May kittens 
must be drowned, because, if kept, they 
"sucked the breath," i.e., got on children's 
beds, sat on their chests, and breathed the 
child's breath till it died. My informant was 
an old nurse, a native of Lanchester, near 
Durham, who died at an advanced age in 
1866. She also told a tale of a farm servant 
who had drunk of a spring or tank whilst 
hay-making, and swallowed an egg of toad 
or newt, which hatched in her inside, and 
became a monstrous animal, causing death. 


S. ix. 67, 155, 317). Although no special time 
is mentioned, the following reference may be 
of interest. It occurs in Sir John Vanbrugh's 
comedy ' The. Relapse ; or, Virtue in Danger*' 
(1761) :- 

"Lord Foppington. Why faith, Madam Sunday 
is a vile Day, I must confess ; I intend to move 
for leave to bring in a Bill, That Players may work 
upon it, as well as the Hackney Coaches. Tho' 
this I must say for the Government, it leaves us 
the Churches to entertain us But then again, they 
begin so abominably early, a Man must rise by 
Candle-light to get dress'd Toy the Psalm. 

" Berinthia. Pray which Church does your Lord- 
ship most oblige with your Presence ? 

"Lord Foppington. Oh, St. James's, Madam," &c. 
Vide Act II. sc. i. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

ix. 289, 414). The late Mr. Cornelius Hallen 
printed this list in the Genealogical Magazine, 
quoted from Lansdowne MSS., vol. x. No. 62. 
Many were located about Fleming Street 
near the Tower, and a Sir Francis Fleming 
was master of St. Katherine's Hospital from 
1549 to 1557.' As early as 1393 regulations as 
to " street walkers " define Flemish women as 
chief offenders. ABSENS. 


369.) When referring to the ' Life of Charles 
Lever,' by W. J. Fitzpatrick, LL.D. (Chap- 
man & Hall, 1879), for another matter, I came 
across the statement that the author of 
' Charles O'Malley ' and his man Micky Free 
were very fond of amateur theatricals in 
Dublin. A loft was fitted up as a theatre, 
and Lever did everything. He was scene 
painter, prompter, played the fiddle, sang 
all the songs, and acted all the chief parts. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

The favourite pieces were the ' Warwickshire 
Wagg ' and ' Bombastes Furioso.' The latter 
piece, it need hardly be added, was a burlesque 
tragic opera, written by William Barnes 
Rhodes in ridicule of the heroic style of the 
modern dramas, and produced in 1790. In 
the days of my youth in Dublin, I understood 
that the expression 

Ye gods and little fishes ! 

What is a man without his breeches ? 

was to be found in ' Bombastes Furioso.' 

119, Elms Road, Clapham; S.W. 

Does not "Ye gods" refer to the cycle of 
the gods, and the latter part of the phrase to 
the mystical association therewith of the fishes 
(Pisces) of the zodiac ? 


HEBREW INCANTATIONS (9 th S. x. 29). This 
question is to me personally a most interest- 
ing one. I fancy the association, real or sup- 
posed, of Jews with the black art must date 
from the captivity in Babylon. Recent re- 
searches have proved that the Babylonians 
were desperate sorcerers, second to none. It 
has even been suggested (I forget by whom) 
that the extraordinary hieroglyphics which 
figure in mediaeval grimoires as the seals 
denoting planets are survivals of the cunei- 
form syllabary. Be that as it may, the asso- 
ciation of magic with the Hebrews is very 
old. If MR. BRESLAR can find time to inspect 
at the British Museum a copy of Cornelius 
Agrippa's 'Occult Philosophy,' he will see 
that from cover to cover it is crammed with 
Hebrew names and phrases, sometimes very 
correctly written, but often misprinted or 
debased. Thus, Aye Saraye, a sacred sentence 
frequent in this and similar treatises, is ob- 
viously intended for rvnK "IPX HMN. Agrippa 
was far from considering the Kabbala as 
merely mystical. For him it was a practical 
handbook to magic. The amulets which are 
illustrated in his pages are mostly in Hebrew, 
and I may add that in Petticoat Lane Hebrew 
amulets may still be bought, protective against 
almost every ill that flesh is heir to, from 
croup to the evil eye. Among English writers 
I have always looked upon Harrison Ains- 
worth a.sfacileprincepsin dealing with things 
hidden, and in some of his works notably 
' Crichton ' he shows very clearly that there 
was a Hebrew substratum to his magical 
studies. Besides, in Jewish history there are 
well-known cases of wonder-working Rabbins. 
MR. BRESLAR must have heard of Rabbi 
Ezekiel, he of the magic hammer, at each 
blow of which upon a nail in his cell one of 
his enemies, " even were he 2,000 leagues off, 

sank into the earth, which swallowed him 
up" (see 'Notre Dame,' lib. vi. cap. iv., 
wnere Hugo has made skilful use of this 
tradition). Another magician of legendary 
fame is the Rabbi Lion of Prague (died 1609), 
and I must plead guilty to having myself per- 
petrated a snort story under his name, which 
appeared in French in a Belgian journal, the 
IndJpendant, 30 March, 1899. A great-grand- 
son of his, Naphthali Cohen, was also a magi- 
cian. Upon nis house in Frankfort taking 
fire, he began to recite an exorcism to summon 
a spirit to pnt it out. But in his hurry he 
made the trifling mistake of calling up, in- 
stead of the extinguishing angel, the angel 
of fire ; the consequence of which was that 
not only Cohen's house, but most of the 
Jewish quarter, was burnt. The local autho- 
rities took the matter very seriously, and for 
his error the unfortunate mage had to lose 
his position as Rabbi and even to suffer a 
long imprisonment. Magicians are favourite 
characters in the modern Yiddish drama. 
I remember a play, called ' Gliickliche Liebe,' 
in which demons are invoked from the " vasty 
deep " under burlesque names (one of them 
was Schnappsiel !), evidently as a skit upon 
the Kabbalistic nomenclature of the spirit 
world, whereof it is a leading principle that 
every name must end in either -el or -jah. 

After all, there is a good deal about magic 
in the Bible, and the Jews undoubtedly 
practised it. Was not Lilith the first of the 
witches ; and does not the witch of Endor 
stand high among them ? It is not surprising 
that in the popular mind, at any rate, magic 
and Hebrew should be closely associated. 
Then, too, there are what Robert Burton calls 
"Solomon's decayed works" to be taken 
account of. It is not altogether without 
reason, though it may be not with strict 
accuracy, that Scott classes " magic, cabala, 
and spells " together. C. C. B. 

In this connexion the books used by Faust 
to conjure with may be worth noting. Mar- 
lowe, ' The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus,' 
I. i., at the end : 

Faust. Come, shew me some demonstrations 


That I may conjure in some lusty grove, 
And have these joys in full possession. 

Valdes. Then haste thee to some solitary grove, 
And bear wise Bacon's and Albertus' works, 
The Hebrew Psalter, and New Testament ; 
And whatsoever else is requisite 
We will inform thee ere our conference cease. 


According to MacGregor Mathers (' The 
Kabbalah Unveiled ') one section of the 

9s.x. JULY 26, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Cabalah, known as the " practical," is con- 
cerned with talismanic and ceremonial magic. 
The formularies therein used are explicable 
by the "literal" and "dogmatic" sections. 
Thus the mystical learning contained in the 
books of the Zohar is the basis of much 
practical magic. No student of magic, whether 
serious or from curiosity only, can acquire 
even an elementary knowledge of the subject 
unless he possesses some slight acquaintance 
with Hebrew. E. E. STREET. 

"RETURNING THANKS" (9 th S. x. 26). I do 
not quite see the point of MR. RATCLIFFE'S 
objection. A return may be made that is not 
a return in kind : and I hold that a customer 
has often as much occasion to *-hank a trades- 
man for the attention he has given to his 
wants as the tradesman has to thank the 
customer for his patronage. The obligation 
is by no means all on one side : the con- 
ditions of life being what they are, the trades- 
man is as necessary to the customer as the 
customer to the tradesman, and he often 
fulfils his part a great deal more honourably. 

C. C. B. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 

Edited by Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 0Onomastic. 

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THE latest instalment of the ' New English Dic- 
tionary,' issued under the immediate supervision 
of Dr. Murray, contains about half the letter O, and 
forms the opening portion of the seventh volume, 
which is to consist of the letters O and P. As we 
are now more than half way through the alphabet 
we may say, to use the once familiar locution, that 
the back or the task is broken and that no very for- 
midable opposition is to be anticipated. Quite 
remarkable and wholly commendable is the punc- 
tuality that has been observed in recent years 
ever, indeed, since the work got in trim. So soon as 
the section reached us we turned, by an instinct of 
self -protection, to the word oil and to the phrase " To 
pour oil on troubled waters." Less frequently than 
in early days, but with aggravating persistency, the 
question as to source of the phrase recurs. Now 
that all that is known about it is to be found in the 
national lexicon, it is to be hoped that we shall be 
troubled with it no more. At any rate, our answer 
to correspondents, should such appeal, will in 
future be, "Consult 'New English Dictionary,' 
under ' oil,' vol. vii. p. 93, col. 1, 3 e." For the purpose 
of general perusal and study the double section is 
one of the most interesting we have yet encountered. 
O/and o^foccupy some score columns, and represent, 
as we are told and may well believe, many weeks' 
consecutive and arduous labour. The mere study 
of what is advanced concerning them is laborious. 
It is not with of, which is judged probably the most 
difficult of the prepositions themselves the most 
difficult words with which the lexicographer can be 
called upon to deal that we occupy ourselves. The 

opening essay on the letter and its different 
sounds repays close study. Two of the- earliest 
words on which we light are oaf and oak. The 
former, which is a phonetic variant of auf, denotes 
originally the child of a goblin or elf, and came 
thence to signify a changeling or booby. Oak, in 
the form ac, is found so early as the year 749. In 
similar fashion oar first appears as ar. Oat, with 
its numerous derivatives as oatenpipe, &c. has an 
interesting history and some well-selected illustra- 
tions. Among the various uses of obeisance, which 
=obedience, we find it used in the 'Book of 
St. Albans' as a term for a company of servants 
"An obeisians of seruauntis." This instance of 
use is apparently unique. Objective, as opposed to 
subjective, was frequently used in the first half of 
the seventeenth century. Some of the compounds 
of this word are atrocious. Few words are more 
interesting than odd in its various significances. 
Of its use in asseveration it is said, "A minced 
form of God, which came into vogue about 1600, 
when, to avoid the overt profanation of sacred names, 
many minced and disguised equivalents became 
prevalent." With " Od rabbit it ' we are, of course, 
familiar. In "drat it" we failed to recognize the 
equivalent phrase " Od rat it." In such locutions as 
Shakespeare's "Od's my little life," it has been 
suggested that " Od save my little life " is intended. 
No form fuller than that given has, however, been 
encountered. All that is said concerning odd, " a 
unit in excess of an even number," is very interest- 
ing and curious. Ogre, sometimes hogre, a man- 
eating monster, is first used by Perrault in his 
'Con tea,' 1697. The derivation from the ethnic 
name Ugri, once favoured, is said to be historically 
baseless. Hogress ap$ars in the first translation 
of the ' Arabian Nights.' In the case of a dictionary 
published periodically, it is impossible for us to do 
more than glance through the successive parts and 
pick out a few gems of explanation and illustration 
to represent the work that is being done, leaving 
to our readers the pleasant task of feeding on the 
fare provided. We are but tasters. The superiority 
to previous or rival dictionaries, on which we have 
frequently dwelt, is as remarkable as before. In a 
period of noteworthy accomplishment the progress 
made with this truly national undertaking stands 

The Neiv Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Vol. III., being Vol. XXVII. of the Complete 
Work. (A. & C. Black and the Times.) 
IN some respects the article on drama by Mr. 
William Archer and M. Augustin Filon is the most 
interesting in 'the latest "new volume" of the 
' Encyclopedia Britannica.' It is the work, so far 
as the portion dealing with the English stage is con- 
cerned, of a man of wide erudition and strongly held 
convictions. Had no name of author been attached 
to it, those familiar with the published criticisms 
of Mr. Archer could have had no hesitation in 
ascribing it to him. A single sentence such as the 
following would serve to betray the supposed secret: 
" Even while it seemed that French comedy of the 
school of Scribe was resuming its baneful predomi- 
nance the seeds of a new order of things were slowly 
germinating." (The italics are ours.) With Mr. 
Archer's general views we are in accord, though the 
measure of importance he attaches to individual 
writers is naturally different from that we should 
ourselves furnish. Among the playwrights of the 
sixties and seventies we should name Westland 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. JULY 26, 1902. 

Marston, whose influence on the stage, so far as it 
extended, was beneficial. M. Filon's survey of the 
Drench stage is brief but adequate. It extends from 
Emile Augier to MM. Richepin and Rostand, and 
leaves unmentioned M. Capus, who presumably 
when the article was written had produced neither 
' La Veine ' nor ' Deux Ecoles,' but whose ' Rosine,' 
played in June, 1897, gave promise of the gifts he 
has since displayed. It is to be regretted that M. 
Filon has been accorded no power of revision over 
the earlier contribution on the French stage. The 
prefatory essay by Dr. Henry Smith Williams is on 
the influence of modern research on the scope of 
world-history. Among the subjects brought forward 
is, of course, Assyrian discovery, which brings with 
it the mention of Prof. Mahaffy's suggestion that 
" the era of the Pyramids may have been the verit- 
able autumn of civilization." Recent classical 
archaeology and the Mycenaean civilization are also 
discussed. ' Chicago ' is the opening article, and 
naturally supplies some startling statistics of 
growth. It is accompanied with maps of the city 
and suburbs. ' Chile ' and ' China,' the latter 
especially, are articles of the highest importance. 
With the account of the China-Japan war China 
occupies some fifty columns. Dr. Arthur 
Shad well deals with 'Cholera,' and the Bishop of 
Ripon with the ' Christian Church.' The ' Chrono- 
logical Table' extends from 1 Jan., 1876, to 31 Dec., 
1900. It chronicles some " small beer,'' but is dis- 
tinctly useful as an aide - mdmoire, for which it is 
intended. ' Biblical Chronology,' as regards the 
Old Testament, is in the hands of Prof. Driver, and 
so far as the New Testament is concerned in those of 
Mr. C. H. Turner. Mr. Sidney J. Low contributes 
the life of Lord Randolph Churchill. Passing over 
without mention many articles of importance, we 
come to Prof. Poulton's deeply interesting ' Colours 
of Animals,' which, among other points, dwells on 
the various aspects of mimicry in insect life. Much 
that is said is naturally conjecture, but the pro- 
fessor is the best authority we possess. Dr. Holden, 
formerly director of the Lick Observatory, deals 
with ' Comets.' Prof. Sir Frederick Pollock writes 
on 'Contract,' and Mr. Wadsworth on 'Con- 
veyancing.' Prof. Nairne has a short communica- 
tion on the vexed questions of Creatianism and 
Traducianism. Cremation has received, of course, 
much attention during the period covered by the 
new volume, the most recent results being tabu- 
lated. The modern development of cricket is said 
to date from the first visit in 1878 to England of 
an Australian team. In the county records sup- 
plied Notts is shown to occupy a brilliant place, 
having been champion during no fewer than 
eleven years. Ample statistics are furnished. A 
similar article is that by Mr. Lillie on ' Croquet,' 
which has had in recent days a conspicuous 
revival. Under 'Corot' a delightful landscape of 
that painter is furnished. Under ' Cross ' we have 
a sympathetic life of George Eliot by Mrs. Craigie. 
Courbet's ' The Stag Fight ' is also reproduced. 
Reproductions of two illustrations of Dickens 
accompany a short and not quite adequate life of 
Cruikshank. ' Cuba ' and ' Cyprus ' are instances 
of articles in which recent history effects some- 
thing like a revolution. 'Cycling' also, which is 
fully illustrated, has undergone great modifica- 
tion. ' Dairy Farming' occupies considerable space 
and is thoroughly practical. Daubigny's ' Moon- 
light' constitutes an attractive illustration. In 
fact, the reproductions of French pictures by men 

such as Degas, Detaille, &c., form a very agree- 
able feature in the work. Under 'Dictionary' 
a vindication of a practice of which we are some- 
times disposed to complain, of disregarding litera- 
ture in the interest of philology, is given. Among 
those who write on ' Divorce' is Sir Francis Jeune. 
Valuable and interesting articles in the volume 
are those by various writers on Egypt, and by 
Prof. Flinders Petrie and Mr. Griffith on Egypto- 
logy. It is obviously as impossible to give an idea 
of the contents of separate contributions as to 
convey an idea of the value of the whole. We have 
to congratulate those concerned with the production 
on the rate of progress that is maintained. The 
price of the volume is not given, since that 
at which the work is supplied is temporary, and 
subject to alteration after the first subscription 
list is closed. 

THE REV. JOHN PICKFORD writes : " An honour 
conferred by the University of Oxford on one of 
your oldest and most esteemed correspondents, the 
Rev. William Dunn Macray, M.A., ought not to 
pass unnoticed in the pages of ' N. & Q.' He has 
recently been created Doctor of Literature (Litt. 
Doct. ) by that university, a well-earned and well- 
deserved honour by one whose services have been 
so great not only in the literary, but in many other 
fields. The general expression of feeling is that it 
ought to have come long ago. However, the old 
proverb tells us that ' it is better late than never.' " 

J&alitt* tor 

We must call (special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

D. S. R. (" Et in Arcadia ego"). See 4 th S. i. 509, 
561 ; x. 432, 479, 525, 532 ; xi. 86 ; 6 th S. vi. 396. 

COL. LONGLEY ("Moves at Russian Backgam- 
mon "). Consult ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
' Russian Backgammon,' at end of article on ' Back- 

CORRIGENDUM. 9 th S. ix. 312, col. 2, 1. 10, for 
ap read ap\ 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. X. AUG. 2, 1902.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 240. 

NOTES : -Stamp Collecting Forty Years Ago, 81 Notes on 
Skeat's 'Concise Dictionary,' 83 Italian Jingoism in 1591, 
84 Book -titles in Books " Quick "=Italian- iron 
"Raising the wind " Coronation Postponement, 85 
Cries of Animals Female Stenographers in Old Times- 
Dickens and Tibullus, 86. 

QUERIES: Bolton Abbey Compotus, 86 General E. 
Mathew Black for Mourning Race of the Gybbins 
Mrs. Barker, Novelist Anderton Flint : Ferrey " None- 
soprett ies " : " Spinnel," 87 Holme of Holme Hall Dun- 
lop Coincidence " Pristinensis Episcopus " Baker 
St. Ernulphus Waterloo Ballroom, 88 Haselock Family 
Danes in Pembroke Borough of Bishop's Stortford 
Forster Russian Story, 89. 

REPLIES : 'Aylwin,' 89 Albino Animals, 91 Castle 
Carewe, 92" Wild-Cat" Company C< ndace "Endorse- 
ment " Kennett's Wharf " Mallet" or "Mullet," 93 
" Met "National Flag-Orange Blossoms, 94 " Beatific 
vision " " Astonish the natives "' Waldby Family Arms 
Stoning the Wren Marks on Table Linen" Sixes and 
sevens," 95 American Edition of Dickens Locomotive 
and Gas Fleetwood Pedigree, 96 Lady Nottingham 
Ainsworth Byron's Grandfather Halley Family 
Heuskarian Rarity, 97 Slang of the Past Book-mar kes 
Phaer Grace before Meat "Box Harry " Hobbins 
Family Tib's Eve, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: -Hills" Antonio Stradivari ' York- 
shire Archaeological Journal,' Parts 63 and 64 'English 
Historical Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 2 nd S. iv. 329, 421, 500 ; v. 308 ; ix. 482 ; 3 rd S. 
i. 149, 195, 277, 357, 393, 474 ; v. 418 ; 4 th S. xi. 214 ; 
xii. 384 ; 5 th S. viii. 266, 506 ; xii. 88, 172, 238, 256, 
389, 474, 515 ; 6 th S. ix. 508 ; x. 98, 234, 373, 468, 478, 
496 ; xi. 33, 74, 117, 217, 406, 517 ; xii. 428, 505 ; 7 th S. 
iii. 30, 152 ; iv. 396 ; x. 385 ; 8 th S. v. 509 ; vi. 9, 93, 
117, 368 ; vii. 192 ; x. 415, 499 ; xii. 469 ; 9 th S. i. 115 ; 
v. 404, 501 ; ix. 438.) 

THE mania for amassing vast numbers of 
used stamps dates from a much earlier period 
than anything of the nature of philately 
proper. So far back as 1841 I find this ad- 
vertisement in the Times : 

"A young lady, being desirous of covering her 
dressing-room with cancelled postage stamps, has 
been so far encouraged in her wish by private 
friends as to have succeeded in collecting 16,000. 
These, however, being insufficient, she will be 
greatly obliged if any good-natured person who 
may have these (otherwise useless) little articles at 
their disposal would assist her in her whimsical 
project. Address to E. D., Mr. Butt's, Glover, 
Leadenhall Street; or Mr Marshall's, Jeweller, 

In 1842 Punch had a skit on the same 
subject : 

"A new mania has bitten the industriously idle 
ladies of England. To enable a large wager to be 

gained they have been indefatigable in their en- 
deavours to collect old penny stamps ; in fact, they 
betray more anxiety to treasure up Queen's heads 
than Harry the Eighth did to get rid of them. 
Colonel Sibthorpe, whose matchless genius we have 
so often admired, sends us the following poem upon 
the prevailing epidemic : 
When was a folly so pestilent hit upon 
As folks running mad to collect every spit-upon 
Post-office stamp, that 's been soiled and been writ 

Oh, for Swift ! such a subject his spleen to emit 

'Tis said that some fool in mustachios has split upon 

The rock of a bet, 

And therefore must get, 

To avoid loss and debt, 
Half the town as collectors to waste time and wit 

Bothering and forcing their friends to submit, upon 

Pain of displeasure, 

To fill a peck measure 

With the coveted treasure 

Of as many old stamps as perforce can be hit upon, 
To paper a room, or stuff cushions to sit upon. 
Do, dearest Punch, let fly a sharp skit upon 
This new pursuit, and an ass's head fit upon 
The crest of the Order of Knights of the Spit-upon." , 

It yet remains for 'N. & Q.' to fix with 
something like accuracy the date when stamp 
collecting in the true sense (i.e., the collecting 
of different varieties of stamps) first began to 
attract general attention in Britain. Judge 
Suppantschitsch, of , Vienna, claims to have 
unearthed a reference to collecting - in the 
Family Herald for 22 March, 1851. The 
Philatelic Journal of America for March, 1885, 
asserts that advertisements from English 
dealers appeared as far back as 1857. I have 
been unable to obtain confirmation of this 
assertion, but probably the advertisement 
pages of the early volumes of the first series 
of Beeton's Boys Oivn Magazine, 1855-62, if 
anywhere accessible, might yield some result. 

In the Museum (Edinburgh.. James Gordon) 
for July, 1861, appeared an article on ' Edu- 
cation through trie Senses,' by the author 
of ' Rab and his Friends.' Dr. Brown urges 
the propriety of interesting children in 
occupations requiring the use of their own 
hands and eyes, and remarks incidentally : 

"Even the immense activity in the Post-office- 
stamp line of business among our youngsters has 
been of immense use in many ways, besides being a 
diversion and an interest. I myself came to the 
knowledge of Queensland, and a great deal more, 
through its blue twopenny." 

The earliest printed matter devoted ex- 
clusively to collecting appears to have been : 

1. A list of stamps (12 pp., no title) issued 
privately in September, 1861, by M. Oscar 
Berger-Levrault, Strassburg (second edition 
in December). 

2. ' Catalogue des Timbres Poste cre'es dans 
lea divers Etats du Globe,' issued in December 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 2, 1*02. 

of the same year by M. Alfred Potiquet, Paris 
(43 pp.; second edition in March, 1862). 

3. 'Manuel du Collectionneur de Timbres 
Poste et Nomenclature generale de tous les 
Timbres adoptes dans les divers Pays de 
1'Univers,' published in January, 1862, by 
M. J. B. Moens, Brussels (72 pp.; second 
edition in same year). A sketch and portrait 
of M. Moens will be found in the Philatelic 
Record for December, 1893. 

In 1862 English philatelic literature made 
a fair start. In April there appeared ' Aids 
to Stamp Collectors : being a List of English 
and Foreign Stamps in Circulation since 1840,' 
by a Stamp Collector. Brighton, H. & C. 
Treacher. This volume was little more than 
a translation from the works of Potiquet and 
Moens. Second and third editions of the 
' Aids ' rapidly followed within the same year, 
the title-page bearing the name of the author, 
Frederick Booty. Mr. Booty also brought out 
a ' Stamp Collector's Guide ' (same publishers 
and year), the earliest illustrated catalogue. 
The lithographs of stamps, some 200 in 
number, are said to be the result of Mr. 
Booty's own artistic skill, and are at least 

In May, 1862, appeared a book which, 
though not more systematic than Booty's, 
gained a much wider popularity, ' Catalogue 
of British, Colonial, and Foreign Postage 
Stamps,' by Mount Brown. London, Pass- 
more (second edition in June; third, De- 
cember ; fourth, May, 1863 ; fifth, March, 
1864). Mr. Brown originally based his list on 
the collection of the Rev. F. J. Stainforth, 
Perpetual Curate of Allhallows, Staining, 
one of our earliest collectors, who died in 
1866. The number of varieties described 
rises from 1,200 in the first edition to 2,400 
in the fifth. Of the latter fifty copies were 
printed on large paper, forming decidedly 
the handsomest specimens of early English 
philatelic literature. An American piracy of 
the first edition was published in 1862 at 
Philadelphia by A. C. Kline, under the title 
of The Stamp Collector's Manual : being a 
Complete Guide to the Collectors of American 
and Foreign Postage and Despatch Stamps.' 
This seems to be the earliest American phila- 
telic publication. A more remarkable prooi 
of the popularity of Mr. Brown's work was 
afforded by the appearance of a ' Catalogue 
of nearly Two Thousand Varieties of British, 
Colonial, and Foreign Postage Stamps/ by a 
Collector. Gloucester, 1863 This was simply 
an almost verbatim reprint of Mr. Brown's 
third edition. It was suppressed at his 
instance, and is consequently very scarce. A 
sketch and portrait of Mr. Mount Brown wil 

be found in the Philatelic Record for De- 
cember, 1894. 

In the number for June, 1862, of Young 
England (London, Tweedie) the late Dr. 
John Edward Gray, of the British Museum, 
oegan a series of articles entitled ' The 
Postage Stamps of the World.' 

'The collecting of postage stamps," writes Dr. 
Uray, " having lately become a fashion, especially 
among the young persons at schools, it certainly 
will be interesting to the readers of Young England 
jO have as complete a list of them as I have been 

able to form I may state that I began to collect 

ihem shortly after the system was established, and 
many years before it had become the fashion, simply 
because I believe that 1 was the first that proposed 
the system of a small uniform rate of postage, to 
be prepaid by stamps, having satisfied myself that 
the great cost of the Post-office was not the recep- 
tion, carriage, and delivery of the letters, but the 
complicated system of accounts that the old system 
required, and that the collection of money by 
stamps was the most certain and most economical. 
But 1 found there was little chance of getting any 
attention to the plan without I could devote the 
whole of my time and energy to the development 
and the agitation of it. Fortunately Mr. (now Sir) 
Rowland Hill, who had leisure at his command, 
undertook the question, and with the assistance of 
Mr. G. MofFatt, Mr. Henry Cole, and sundry mer- 
chants and members of Parliament, whom they 
induced to interest themselves in the question, they 
carried the measure after great exertion." 

Further instalments of Dr. Gray's con- 
tribution appeared in Young England for 
July, August, and September, 1862, and the 
substance of these articles was reprinted in 
book form as ' A Hand Catalogue of Postage 
Stamps for the Use of Collectors,' Londo:., 
Hardwicke (second edition, 1863; subse- 
quent editions, having the title altered to 
' The Illustrated Catalogue,' &c., in 1865, 1866, 
1870, 1875). The claim of priority of sug- 
gestion set forth by Dr. Gray was not allowed 
to pass unchallenged. An interesting corre- 
spondence on the subject, embracing letters 
from Sir Rowland Hill and Mr. Charles 
Knight, will be found in the Athenaeum for 
13, 20, 27 December, 1862 ; 3 and 10 January, 

In All the Year Round for 19 July, 1862, is 
given a short sketch, ' My Nephew's Col- 
lection,' descriptive of " the last new mania." 

In the number for 26 July, 1862, of Cassell's 
Illustrated Family Paper (series ii. vol. x. 
p. 140) appeared the first of an extended series 
of copiously illustrated articles under the 
heading ' Postage Stamps.' The articles are 
anonymous, and the present editor of Cassell's 
Magazine tells me that it is now impossible 
to trace the authorship. The articles are 
continued in vpls. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv., and in 
series iii. vols. iii. and iv. Unlike Dr. Gray, 
the writer does not seek to give a complete 

9ts.x.Aua.2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


catalogue of known postage stamps, but 
rather inclines to dwell on the collateral 
topics suggested by the emissions of each 
country. He was probably indebted for some 
of his details to two similar series of articles 
which appeared in the Magasin Pittoresque, 
Paris, 1862-6 (' Les Timbres - poste de tous 
les Etats du Globe,' by M. Natalis Rondot), 
and in the Bazar, Berlin, 1862-4 (' Beschrei- 
bung aller Briefmarken der Erde '). 

In September, 1862, the first number of the 
Monthly Intelligencer was published by Wil- 
liam Macmillan, Birmingham. It was largely, 
but not exclusively, devoted to stamps, and 
ceased with the tenth number. A more im- 
portant periodical was the Monthly Advertiser, 
published by Edward Moore & Co., Liverpool 
the true literary progenitor of the copious 
philatelic press of the present day. No. 1 
was dated 15 December, 1862. "Towards the 
middle of the year 1862," writes Mr. T. W. 
Kittin the Philatelist, vol. i. p. 31, 

" when philately was becoming very popular, ap- 
pearances led me to conclude that a periodical 
entirely devoted to that subject would prove a great 
boon to collectors, and also a lucrative investment 
to its proprietors. Accordingly, in the summer of 
the year named, I inserted an advertisement in the 
Boy s Own Magazine, requesting any gentlemen who 
were of a similar opinion to join me in the under- 
taking. This advertisement was productive of in- 
numerable replies, requesting further information ; 
but not so many as half-a-dozen of them spoke 
favourably of my scheme. In order to ' leave not 
a stone unturned' for the attainment of the end in 
view, I had personal interviews with many of the 
leading English collectors residing in or near Lon- 
don ; and in consequence of its being ' Exhibition 
year ' I was also enabled to meet several from the 
country; but public opinion seemed so much against 
me, that I reluctantly abandoned the enterprise, 
thinking it folly to undertake what my superiors in 
the knowledge of philately thought so unpromising. 
My voluminous correspondence on the subject, and 
earnest endeavours to bring about the consumma- 
tion of my wishes, were, however, rewarded with 
success ; for Mr. A Perris, of Liverpool (one of the 
few gentlemen who thought favourably of my plans), 
entered warmly into the matter, but from reasons 
above stated I declined rendering him any pecuniary 
assistance, though 1 placed my pen at his service, 
of which he availed himself. However, finus coronal 
opus on December 15th, 1862, the harbinger of a new 
style of literature made its appearance, in the shape 
of the Monthly Advertiser, afterwards known as the 
Stamp Collectors' Jteview." 

From the outset the late Mr. E. L. Pember- 
ton was the leading spirit of this magazine, 
contributing to it the first sketch of his 
'Forged Stamps: How to Detect Them,' 
together with much general criticism. When 
the second volume began, in January, 1864, 
he was formally installed as editor. In June 
of the same year the Revieiv came to an un- 
timely end "through the folly of the pro- 

prietors," writes Mr. Pemberton in the Phila- 
telical Journal, vol. i. p. 217; " we harve the 
MS. for the July number by us as written 
for publication." 

The prepared stamp album, like the cata- 
logue, had its origin in France, and the only 
example that falls to be mentioned here is 
the English reproduction of the well-known 
' Album-timbres-poste orne des Cartes,' par 
Justin Lallier. Both French and English first 
editions were published in Paris in 1862. 
This handsome book in spite of many errors 
that were persistently left uu corrected, not- 
withstanding much adverse criticism in the 
English journals long retained a hold on 
public favour, thirteen editions appearing in 

It remains to speak only of the price lists 
of dealers, of which 1362 produced a plentiful 
crop. Among the more important were those 
of C. Gloyn, Manchester ; T. W. Kitt, Lon- 
don ; E. Moore & Co-., Liverpool ; E. L. Pem- 
bert^n, Birmingham; Stafford Smith & Smith, 
Bath ; J. J. H. Stockall & Co., Liverpool ; G. 
Swaysland, Brighton ; H. R. Victor, Belfast; 
J. J. Woods, Hartlepool; B. York & Co., 

MR. INGLEBY inquires as to the highest price 
ever paid for a postage stamp! I believe that 
the record is held by the la. and 2d. " Post 
Office " Mauritius of 1847. Only 1,000 copies 
of these stamps were printed, 500 of each ; 
and only twenty-one are known to survive, 
twelve of the Id. and nine of the 2o*. The 
pair that had formerly been in the collection 
of Dr. Legrand (Id. used, 2o". unused) was 
acquired in 1897 by M. Jules Bernichon at 
the enormous price of 48,000 fr. (1,920/.). The 
British Museum possesses a pair in the col- 
lection bequeathed to the nation by the late 
Mr. T. K. Tapling, M.P. Not far behind the 
Mauritius stamps comes the Sandwich Islands 
2c. of 1851. Only ten copies are known, one 
of which, used, changed hands in 1897 for 
700. But of a still higher degree of rarity 
is the British. Guiana Ic. of 1856. Of this 
stamp only a single copy is believed to be in 
existence, in the collection of M. La Renotiere, 
Paris, who obtained it many years ago for 
what would now be considered a ridiculously 
small sum. P. J. ANDERSON. 

University Library, Aberdeen. 



1. Solace. Prof. Skeat gives solatium as 
the original Latin form, and proceeds to 
derive solatium from solatus. This etymology 
falls to the ground, from the fact that the 
form solatium is a barbarism, the only form 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. A. 2, 1902. 

recognized by Latin scholars being solatium. 
For the suffix compare mendacium. See Roby, 
Breal, Georges. 

2. Race. The dictionary says, " answering 
to L. type *radia." The connexion is pho- 
netically impossible, as is shown by the 
Italian and Spanish forms. The Italian 
razza, with the z pronounced as ts, points to 
a Romanic type with tj, not dj. The Spanish 
rdza also points to intervocalic tj or cf, e.g., 
raz6n (rationem), ceddzo (setacium). A Romanic 
form with intervocalic dj would have given 
in Spanish y, eg., rayo (radium), moyo 

3. Fray (an affray). This word is treated 
as cognate with affray (to frighten), but 
the words are radically distinct in meaning 
and origin. The radical meaning of an affray 
(or a fray) is a disturbance, especially one 
caused by fighting. It is the Anglo-Norman 
a/ray used by Bozon in the sense of " agita- 
tion." This Norman afray is cognate with 
Spanish refriega (a fray, a skirmish) j see 
Stevens's dictionary ; cp. refregdr (to rub), 
Lat. re+fricare. Fray (a disturbance) is, 
therefore, cognate with fray (to wear away 
by rubbing), O.Fr.freyer (to rub), and must 
be kept apart from M.E. affray (fright), Fr. 
effroi and effrayer, Lat. ex+*fridare. 

4. Lozenge. It is well known that this 
word is a derivative of Provencal lausa, lauza, 
Portuguese lousa, identical in form and mean- 
ing with Spanish laude (a sepulchral stone). 
But what is the etymology of laude (lausa)t 
Laude is the regular representative of Latin 
lapidem, Spanish aud representing Latin 
ap'd or ap't, as we may see from raudo (rapi- 
dum), caudillo (*capitellum). In Provencal, 
as is well known, intervocal d becomes z, 
e.g., cazer (cadere). 

5. Maund. This is marked as an English 
word, due to O.E. mand. This is phonetically 
impossible. O.E. mand would have re- 
mained mand to the present day, cp. and, 
hand, land, sand. The combination aun 
points to an immediate French source, cp. 
daunt (danter), haunt (hanter), laund, mod. 
lawn (lande), spaund, mod. spawn (espandre), 
pawn (pander). Maund is the representative 
of O.Fr. mande, "panier d'osier" (La Curne). 
The French word is of Teutonic origin, being 
common to many German dialects. 

6. Squeamish. The dictionary suggests 
relation to shame. This is phonetically im- 
possible. Neither the initial consonant nor 
the stem vowel will permit of such an hypo- 
thesis. And the radical meanings of the two 
words have nothing to do with one another. 
The Anglo-French escoymous points to a 
Romanic type *scematdsum t over nice, over 

particular as to appearance, a derivative of 
Late Lat. scema for schema, " forma, species, 
habitus, ornatus, vestitus," Gr. crx^a. See 
Ducange f s.v.), where it will be seen that the 
word and its derivatives were well known in 
the Romanic languages. 

7. Full (to full cloth). This is marked as a 
French word, due to O.Fr. filler, Fr. fouler. 
But should we not expect a Fr. fouler to be 
represented by an English form fowl ? I 
think we may safely assume that the verb 
full represents an unrecorded O.E. *fullian, 

whence was formed the derivative fullere; 
see Sweet's 'Anglo-Saxon Diet.' It is pro- 
bable that Fr. fouler (to trample) may be 
unconnected with Lat. fullo (a fuller). The 
Spanish form hollar, pres. stem huelle (to 
tread), points to an open o in the stem 

8. Giraffe. The Spanish form girdfa is not 
due to the Arabic form with z, zardfah, but 
to a form with dj. Humbert says, "Les Arabes 
disent aujourd'hui non seulement zordfa, 
mais aussi djordfa" ; see Ford's 'Old Spanish 
Sibilants,' ' Harvard Notes ' (1900), p. 27. 

9. Dance. What is the etymology of this 
wide-spread Romanic word ? The word is 
generally equated with the O.H.G. danson, 
and the ' Concise ' follows the traditional 
account. But the learned Schade, who in 
his dictionary always gives the Romanic 
forms corresponding to the German word, is 
silent on such a connexion. And not without 
reason. The Romanic forms as, for example, 
O.Fr. dancer, It. danzare, Sp. danzar point 
to z ( = ts), and not s after the nasal as the 
older sound. Now in French the symbol c 
(=ts) after a nasal generally corresponds to 
an O.H.G. z (=ts), as, for example, O.Fr. 
grincer (O.H.G. grimmizzon), O.Fr. grander 
(O.H.G. grunnizjan), O.Fr. ronce (O.H.G. 

10. Tennis. Why is the Anglo - French 
tenetz (hold !) equated formally with Latin 
tenete ? Surely the tz of tenetz is the formal 
equivalent of the Latin t's in tenetis. 


ITALIAN JINGOISM IN 1591. The bard of 
the music-halls who wrote 
We don't want to fight, but by jingo if we do, 
We've got the ships, we 've got the men, we've got 
the money too 

doggerel to which we are indebted for the 
term "jingoism" knew not that he was 
echoing, after the lapse of nearly three 
centuries, the words of a Veronese named 
Christoforo Sylvestrani Brenzone, who pub- 
lished in 1591 a curious book entitled 'Vita 

9* s. x. AUG. 2, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


et Fatti del valorosissimo Capitan Astorre 

Baglione da Perugia con la Guerra d 

Cypro.' Astorre was governor-general o; 
Cyprus, having been specially appointed by 
the Venetian Senate in April, 1569, for the 
defence of that island against the Turks, anc 
was slain, by Mustapha Pasha's treachery, 
after the capitulation of Famagosta which 
terminated Venetian rule in Cyprus. 

In his concluding observations on the 
causes of this catastrophe the author of the 
book attributes it to fear on the part of 
the Venetian republic of its inability to cope 
singly with the overwhelming force of the 
Turks, whose army outnumbered the Vene- 
tian by more than ten to one* Fear, he 
adds, is always commendable, but with 
regard to the Turk Venice ought not to fear, 
because, among other reasons, " 1' arrne, le 
Galee, e i danari fanno paura a tutt' il mondo. 
La Republica ha 1' arme : Ha i Nauilij : Ha i 
Tesori : Ha g]' Huomeni." However, ships, 
men, and money notwithstanding, Cyprus 
remained the prize of the Turks, who ruled 
it until 1878, when it was transferred to the 

It is surely one of the curiosities of history 
that an Italian of the sixteenth and a Briton 
of the nineteenth century, each nation having 
dominion in Cyprus, should utter the same 
brag in connexion with Turkey, the one as 
an enemy, the other as a friend. 


FABUL.E IN FABULIS. That consummate 
artist E. A. Poe, in the ' Fall of the House of 
Ulster,' gives a list of books, besides quoting 
from the ' Mad Trist ' of Sir Launcelot Can- 
ning in such a manner as to make every 
imaginative reader long for the complete 

A customer in a bookshop is said not long 
since to have asked for ' The Idols of the 
Market-Place,' which book-title Mrs. Hum- 
phry Ward quotes in one of her novels. The 
title is, of course, Bacon's ' Idola Fori,' which 
Bacon himself borrowed from Roger Bacon, 
from whom he also borrowed much beside. 

As a French criminal lawyer is said to 
have used one of Balzac's novels as a treatise 
on bankruptcy, so an American novelist 
represents the following books as being upon 
the shelves of a student (and professor) of 
American criminal law : Poe's Works ; ' The 
Moonstone,' by Collins; 'A Confidential 
Agent,' by James Payn ; 'The Leaven worth 

"Certo neir acquisto del Regno di Cypro il 
Turco mand6 piii di trecento mila Soldati Turchi. 
I Nostri in tutto il Regno tra buoni, <k non buoni, 
nonerano trenta mila (p. 96). 

Case,' by A. K. Green ; .'His Natural Life,' by 
Marcus Clarke ; ' The Mark of Cain,' by 
Andrew Lang ; ' The New Arabian Nights,' 
by Stevenson ; and ' Memoires de Vidocq.' 
Then come tales by Gaboriau and Fortune du 
Boisgobey, and ' Les Morts Bizarres,' by Jean 

In Miss Ferrier's 'Inheritance' there are 
some delightfully suggestive titles, such as 
The Enchanted Head," The Invisible Hand,' 
'The Miraculous Nuptials,' 'Bewildered 
Affections ; or, All is not Lost,' and ' The Mid- 
night Marriage.' It is no wonder that Lady 
Betty was impatient to find the missing 
volume of the last-mentioned work ; it must 
have been interesting. THOMAS AULD. 

"QUICK " = ITALIAN-IRON. In one of the 
lodges of Cholmondeley Castle, Cheshire, I 
happened to see an Italian-iron, or tally-iron, 
such as is still used on the frills of caps. An 
old body of eighty-eight, who had been a 
laundress in the establishment of one of the 
marquesses, and who, judging from her regu-' 
larity of feature and relatively good com- 
plexion, must have been a very charming 
rustic damsel in her youth, told me that she 
knew the instrument not only as a tally-iron, 
but as a "quick," the latter because work 
was done expeditiouly by its means. I do 
not find " quick ' with this meaning in any 
Cheshire or other glossary. 


"RAISING THE WIND." The following cut- 
ting from the Irish Times of 19 April may 
not be without interest for students of folk- 
ore and old superstitions : 

" It seems incredible, but is nevertheless a fact, 
,hat as late as the year 1814 an old woman named 
Bessie Millie, of Pomona, in the Orkney Islands, 
sold favourable winds to seamen at the small price 
of Qd. a vessel. For many years witches were sup- 
)osed to sell the wind. The Finlanders and Lap- 
anders made quite a trade by selling winds. The 
old women, after being well paid by the credulous 
sailors, used to,, knit three magical knots ; the 
>uyer was told he would have a good gale when he 
untied the first knot, the second knot would bring 
a strong wind, and the third a severe tempest. At 
one tinate .winds were sold at Mont St. Michel, in 
STormandy, and arrows were sold at the same time 
o charm away bad storms." 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

puzzling to future historians and antiquaries 
will be the mass of evidence existing to point 
,o 26 July, 1902, as the date of Edward VII.'s 
joronation. Surely, however, ' N. & Q.' should 
,ake the lead in doing what can be done to 
minimize the risk of error. Yet not only is 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. x. A. 2, 1902. 

it unfortunate that the Coronation number 
was the last of a volume, but there is no 
explicit correction in the issue for 5 July of 
the wrongly anticipated past tense : only 
two vague allusions, one in a review. 

The sumptuous Coronation number of the 
Illustrated London News not only gives pic- 
tures of what did not take place on 26 June, 
but does not in all cases correctly represent 
what should have happened e.g., the Coro- 
nation robes. I will not go into detail, lest 
its editor deal with ' me as with another 
correspondent ; but I may point out that 
Drs. Ingram and Moule are represented as 
sitting in the House of Lords on 14 Feb., 
1901, on which day the see of London was 
vacant and that of Durham filled by Dr. 
Westcott, who died on 27 July, 1901. The 
present bishops of those sees became such in 
April and October, 1901, respectively. 

W. E. B. 

CRIES OF ANIMALS. The following lines 
are tucked away in an obscure corner of Du 
Cange, who gives as his reference "Ebrardus 
Betun. in Grsecismo, c. 19": 

Drensat olor, clingit anaer, crocitat quoque corvus, 
Ac pardus fellit, vultur pulpat, leo rngit, 
Ac onager mugilat, bos mugit, rana coaxat, 
Vociferans barrit elephas, grillusque minurrit, 
Blatterat ac vespertilio, strictinnit hirundo, 
Balat pvis, vehyat capra, sed gallina gracillat, 
Frendit aper, vulpes quoque gannit, rudit asellus, 
Hinnit equus, grunnit porcus, pipilat quoque nisus, 
Sed catulus latrat, hinc murilegubusque [?] catillat, 
Est hominumque loqui, quod dicto prsevalet omni. 

See Du Cange, sub voce ' Vehyare.' 

Portland, Oregon. 

In my little note ' Shorthand in the Third 
Century ' (9 th S.ix. 446) I had written, "Puellas 
notarias (stenograph girls) I cannot find in 
ancient times." Now Dr. Heraeus (Offen- 
bach o/M.) publishes in the scholarly Archiv 
fur Stenographie the epitaph of a Greek 
female stenographer, and I see that the old 
culture knew already this branch of female 
activity. The epitaph cannot be dated with 
certainty ; it seems to belong to the first 
Christian century. It has been published 
before in the Notizie deqli Scavi di Antichita 
of the Accademia dei Lincei, 1890, p. 15, 
and was found in 1889 in the old Via 
Tiburtina (Tivoli) : " Dis manibus sacrum. 
Hapateni notarise grsece, que vix. ann. xxv., 
Pittosus fecit conjugi dulcissime." (H)Apateni 
is a vulgar dative ; e for ce is also vulgar 
writing. Apate is a name not unusual for 
slaves and freed women. Apate may have 
been a stenographer in Greek, as her name 

indicates already her Greek birth. This is 
the only evidence for a stenograph girl in 
ancient times. Fulgentius, 'Mythologiarum,' 
iii. 10, must be read, " ut in puerilibus 
litteris prima abecedaria, secunda nota," not 
"notaria." DR. MAX MAAS. 

Munich, Bavaria. 


"'I mean this here, Sammy,' replied the old 
gentleman, ' that wot they drink, don't seem no 
nourishment to 'em ; it all turns to warm water, 
and comes a' pourin' out o' their eyes. 'Pend upon 
it, Sammy, it s a constitootional infirmity.'"- -' The 
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club,' chap. xlv. 

With this "scientific opinion" of the elder 
Mr. Weller we may aptly compare the follow- 
ing distich from Tibullus (i. v. 37, 38) : 
Stepe ego temptavi curas depellere vino : 
At dolor in lacrimas verterat omne merum. 

On the second line Jan van Broekhuyzen, 
the celebrated Dutch Latinist, commented 
thus : 

" Elegans inventio, et venustatis poeticse plenis- 
sima. Quam quo crebrius verses atque excutias, eo 
suavius iucundiusque adridet." 

As we may safely presume that Dickens was 
not indebted to the Latin elegist, the passage 
in 'Pickwick,' which has "arrided" many a 
reader, has an equal claim to the liberal 
praise of the Batavian editor. 

The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

('History of Craven,' second edition, 1812, 
p. 369) says : " The Compotus of Bolton 
begins in 1290, and ends in 1325." He further 
says: "I chuse to exhibit the accounts of 
the first year at large, and afterwards to 
extract a few particulars only from each 
year." This promise is followed by a docu- 
ment entitled "Compotus Monasterii beate 
Marie de Boulton in Craven a festo sancti 
Martini in hieme A.D. M CC nonagesimo 
octavo usque ad idem festum A.D. M CC 
nonagesimo nono, per unum annum inte- 
grum." On the completion of this account 
he begins, at p. 384, a series of extracts from 
accounts, presumably later in date (see the 
second quotation above), but actually dated 
1294-6-7, &c. 

I shall be glad if some Yorkshire corre- 
spondent will explain this chronological 

9 th S. X. AUG. 2, 1902.] 



puzzle (further complicated by Burton, see 
below), and say where the Compotus, "a 
folio of a thousand pages," now is,* and 
whether any parts of it have been printed 
in full beyond the above account, and that 
for the year ending Michaelmas, 1325, in John 
Burton s ' Monasticon Eboracense ' (1758, 
pp. 121-33). Is it known when and why 
the end of the financial year was changed 
from Martinmas to Michaelmas ? 

C.C.C., Oxford. 

' Life of Major Andre ' reference is made to 
this officer in these words : "the Antipodes, 
where the brave Mathew, a brother soldier in 
the American war, had already found a death 
so horrid that Andre's was an enviable fate." 
Who can inform me of the time, place, and 
manner of General Mathew's death ? 

W. A 

New York. 

you kindly inform me when and why the 
early Christians first adopted black as a 
badge of mourning ? I have been unable to 
find any account whatever of the subject, 
and was told that if any one could tell me 
anything relating to the same, you could. 

[See 1" S. viii. 411, 502.] 

RACE OF THE GYBBINS. I have a copy of 
Childrey's 'Britannia Baconica,' 1661, which 
contains many notes written in a hand of 
the seventeenth century. On p. 28 is the 
sentence: "Devonshire abounds with Wool, 
Kersies, Sea-fish, and Sea-fowl [and Gub- 
bins]," the words in brackets being written 
and the rest printed. On the next page I 
find, written in the same hand : "Inquire 
concerning the Race of the Gybbins in this 
County, a people that live promiscuously, 
and know not difference between wife and 
daughter." It is possible that the notes were 
written by Childrey himself. 

Without assenting to the truth of this 
statement, or believing what Caesar says 
about the marriages of the ancient Britons, 
we may at all events believe that at least 
one endogamous aboriginal race continued to 

* Burton (op. cit., 121 note) describes it as " a 
manuscript book on vellum, containing the account 
fo all the revenues of the abbey, whence they arose, 
and how disbursed, from A.D. 1287 to 1355, inclusive. 
Penes comitissa de Burlington." The book is not 
described among the papers of the Duke of Devon- 
shire in the Third Report of the Historical MSS. 
Commission, where one .night naturally look for 
some mention of it. 

exist in this country to a late period. Is any- 
thing known of this race of the Gybbins or 
Gubbins 1 S. O. ADDY. 

reader supply any particulars relating to the 
life of this writer? 'Poetical Recreations' 
(London, 1688) appears to have been her 
earliest published work. She also wrote 
'Exilius' (1715), 'A Patch-work Screen' 
(1723), ' The Lining of the Patch- work Screen ' 
(1726), and ' The Novels of Mrs. Jane Barker ' 
(third edition 1736). In the last-named book 
she is described on the title-page as of Wills- 
thprpe "in Northamptonshire." Should not 
this be "of Willsthorpe, near Stamford, in 
Lincolnshire " ? The parochial registers at 
this place appear to afford no information 
on the point. LINCOLN'S INN. 

JAMES ANDERTON. On 21 August, 1705, 
the Scottish Parliament ordered thanks and 
400Z. to Mr. James Anderton for answering 
Mr. Attwood's book called ' The Superiority 
of England over Scotland,' which they ordered 
to be burnt by the common hangman (Lut- 
trell's ' Diary '). Who was this James Ander- 
ton] W. D. PINK. 

FLINT : FERREY. Jn getting gravel from a 
brook (which, by the way, is the boundary 
of Wales) a peculiar piece of iron was found. 
An old workman, who found it, was able to 
explain its use and to give it the name 
it bore fifty years ago, when it was still 
used by the poor. It is what we should call 
a steel for striking a flint with ; but in this 
neighbourhood it appears that they always 
spoke of "a flint and ferrey," and this was a 
"ferrey." The spelling is my own. It is 
evident that the name " ferrey " must be 
derived from ferrum or fer. Was the 
name " ferrey " for a steel common to all 
parts of England, or was it restricted to the 
border of Wales 1 As there are so many 
Latin words in Welsh, and here, though we 
are English, some Welsh words still linger, 
this may be the survival of a Welsh word. 
This "ferrey" will be placed in the new 
Whitchurch Museum, if it is accepted. 


Iscoyd Park, Whitchurch, Salop. 

in my possession several copies of an adver- 
tisement of a draper's shop or warehouse in 
Drury Lane, owned by my great-great-great- 
grandfather, Mark Gregory, born 1698, died 
1738. They are printed in fours on a sheet of 
rough paper 14 in. by 10 in., two and two, 
back to back. The actual advertisement 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 2, 1902. 

measures 6^ in. by 3 in., and is headed by a 
woodcut, 3 in. square, of a raven (?) stand- 
ing on a stump of a tree or seizing a large fish 
in water, its head not seen. Above the bird 
is a sun's face surrounded by rays, the whole 
enclosed in an oval geometrical border. The 
motto one word in each corner is, " No 
Trust At All." The advertisement beneath 
runs thus : 

"Mark Gregory, 

At the Raven and Sun in Drury-Lane, sells 
several Sorts of Haberdashery Ware, viz. Canvass, 
Buckram. Whalebone, Pe.rriwig-Ribbon, Raw and 
Dyed Silks, Cauls and Weaving Thread, and all 
Sorts of fine Gilders and Coloured Threads, Crapes 
and Scotch Muslin, Quality-Bindings, Boot-Strap- 
ping and Gallows ; Webb-Cane and Leather Hoop- 
ing ; Gartering of all Sorts, Nonesopretties, Pins 
and Needles, Inkle and Spinnel, and Scotch Yarn, 
Golooms and Breeds of all Sorts, Ferrits, Ribbons 
and Girdles ; Tapes and Laceings of all Sorts, 
Dimity and Waddings, Printed and Dyed Linnens, 
and Flannels ; fine Dutch Twine for Patridge [sic] 
Nets, and Twine for Fishing Nets, and several 
Sorts of Yard-wide Linnen, Stuffs, Russels, Persians 
and Tabbies, &c. Wholesale and Retail, very cheap 
for ready Money." 

Can any of your correspondents give an ex- 
planation of " nonesopretties"and "spinnel" ? 
They are not known to the editors of the 
' New English Dictionary.' " Gallows," I 
understand, is an old term for braces, and 
"ferrit " for a narrow cord to tie up wigs and 

Ynysyngharad, Pontypridd. 

[Webster's ' International ' defines spinel as 
" bleached yarn used in making the linen tape 
called inkle ; unwrought inkle. For ferret see 
5 th S. xi. 247 ; xii. 292 ; 6 th S. i. 205 ; 7 th S. xii. 252 : 
for gallows= braces, 9 th S. vi. 330, 393 ; vii. 155 ; and 
the 'H.E.D.' for both of these words.] 

Visitations of Cheshire and Yorkshire both 
contain pedigrees of branches of the family 
of Holme (or Hulme) of Holme (or Hulme) 
Hall, Lancashire. Can any one refer me to 
a pedigree of the early Holmes or Hulmes? 
There is an account of them in Burke's 
' Commoners,' vol. iv. (under ' Bankes of Win- 
stanley '), but I do not know upon what autho- 
rity it rests. FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 

51, Medora Road, Brixton Hill. 

DUNLOP. The Rev. Sam. Dunlop was a 
Presbyterian minister who led the band 
of first settlers to Cherry Valley, New 
York State, in 1741. The families he 
gathered together were from the region of 
Londonderry, ' Scotch-Irish." It is affirmed 
that he was a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin. He was driven out from Cherry 
Vallev by the massacre in 1778, and is be- 
lieved to have died somewhere in New Jersey. 

Can any correspondent help me to news of 
him, his birthplace, &c.? 


panying cutting from the Daily Chronicle of 
14 May surely records a very strange coinci- 
dence as regards the Chicago fire; but can it 
be authenticated 1 

"The finding of the hospital clock alone intact 
among the ruins of St. Pierre recalls the even more 
remarkable survival of the destruction of Chicago. 
When that city was burnt out in 1871, the only relic 
of more than a million volumes in Booksellers' Row 
was the charred leaf of a Bible. It was the first 
chapter of Lamentations, and the only verse dis- 
tinctly legible read, ' How doth the city sit solitary, 
that was full of people ! how is she become as a 

widow ! she weepeth sore in the night, and her 

tears are on her cheeks.' Preachers in search of a 
text appropriate to the present calamity may find 
this to supply their needs." 


Can any of your readers identify the digni- 
tary referred to in the British Museum 
Additional Charter 15,200, to wit, Robert, 
D.g. Pristinensis Episcopus, who grants to a 
Bristol burgess a tenement in one of the 
principal streets of that town in July, 1368 1 
rristina is stated to be in Upper Mcesia; but 
the bishop was doubtless an Englishman, and 
probably the son of a Bristolian. 


[Was Robert a bishop in partibu* infidelium ?] 

BAKER FAMILY. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' inform me concerning the ancestry 
of Father Augustin Baker, the author of 
'Sancta Sophia,' &c. ? There are monu- 
ments of relatives in Abergavenny Church ; 
the family seem _ to have at one time been 
large landowners there. I wish also to learn 
the ancestry of Admiral John Baker, promi- 
nent in Queen Anne's reign, whose family 
lived for generations at Deal. C. BAKER. 

ST. ERNULPHUS. Who was St. Ernulphus? 
Huxley, in the 1894 preface to the reissue of 
'Man's Place in Nature,' alludes to "the 
barking of the dogs of St. Ernulphus " and 
" Ernulphine advertisements." I can find 
nothing to the point in notices of St. Arnul- 
phus. R. B. B. 

[For St. Ernulphus see 7 th S. vii. 160, 197, 258.] 

glad to know whether the discovery by Sir 
William Fraser of the room at Brussels in 
which the famous ball was held is usually 
accepted as settling the dispute. In his 
4 Words on Wellington ' the late baronet cer- 

9 >s.x.At7G.2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tainly makes out a strong case for the room 
he found off the Rue de la Blanchisserie, and 
near to the Rue des Cendres. I am aware 
that the matter has been discussed in 
'N. & Q.,' but I wish to ascertain how it 
now stands, for in his ' Life of Wellington ' 
Sir Herbert Maxwell says : 

"The late Sir William Fraser was strongly of 
opinion that he had identified this historic ball- 
room as still in existence ; but the late Dowager 
Lady de Ros and Lady Louisa Tighe, both of 
whom were at their mother's ball, were positive 
that the building had disappeared, and that the 
site of it is now traversed by the Rue des Cendres." 
-Vol. ii. p. 13. 


[See 8 th S. viii. 248, 315, 411.] 

HASELOCK FAMILY. I find a family named 
Haselock or Hazelock settled in Aston juxta 
Birmingham in 1631. One branch of that 
family still remains in that neighbourhood. 
Can any of your readers tell me whether the 
name is to be met with elsewhere ? 


DANES IN PEMBROKE. I should like to 
know if there are any evidences that the 
Danes made a settlement in this county in 
or about the district of Kemeys. There 
were many plunder raids on the Pembroke- 
shire coasts, and St. David's was burnt 
several times ; but are there proofs that a 
colony was established ? If so, can a Norse 
element be traced in the population, as well 
as a Flemish, Norman, and Welsh ? 

G. H. W. 

Henry Chauncy, in his ' History of Hertford- 
shire (vol. i. p. 325, reprinted 1826), under 
' Stortford,' states : 

" He [King John] seized the Town into his hands, 
made it a Borough, constituted Burgesses to govern 
the Town, incorporated them into a commonality, 
authorized the Commonality to choose officers out 
of themselves in their Borough," &c. 

Can any one state the source from which 
Chauncy derived his authority for this state- 
ment? J. L. GLASSCOCK. 
Bishop's Stortford. 

FORSTER. Thomas and Christopher Forster 
were admitted to Westminster School in 1781 
and 1809 respectively. Can any correspondent 
of 'N. & Q.' help me to identify these Forsters? 

G. F. R. B. 

RUSSIAN STORY. In the Sun newspaper of 
4 May, 1894, there was printed a short story, 
stated to be translated from the Russian, 
entitled ' A Love Lesson : the Serf's Awaken- 
ing.' The characters in the story are Prince 
Horostienko, his wife, Count Alexis Kara- 

gine (a lover of the princess), and Yann 
Bassouck, the prince's huntsman. Can any 
of your readers inform me who is the'author 
of this story, and whether his works have 
been translated either into English or French ? 

C. L. 

(9 th S. ix. 369, 450 ; x. 16.) 

THE question raised by JAY AITCH as to 
the school of mystics founded by Lavater, 
and the large book ' The Veiled Queen,' by 
" Philip Aylwin," which contains quotations 
that JAY AITCH affirms have haunted him 
ever since he read them, are certainly ques- 
tions about as interesting as any that could 
have been raised in connexion with the story. 
And in answering these queries I find an 
opportunity of saying a few authentic words 
upon a subject upon which many unauthen- 
tic ones have been uttered tnat of the 
occultism of D. G. Rossetti and some of his" 
friends. It has been frequently said that 
Rossetti was a spiritualist, and it is a fact 
that he went to several stances; but the 
word " spiritualism " seems to have a rather 
elastic meaning. A, spiritualist, as distin- 
guished from a materialist, Rossetti certainly 
was, but his spiritualism was not, I should 
say, that which in common parlance bears 
this name. It was exactly like " Aylwinism," 
which seems to have been related to the 
doctrines of the Lavaterian sect about which 
JAY AITCH inquires. As a matter of fact, it 
was not the original of " Wilderspin " nearly 
so much as the original " D'Arcy " who was 
captured by the doctrine of what is called in 
the story the " Aylwinean " ; and it is a 
remarkable fact in reference to ' Aylwin,' 
that a story written to give expression to 
certain emotions and ideas in connexion 
with the world and the universe should, to 
the surprise of all those who had the privi- 
lege of reading it before publication, have 
obtained a popularity as a mere story equal 
to that of the ordinary circulating-library 

With regard to Johann Kaspar Lavater 
JAY AITCH is no doubt aware that, although 
this once noted writer's fame rests entirely 
upon his treatise ' Physiognomische Frag- 
mente,' he founded a school of mystics in 
Switzerland. This was before what is called 
spiritualism came into vogue. I believe that 
the doctrines of 'The Veiled Queen' are 
closely related to the doctrines of the Lava- 
terians ; but my knowledge on this matter is 



[9 th S. X. AUG. 2, 1902. 

of a second-hand kind, and is derived from 
conversations upon Lavater and his claims 
as a physiognomist, which [ heard many 
years ago at Coombe and during walks 
in Richmond Park between the author of 
' Aylwin ' and my father, who, admittedly a 
man of intellectual grasp, went even further 
than Lavater. He affirmed that not only 
the face, but the entire body, of every man 
indicated his character, if the observer had 
the insight for reading it. But, although 
deeply interested in physiognomy (he pos- 
sessed the valuable early edition of Lavater's 
treatise), he was a strong and, I suppose, 
prejudiced opponent of all kinds of mysticism. 
A physiognomist who at that time wrote 
under the name of "Eden Warwick" was 
much discussed by the author of 'Aylwin' 
and my father. I wonder, by-the-by, if any 
one can tell me who " Eden Warwick " was. 
He was the author of ' Notes on Noses,' a 
little book whose jocosity seemed to hide 
a real seriousness of meaning. I have at 
various times, years before the publication of 
'Aylwin,' seen quotations from such a book 
as ' The Veiled Queen.' I especially remem- 
ber seeing the motto of the novel 'Aylwin '- 
" Quoth Ja'afar, bowing low his head : ' Bold is 
the donkey-driver, O Ka'dee ! and bold the ka'dee 
who dares say what he will believe, what disbelieve 
not knowing in any wise the mind of Allah not 
knowing in any wise his own heart, and what it 
shall some day suffer ' " 

introduced into an article on Westland Mars- 
ton's collected plays and poems, either in the 
Athenaeum or the Examiner, twenty -seven 
years ago. A writer in the Literary World, 
in some admirable remarks upon this story, 
is, as far as I know, the only critic who has 
dwelt upon the extraordinary character of 
" Philip Aylwin." He says : 

" The melancholy, the spiritual isolation, and the 
passionate love of this master-mystic for his dead 
wife are so finely rendered that the readers' sym- 

Sathies go out at once to this most pathetic and 
jnely figure It would be difficult for any sensi- 
tive man or woman to follow Philip Aylwin's story 
as related by his son without the tribute of aching 
heart and scalding tears. To our thinking, the 
man's sanity is more moving, more supremely tragic, 
than even the madness of Winifred, which is the 
culminating tragedy of the book." 

I must say that I agree with this writer in 
thinking "Philip Aylwin" to be the most 
impressive character in the story. The most 
remarkable feature of the novel, indeed, is 
that, although "Philip Aylwin" disappears 
from the scene so early, his opinions, his 
character, and his dreams are cast so entirely 
over the book from beginning to end that 
the novel might have been called 'Philip 
Aylwin.' I have a special interest in this 

character, because I knew the undoubted 
original of the character with a considerable 
amount of intimacy. Without the permission 
of the author of ' Aylwin,' I can only touch 
on outward traits the deep, spiritual life of 
this man is beyond me. Although a very 
near relation, he was not, as has been so 
often surmised, the author's father. He 
was a man of extraordinary learning in the 
academic sense of the word, and possessed 
still more extraordinary general knowledge. 
He lived for many years the strangest kind 
of hermit life, surrounded by his books and 
old manuscripts. His two great passions 
were philology and occultism, but he also 
took great interest in rubbings from brass 
monuments. He knew more, I think, of 
those strange writers discussed in Vaughan's 
' Hours with the Mystics ' than any other 
person including, perhaps, Vaughan him- 
self ; but he managed to combine with his 
love of mysticism a deep passion for the 
physical sciences, especially astronomy. He 
seemed to be learning languages up to almost 
the last year of his life. His method of learning 
languages was the opposite of that of George 
Borrow, that is to say, he made great use of 
grammars ; and when he died it is said that 
from four to five hundred treatises on gram- 
mar were found among his books. He used 
to express great contempt for Sorrow's 
method of learning languages from diction- 
aries only. 

I do not think that any one connected with 
literature with the sole exception of Mr. 
Swinburne, my father, and Dr. R. G. Latham 
knew so much of him as I did. His per- 
sonal appearance was exactly like that of 
" Philip Aylwin," as described in the novel. 
Although he never wrote poetry, he trans- 
lated, I believe, a good deal from the Spanish 
and Portuguese poets. I remember that he 
was an extraordinary admirer of Shelley. 
His knowledge of Shakespeare and the 
Elizabethan dramatists was a link between 
him and Mr. Swinburne. 

At a time when I was a busy reader at the 
British Museum Reading-Room, I used fre- 
quently to see him, and he never seemed to 
know any cne among the readers except 
myself, and whenever he spoke to me it was 
always in a hushed whisper, lest he should 
disturb the other readers, which in his eyes 
would have been a heinous offence. For very 
many years he had been extremely well 
known to the second-hand booksellers, for he 
was a constant purchaser of their wares. He 
was a great pedestrian, and, being very much 
attached to the north of London, would take 
long, slow tramps ten miles out in 

9>s.x.AuG.2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tion of Highgate, Wood Green, &c. I have a 
very distinct recollection of calling upon him 
in Myddelton Square at the time when I was 
living close to him in Percy Circus. Books 
were piled up from floor to ceiling, appa- 
rently in great confusion, but he seemed to 
remember where to find every book and 
what there was in it. It is a singular fact 
that the only person outside those I have 
mentioned who seems to have known him 
was that brilliant, but eccentric journalist 
Thomas Purnell, who had an immense 
opinion of him and used to call him " the 
scholar." How Purnell managed to break 
through the icy wall that surrounded the 
recluse always puzzled me ; but I suppose 
they must have come across one another at 
one of those pleasant inns in the north of 
London where " the scholar " was taking his 
chop and bottle of Beaune. He was a man 
that never made new friends, and as one 
after another of his old friends died he was 
left so entirely alone that, I think, he saw no 
one except Mr. Swinburne, the author of 
' Aylwin,' and myself. But at Christmas he 
always spent a week at the Pines, when and 
where my father and I used to meet him. 
His memory was so powerful that lie seemed 
to be able to recall not only all that he had 
read, but the very conversations in which he 
had taken a part. He died, I think, at a 
little over eighty, and his faculties up to 
the last were exactly like those of a man 
in the prime of life. He always reminded 
me of Charles Lamb's description of George 

Such is my outside picture of this extra- 
ordinary man ; and it is only of externals that 
I am free to speak here, even if I were com- 
petent to touch upon his inner life. He 
was a still greater recluse than the " Philip 
Aylwin " of the novel. I think I am right in 
saying that he took up one or two Oriental 
tongues when he was seventy years of age. 
Another of his passions was numismatics, 
and it was in these studies that he sym- 
pathized with the author of ' Aylwin's ' friend 
the late Lord de Tabley. 1 remember one 
story of his peculiarities which will give an 
idea of the kind of man he was. He had a 
brother who was the exact opposite of him 
in every way strikingly good-looking, with 
great charm of manner and savoir faire, but 
with an ordinary intellect and a very super- 
ficial knowledge of literature, or, indeed, 
anything else, except records of British 
military and naval exploits where he was 
really learned. Being full of admiration of 
his student brother, and having a parrot-like 
instinct for mimicry, he used to talk with 

great volubility upon all kinds of subjects 
wherever he went, and repeat in the same 
words what he had been listening to from 
his brother, until at last he got to be called 
the " walking encyclopaedia." The result 
was that he got the reputation of being a 
great reader and an original thinker, while 
the true student and book-lover was fre- 
quently complimented on the way in which 
he took after bis learned brother. This did 
not in the least annoy the real student, it 
simply amused him, and he would give with 
a dry humour most amusing stories as to what 
people had said to him on this subject. 

Before I close this note I have a word to 
say about a letter concerning my previous 
remarks upon 'Aylwin,' addressed by Mr. 
H. M. Birkdale, a friend of Smetham's, to 
the Literary World, who affirms that there 
are some points of likeness between Smetham 
and " Wilderspin " with very great variations. 
This corroborates my words, for, as I said, 
some very salient characteristics of "Wilder- 
spin" belong to another artist altogether, and 
the personal history of Smetham was not at 
all like that of "Wilderspin." 

At the end of my notes upon ' Aylwin ' in 
9 th S. ix. 450 I said that, should any of your 
correspondents '' want enlightening upon 
any matters within my knowledge in con- 
nexion with ' Aylwjfl,' I should be pleased 
to come to their assistance." I did not mean 
that I should be able to give private answers 
to correspondents who should send their 
questions to my private address ; but that, 
should a question be raised which in the 
opinion of the Editor of ' N. & Q.' was of 
sufficient importance to gain it a place in his 
columns, I should, as an old subscriber to 
the journal, be pleased to furnish any in- 
formation within my power. I make this 
statement because it is impossible for me to 
answer the letters sent to my private address. 

[We had some acquaintance with the being MB. 
HAKE depicts, and can testify to the truth of the 

ALBINO ANIMALS (9 th S. ix. 307). Herodotus 
(ii. 38) does not say that white cattle were 
sacred to Epaphus. He says that the 
Egyptians looked on male oxen as belonging 
to Epaphus, and for purposes of sacrifice 
they rejected any that had a single black 
hair. He further says that the animals were 
submitted to a searching examination to 
determine whether certain marks were pre- 
sent or not. Herodotus's statement is not 
quite clear, and more than one change in the 
text has been proposed ; but he is usually 



s. x. AUG. 2, 1902. 

understood to mean that the Egyptians were 
careful to avoid sacrificing oxen that resem- 
bled the sacred Apis in colour or marks (the 
colours of Apis were black and white). Plu- 
tarch, Tiepl "lo-iSos /ecu 'Ocr/piSos, 31 ( = 363B), 
says that the Egyptians sacrificed red oxen 
(TCOV /3owv TOUS Trvppous), and rejected them 
if a single black or white hair was present. 
Diodorus Siculus (i. 88, 4) says that the 
Egyptians sacrificed red oxen (TOVS Trvppovs 
/?ous) The Jewish practice has been com- 
pared of sacrificing a red heifer without spot 
(Numbers xix. 2), and the statement of Mai- 
monides (' De vacca rufa,' i.) that if two white 
or black hairs are found on the beast it is 
not fit for sacrifice. Those interested in the 
question may be referred to 'Herodot's zweites 
Buch mit sachlichen Erlauterungen heraus- 

Ssgeben von Alfred Wiederaann ' (Leipzig, 
. G. Teubner, 1890), pp. 180, 181, and the 
references there given. EDWARD BENSLY. 
The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

CASTLE CAREWE, PEMBROKE (9 th S. ix. 428, 
490). Opinions vary as to the pronunciation 
of Carew. Wintering in Wales for some years, 
I have perambulated there by aid of MR. C. S. 
WARD'S excellent guide-book, which informs 
us that " Carew is locally pronounced Carey.' 
MR F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY, writing from 
Cardiff (6 th S. ii. 456), states that while in 
Tenby he " usually heard Carew pronounced 
as Carroo "; and though my late friend Sir 
John Maclean, the historian, warned me that 
the natives would not understand my in- 
quiries for Carewe, I reached there by means 
of "Carroo," and never once heard Carey, 
remained there two days, and discoursec 
much with the incumbent. For specia 
reasons I have sought information from 
Welsh gentlemen, and a few weeks since a 
reverend magistrate in Wales decided for 
"Carroo." I asked the Hon. Mrs. P. B 
(daughter of the late centenarian Lady Jan 
Carew of Wexford, who did not dance at th 
Waterloo ball, and whose parents fled tc 
Haverf ord west, not Holy head, as the news 
papers stated) how she pronounced her familj 
name, and she rendered it rather a tri 
syllable, in accord with the ancient spelling 
in the public records Cariou, temp. Hen. II. 
Karrieu, temp. Ric. I.; Carrio, temp. John 
and Karreu, temp. Ed. I. 

Above seventy years ago the Carews o 
Antony were not known as Careys. Carew 
from north of Cornwall annually visitec 
Antony and cut a turf from the lawn t 
sustain an alleged title to the estate. Fo 
explanation see Vivian's 'Visitation o 
Devon.' Jonathan Rashleigh married Jane 

aughter of Sir John Carew of Antony ; 
heir daughter married the Rev. Charles Pole, 
'hose son Reginald assumed the additional 
ame of Carew, in compliance with the will 
f his kinsman Sir Coventry Carew ; and his 
on (father of General Reginald Pole Carew) 
vas, I imagine, persuaded by Sir John Mac- 
ean to become a Carey. Sir John, in an 
article headed 'The Families of Carew and 
Jarey Distinguished,' stated that the " repre- 
entation of the elder line of this distin- 
guished family devolved " eventually on 
George Carew, Baron Clopton and Earl of 
Totnes, and ultimately on myself by descent 
Tom his only sister (Herald and Genealogist, 
vii. 21, 23), by virtue of which I presumed, 
hrough a friend, to recommend the general 
,o abjure Carey, especially as his ancestor 
Richard Carew wrote 

Carew of ancient Carru was, 
And Carru is a plowe. 

'Survey of Cornw.,' fo. 103, ed. 1602. 

And charrue, French for plough, is phonetic- 
ally somewhat remote from Carey. 

SHAMROCK, under 'Castle Carew = Carey' 
(7 th S. iii. 447), alluding to the conveyance of 
bhe castle by Rhys ap Tudor, Prince of South 
Wales, to Gerald de Windsor in marriage 
with his daughter Nesta, states in error that 
the Fitz Geralds descended from the De Mor- 
taines who accompanied the Conqueror, mean- 
ing Robert, Comte de Mortain, his uterine 
brother, of whom Planche knew little, and 
of whom I may, if spared, have something 
to say touching the Bayeux tapestry. His 
daughter Agnes married Andrew de Vitre, 
whose grandson Robert married Emma de 
Dinan. Their issue took the name of Dinan, 
from whom descended Lord Dynham, K.G., 
Treasurer of the Exchequer to K. Henry VII., 
ob. sp. A.D. 1500 leaving his eldest sister and 
coheiress Margaret, the wife of Nicholas, 
Baron Carew. These were grandparents of 
the Earl of Totnes above. Their mural altar- 
tomb is in Westminster Abbey. I hardly 
think SHAMROCK knew this descent when 
describing "the Dukes of Leinster, the Earls 
of Desmond and Totnes, and Barons Carew, 
also the Marquess of Lansdowne," as descen- 
dants from the Mortaines. 

The Duke of Leinster, when Marquis of 
Kildare, in 1858, published " A Notice of the 
Fitz Geralds or Geraldines, descendants from 
' Dominus Otho,' who in 1057 was an honorary 
Baron of England, and said to have been of 
the family of the Gherardini of Florence." 
His son Walter, castellan of Windsor, married 
Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynvyn, 
Prince of North Wales. His grandson Gerald 
married the Princess Nesta aforesaid, and 

9'"s.x.AuG.2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


had three sons Maurice, ancestor of the 
Earls of Kildare ; William, ancestor of the 
Carews ; and David, Bishop of St. David's. 
The Earl of Totnes, however (whose fore- 
fathers inherited Carew Castle), in an auto- 
graph pedigree, makes Maurice the third son. 
This earl was Sir Walter Raleigh's most valued 
friend and cousin. 

In conclusion, a trace from the Geraldines 
may be of interest : Lucian Lopez ye Fair, 
first Lord of Biscay Manso Lopez Inigo 
the Left-handed Lopez, married Felicia dei 
Medici, a Florentine Gerald Dias Lopez, 
expelled Biscay by his bastard brother Inigo, 
dwelt in Florence Ostorio, born in Florence, 
married Sancia de la Cerda, of the blood 
royal of Castile Othero, went into Nor- 
mandy : arms, Ar., a saltire gules (as borne 
by the Earls of Kildare) Walter Fitz Otho, 
castellan of Windsor Gerald de Windsor = 
Nesta, da. of Rees ap Tewdor, King of South 
Wales, &c. (' Golden Grove Book '). 

Henry, the poet Earl of Surrey, wrote of 
" the fair Gerafdine," daughter of the eleventh 
Earl of Kildare : 

From Tuscane came my Lady's worthy race : 

Fair Florence was sometime her ancient seat. 


The place where Carew Castle stands was 
called Caerau, "the fortified camps." It be- 
longed to Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Dine- 
fawr, who gave this demesne to his daughter 
Nest for her dowry. She was a concubine of 
Henry I., and married Gerald de Windsore. 
There might be a tower there at that period, 
but Gerald is thought to have built the 
castle, and his descendants assumed the sur- 
name of De Carew from this estate. They 
sold or mortgaged it in the fifteenth century, 
Sir Rhys ap Thomas, Knt., finding the money, 
and he is said to have improved and enlarged 
the building. It was eventually purchased 
by Sir John Carew (a remote descendant of 
Sir Edmond Carew, who parted with it), and 
remains still in the family. 


It is a tradition of my family that not only 
the Carews, but the Webbers, also a West of 
England family (Devon and Cornwall), are 
descended from Nesta's son William. Is this 
a trustworthy tradition ? WEBBER J 

A "WILD-CAT" COMPANY (9 th S. ix. 405). 
" Wild-cat " banks were those chartered by 
the new States in the West during the thirties. 
The abundance of paper money caused great 
speculation in land, with the result of the 
great panic of 1838. Some banks were so far 
in the backwoods that holders of notes could 
never find them. " Wild -cat " oil wells are 

those drilled in territory where no oil has yet 
been found. O. H. DARLINGTON. 

QUEEN CANDACE (9 th S. ix 321, 353). The 
baptismal name Candace occurs in the parish 
registers and tombstone inscriptions of 
St. Ives, Cornwall, for the eighteenth and 
first half of the nineteenth century. It is 
there sometimes rendered Candice and Can- 
dis. I have never met with it elsewhere. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

(9 th S. ix. 64, 212 331, 415). All cheques 
issued by the Bankruptcy Department of the 
Board of Trade require the signature of the 
payee on their face, as in the case of Post 
Office orders, and no endorsement is neces- 
sary. A. J. DAVY. 


KENNETT'S WHARF (5 th S. x. 228, 393). I 
have an extract from the will of the Rev. 
Basil Kennett, 1686 : " To eldest son White 
Kennett, Lands and tenements in Folke-" 
stone, and lands lying upon Green Bank and 
P- - Alley, Wapping." Would this be in 
the same locality as Kennett's Wharf, Upper 
Thames Street, at the above reference *? 


Sandgate. 'jt 

"MALLET " OR "MULLET " (9 th S. ix. 486).^ 
The context of the passage "There is no 
more conceit in him than is in a mallet " 
should, I think, be convincing enough that 
neither "mullet" nor, as Knight has it, 
" mallard " is meant. Falstaff has previously 
declared that Poins's wit is as thick as 
Tewksbury mustard in other words, that he 
was thickheaded and further on he says 
Poins " hath a weak mind and an able body." 
Now thickheadedness, woodenheadedness, 
and general fatuity could not well be likened 
to a more insensate article than a mallet or 
beetle. Hence we have the similes "as 
blind " or " as deaf as a beetle," " as helpless 
as a log of wood," " blockheaded," &c. The 
intention, then, was evidently to liken Poins's 
intellectual equipment to that of a mallet, 
" conceit " having, of course, the meaning 
that Schmidt assigns to it of " mental faculty, 
comprising the understanding as well as the 
imagination." J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

Mallet undoubtedly is right. The phrase, 
or its equivalent, beetle-head= stupid, is still 
quite common in the Midland counties. 
Here we say besom- keead, but the idea is the 
same, viz., thickhead ; and Falstaff had just 
said that Poins's wit was as " thick as 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 2, 1902. 

Tewkesbury mustard " (why Tewkesbury ?). 
Cf. "blind as a beetle." Beetle and mallet are 
almost identical in meaning in some places 
quite so C. C. B. 

Ep worth. 

5). The peculiarity of bringing the points 
of the compass into use in describing the 
position of persons and things is not confined 
to the island of Antigua. The habit is quite 
common among the peasantry in the south 
and west of Ireland. Jf one were to ask a 
labourer in the fields the whereabouts of his 
master he would reply, "He is t east in the 
wood," or " west at the forge," as the case 
might be. This peculiarity extends to the 
position of things in one's house ; and I 
remember an occasion when a raw servant- 
maid, in bringing the dishes to the dinner- 
table, whispered to her mistress, "Where will 
I put the potatoes, ma'm east or west?" 
Prof. Keane (Stanford's ' Compendium,' ' Cen- 
tral and South America,' vol. ii.) says that 
the Irish brogue is in evidence in some of the 
Lesser Antilles. This legacy of the early Irish 
planters may explain the existence of the 
peculiarity among the blacks of Antigua. 


Vailima, Bishopstown, Cork. 

When I came from the north of England 
to live in Worcestershire, in 1879, I noticed 
that aged country people would say, " I met 
a drop of rain." W. C. B. 

THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 th S. ix. 485; x. 31). 
I would suggest that the white ensign is 
generally used on churches because the ground 
of the flag is the cross of St. George, the 
patron saint of England, the old national 
flag before the Union. I hope A. O.'s sugges- 
tion to restrict everybodj 7 to the Union Jack 
will not be adopted. If for no other reason 
than the sake of a little variety in our 
decorations, let us have the use of the Union 
Jack and the red, white, and blue ensigns. 


I have recently been to St. Kilda as the 
bearer of kindly messages from the King and 
Queen to the islanders, and of gifts of photo- 

fraphs from Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, 
thought it would be a unique event in the 
history of " the lone island " if His Majesty 
would grant permission for me to present a 
Royal Standard for use on St. Kilda on State 
occasions, so I wrote to His Majesty on the 
subject, and received the following reply : 
Buckingham Palace, 5th June, 1902. 
Dear Sir, I have had the honour of submitting 
your letter of the 2nd inst. to the King, and I am 

commanded to request you in reply to inform the 
inhabitants of St. Kilda, when you next visit that 
island, that he trusts they will have a successful 
season in their occupation of fulmar catching. His 
Majesty regrets that he is unable to grant you per- 
mission to present a Royal Standard, but you can 
give the minister a Union Jack. 

Yours faithfully, 


The Royal Standard may only be used when 
the King and Queen, or King or Queen, are 
in actual residence. 


ORANGE BLOSSOMS (9 th S. x. 6). Most of 
the works on flower-lore to which I have 
access speak of the use of orange blossoms at 
weddings as of comparatively recent origin, 
and as due to the fact that the orange tree, 
bearing fruit and flowers together, is a symbol 
of fecundity. This is, I should imagine, the 
real reason of the custom. Folkard (' Plant- 
Lore ') says that in Crete the bride and bride- 
groom are sprinkled with orange-flower water, 
and that in Sardinia oranges are attached to 
the horns of the oxen which draw the nuptial 
carriage. There is no suggestion of any such 
reason as Thackeray supposes here. Dr. 
Brewer (' Diet, of Phrase and Fable ') says 
the Saracen brides carried orange blossoms 
at weddings, and suggests that our modern 
custom is a survival, or revival, of theirs. 
The second stanza of the song " She wore a 
wreath of roses " begins 

A wreath of orange blossoms 
When next we met she wore. 

I do not know the date of this ; but it must, 
I think, be older than ' Vanity Fair.' 

C. C. B. 

The charming old song which commences 
with the line "She wore a wreath of roses," 
and contains the words " with a wreath of 
orange blossoms upon her snowy brow," was 
in vogue in the early thirties, and would 
seem to imply that the decoration in ques- 
tion was then an established custom at 
weddings. Perhaps DR. MURRAY can ascer- 
tain the date of its composition. 


[T. Haynes Bayly, the writer of the song, died in 

This subject has been repeatedly discussed 
in ' N. & Q.,' for which see l sfc S. viii., ix. ; 
3 rd S. x., xi. ; 4 th S. i. ; 7 tn S. vii. A question 
arises out of the quotation given by DR. 
MURRAY from 'Vanity Fair' in 1848, but 
which is attributed in Annandale's ' Imperial 
Dictionary ' to the Rev. Frederick Farrar, 
D.D. Who was the author? 

[The quotation is Thackeray's as given.] 

9's.x.AuG.2,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

AMBER" (9 th S. ix. 408, 471; x. 17). With 
due deference to MR. STEPHENS'S views, I 
submit that when an article is stated to be 
"of" a particular substance, one does not 
understand that it is merely decorated or 
framed therewith. In resolving the am- 
biguity of "amber" or "electrum," casually 
mentioned, one must therefore rely on the 
predominant applicability or appropriateness 
of one or other substance. 

Formerly, too, in the absence of chemical 
analysis, the distinction between a metal and 
the fossil resin was not very apparent. 
Cassiodorus, for instance, though quoting 
Pliny (who distinguishes amber from elec- 
trum), nevertheless calls BaltH amber "suda- 
tile metallum." Again, the old chronicler 
who credits the ancient Britons with the 
possession of " electrina atque vitrea vasa " 
was doubtless unconscious of any possible 
misapprehension. Until, however, cups of 
fossil amber were really unearthed, there was 
an opening here for the continuance of the 
scholastic^ strife over Penelope's necklace 
Xpvcreov, rj\eKTpoi<riv ffpfjievov, r/f\LOv oi's and 
other Homeric passages, in which, by the 
archaeological discoveries of contemporaneous 
amber ornaments, the probability of rjXfKTpov 
being the "only gem mentioned by Homer" 
has been largely augmented. J. DORMER. 

"THE BEATIFIC VISION" (9 th S. ix. 509). I 
am not sure as to the first use of the phrase 
"Visio beatifica," but the doctrine under- 
lying it was defined by Benedict XII. in 
the Constitution 'Benedictus Deus ' (4 Kal. 
Fehr., 1330). In it he speaks of a " visio 
divinse essentiae intuitiva et etiam facialis," 

and says that "ex tali visione animse 

eorum, qui iam decesserunt, sunt vere beatse." 
The Greek 'Orthodox Confession' (1643), 
P. i. q. 126, speaks^ of rj Oeiopia rfjs fjLaKapias 
TpiaSos as Trdcnjs i5c/>po(nnjjs TrArypco/ia. 


''ASTONISH THIS NATIVES" (9 th S. ix. 267). 
This expression I have heard many years ago 
in the form of a riddle, and believe that it 
may be found in ' The Boy's Own Book ' : 

" Why is Capt. Cook firing on the savages at 
Otaheite like a man opening oysters? Answer: 
Because he astonishes the natives." 

Capt. Cook was killed in 1779. I once 
heard a witty chaplain at Oxford at an 
oyster supper observe, "It is our opening 
day," referring to the celebrated glee by 
Bishop, which had just been sung, 'The 
Chough and Crow,' from the opera of ' Guy 
Mannering.' JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

WALDBY ARMS (9 th S. ix. 448). Although 
no direct answer to the-inquiry, I recommend 
your correspondent to turn to articles in 
' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. vi. 459 ; 8 th S. xii. 8, 72, on 
the Wai d by families. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

STONING THE WREN (9 th S. ix. 108, 234). 
The Manx fishermen dare not go to sea with- 
out one of these birds taken dead with them 
for fear of storms. See ' Scottish Gallovidian 
Encyclopaedia,' p. 157. 


MARKS ON TABLE LINEN (9 th S. ix. 427). 
" Nemo me impune lacesset " alludes to the 
prickles of the thistle, and consequently was 
adopted as the motto of the Order of the 
Thistle. It was first used on coins of 
James VI. of Scotland and I. of England , and 
I think it is the motto of the Royal Scots 

"Nemo me impune lacesset": no man 
shall provoke me with impunity. This is 
the motto of the Order of the Thistle, and 
has reference to the rough nature of that 
plant. It was first introduced on the coins 
of James VI. of Scotland. The figure of a 
man is that of St. Andrew, probably sur- 
rounded by rays, affl having its four limbs 
alternating with the four points of a lozenge. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" SIXES AND SEVENS " (9 th S. ix. 427 ; x, 55). 
The suggestion that this phrase has any- 
thing to do with learning elementary arith- 
metic is entirely beside the mark. It is 
obvious that the reference is to gambling. 
If any reader cares to consult my edition of 
Chaucer he will find that I explain the line 
in 'Troil.,' iv. 622, by "Boldly stake the 
world on casts of the dice "; and I refer to 
my notes on Chaucer, ' Cant. Tales,' B. 124 
and C. 653 ; compare also B. 3851. Set is a 
technical term, and actually occurs in the 
very play to which we are referred for " six 
and seven "; for in ' Rich. II.,' IV. i. 57, is the 
line, "Who sets me else? by heaven, I'll 
throw at all." Cf. ' 1 Henry IV.,' IV. i. 46 ; 
' Rich. III.,' V. iv. 9 ; 'Troil. and Cres.,' prol. 
22 ; ' Jul. Caesar,' V. i. 75 ; ' Macb.,' III. i. 
113 ; ' King Lear,' I. iv. 136. Seven was a 
favourite " chance " in the game of hazard ; 
hence, " to set on seven " was to risk, to take 
one's luck. " Thus he settez on seiien with his 
sekyre knyghttez"; 'Morte Arthure,' 1. 2131. 
At the same game double sixes was a losing 
throw. The transition from the notion of 
haphazard to that of disorder was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 2, 1902. 

enough ; compare the history of the word 
hazard. The sense is clear in the line, " Or 
wager laid at six and seven," Butler's 
'Hudibras' (Johnson, no reference). The 
older phrase was six and five ; this is Chaucer's 
sis cink, and Lydgate's sys and cinq (' Chau- 
cerian Pieces,' p. 393). Hence it is that 
Bacon has : "In 1588 there sat in the see of 
Rome a fierce thundering friar, that would 
set all at six and seven, or at six and five, if 
you allude to his name " (Sixtus) ; quoted in 
Johnson (no reference). It is curious that 
the dictionaries give so poor an account of 
the matter. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

387). The edition on parchment will be pub- 
lished by G. D. Sproul, of New York, and is 
limited to fifteen sets, each set contain- 
ing about 150 volumes. The printing of this 
"St. Dunstan" edition will be on one side 
only of the skins, and every page illuminated 
by hand ; the title-pages, chapter-headings, 
and tailpieces, specially designed, will also 
be elaborately decpratea. Many other unique 
features are promised, such as critical intro- 
ductions by Swinburne, Gosse, Dobson, 
Henley, &c., and a series of new illustrations. 
This is essentially an edition which appeals 
to the millionaire " collector," for the price 
will be a thousand dollars a volume, or 
30,000^. for the set ! F. G. KITTON. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE AND GAS (9 th S. vi. 227, 
358 : ix. 118, 317, 372 ; x. 35). There is a 
slight error which should, I think, be rectified 
in my last communication. Gaslights were 
not first used in Pall Mall in 1809. It was in 
1807 that one side only of Pall Mall was 
lighted with gas (Beckmann). In Haydn's 
'Dictionary of Dates' it is merely stated 
generally that " gaslights were used in light- 
ing Pall Mall in 1809* 


ix. 261, 429, 513). MR. PINK'S appreciative 
criticism, and the general interest my notes 
on the Regicide's descendants appear to have 
evoked, have induced me to compile the fol- 
lowing memoranda, which are necessarily 

George Fleetwood. MR. PINK may be 
right as to the third of this name being a 
figment of Lipscomb's imagination. In 
Allegations for Marriage Licences issued by 
the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, July, 1679-June, 1687, on 
10 December, 1679, there is an entry of a 
"George Fleetwood of the Inner Temple, 
Bachelor, about 27, and Mrs. Sarah Stebbings 

of Wissett,* co. Suffolk, Spinster, at 

Halsworth, co. Suffolk." According to 
Blaydes's ' Genealogia Bedfordiensis ' they 
were married at Barton-le-Cley, co. Beds, on 
20 July, 1680. Can this be the third George 1 
There should not be much difficulty in tracing 
his parentage. In addition to the counties 
mentioned by MR. PINK (and, of course, 
Lancashire and Stafford), I have traced the 
name in Berks, Cambridge, Cheshire, Devon, 
Essex, Hants, Herts, Norfolk, Somerset, 
Surrey, Warwick, Wilts, Worcester, and Yorks, 
while it is also to be found in the United 
States, Ireland, and Australia. 

The note about the East Indian Fleetwoods 
(9 th S. ix. 430) is interesting. Was the Mary 
Caryl mentioned in Mrs. Penny's work, whom 
Edward Fleetwood married in March, 1694, 
one of the Sussex Carylls ? Dallaway's 
' Sussex ' unfortunately throws no light on 
the point. There was correspondence (Caryll 
Papers, British Museum) between John 
Caryll, jun., of Ladyholt near Midhurst, and 
later of West Grinstead, Sussex, and Bene- 
dicta Fleetwood, abbess of a convent of 
English Benedictines at Dunkirk about 1713- 
1720, chiefly regarding the sale of a farm 
belonging to Benedicta Fleetwood, which 
gives colour to the surmise. If the abbess 
can be identified, it may lead to the discovery 
of the branch to which the Madras Fleet- 
woods belonged. The arms and crest given 
in Mrs. Penny's book are those of the Fleet- 
wood family, but the three martlets on the 
dexter side of the shield are facing the 
sinister, so that the martlets of each pair face 
each other. Are they correctly copied from 
the monument in the old cemetery of 
St. Mary ? 

Probably Charles Fleetwood, of Edgware 
Road, Paddington, who died in April, 1784 
will dated 24 September, 1783, proved 
9 January, 1786, administration granted 
samedate to Charles Chapman was a member 
of the branch alluded to. He left two 
children, minors viz., Charles, in 1786 at 
Burdway in Bengal, and Frances, at school 
at Chigwell in 1783 In Chancery proceed- 
ings in 1787 their ages are given as thirteen 
and seventeen respectively. 

Can any reader give particulars of a 
Charles Fleetwood who bought the Drury 
Lane patent in March, 1734? There is an 
allusion to him in Doran's ' Their Majesties' 
Servants, 'and to him and his son in Chaloner 
Smith's 'British Mezzotinto Portraits.' 

* The Confiscation Acts of 1651 and 1652 preserve 
the rights of General Charles Fleetwood and his 
first wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Smith, in the 
manor of Wisset, co. Suffolk, among other places. 

9* s. x. AUG. 2, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edward Fleet wood, of Holland, in co. 
Lancaster, aged about one hundred, living 
in 1634. This entry occurs in a pedigree in 
the 'Visitation of London, 1633-1635' (vol. xv., 
Harl. Society), signed by Geoffrey Fleetwood 
the son. Centenarians are rare even nowa- 
days, when the average duration of life is 
longer ; can MR. PINK verify the dates of 
birth and death of this patriarch ? It would 
be interesting to have positive proof, as 
Geoffrey may have been "pulling the leg" 
of the amiable gentleman who recorded the 

The Fleet woods were connected by marriage 
with the family of Milton, as Thomas Milton, 
Deputy-Clerk of the Crown in Chancery, and 
nephew of the great Milton, married Martha, 
daughter of Charles Fleetwood, of Northamp- 
ton. Milton's cottage at Chalfont St. Giles 
was built by the Fleetwood family, as appears 
by their arms over the door. 

It is also worth noting that Samuel Cooper, 
who painted the known miniature of the 
regicide, was uncle by marriage to Alexander 

The Fleetwoods have represented at least 
one constituency in Parliament during the 
reign of nearly every sovereign from Ed- 
ward VI. to Victoria inclusive ; but here I 
am trespassing on ground MR. PINK has 
made peculiarly his own, as a reference to 
the too little known, but valuable work by 
Messrs. Pink and Beavan on the ' Parlia- 
mentary Representation of Lancashire ' will 
easily prove. 

In conclusion, I may mention that the his- 
toric estate of the Vache is now (July) being 
offered for sale. R. W. B. 

LADY NOTTINGHAM (9 th S. ix. 128, 213, 455 ; 
x. 11). The reprinting of an old tradition 
should rout all other approaching columns. 
The following truly "extraordinary feat of 
maternity " is related of Margaret, who is 
stated to have been the great-great-grand- 
daughter of King Stephen and the wife of 
Herman, Count of Henneberg : 

"Margaret is said to have borne at one birth, 

in 1276, 365 children, the one half males, baptized 
John, and the other half females, baptized Elizabeth, 
the odd one being a hermaphrodite." 

The lady is reported to have died shortly 
afterwards ! RONALD DIXON. 

AINSWORTH THE NOVELIST (9 th S. ix. 409 ; 
x. 10, 57). No official biography of Ainsworth 
has appeared or is likely to appear. For the 
" Windsor Edition " of his novels, now in 
course of publication by Messrs. Gibbings & 
Co., I have written a memoir, somewhat 
fuller in character than that which I con- 

tributed to the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy.' As many of. his romances are of 
historical interest there has been added to 
the memoir a chronology of the novels, which 
range in point of date from the thirteenth to 
the nineteenth century. 


BYRON'S GRANDFATHER (9 th S. ix. 509 ; x. 
52). In the 'Registers' of Bath Abbey, 
recently published by the Harleian Society, 
I find the following burial entry : " 1779. 
Jan. 15. George Gordon, Esq. Under Mrs. 
Peirce's stone, by the font." But there is no 
reference made to the cause of death. 

T. C.-F. 

HALLEY FAMILY (9 th S. x. 27). The streets 
mentioned by MR. McPiKE are on the north- 
east and east sides of London. It appears 
probable that they are named after Edmund 
Halley, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal to George I. 
According to the ' D.N.B.' Halley was born at 
Haggerston, lived at Islington, afterwards in 
the City, and was buried at Lee in Kent. I 
venture to make the suggestion, seeing that 
a considerable part of Halley's life seems to 
have been spent more or less on the east side 

Richmond, Surrey. 

LIBRARY (9 th S. viii. 378 ; ix. Ill, 415 ; x. 14). 
The h in Heuskarian is intrusive, the 
Basques themselves calling their language 
Eskuara, Euskara, Uskara (see 'Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia,' art. 'Basques,' and 'H.E.D./ 
voc. ' Euskarian '). R. B R says very pro- 
perly that the indefinite article preceding it 
" should be a, not an, as the sound of the first 
syllable is you, though the letters are eu." 
Many writers follow the rule, "a before a 
consonant, an before a vowel," regardless of 
the fact that it is based on the sound, not 
the shape, of the letters, arid oblivious of the 
Euclidean axiom that things equal to the 
same thing are equal to each other. They 
use an before "euphony," "ewe," " use," and 
every other word with the like beginning 
which I cannot affirm to be incorrect, the 
syllables eu, ew, and u being certainly not 
consonantal, for no consonant or conjunction 
of consonants is a syllable. But why do they 
use a before words beginning with ?/, which 
also is not a consonant, but leading partner 
in an association of vowels 1 If it is for 
euphony that they write " a youth " and " a 
yew," the same reason has force in the cases 
of "use," which differs phonetically from 
"youth" only in the consonantal ending, 
and of "ewe, which is absolutely identical 


. x. AUG. 2, 1002. 

in sound with " yew. " Let these instances 
suffice. The late Mr. Gladstone always wrote 
"an European," "an universal," "an one," 
&c. ; and Mr. Andrew Lang does likewise 
at which I marvel not, for it was in a book 
written by a clerical " brither Scot " that I 
met some time ago with the horrific combina- 
tion "a habitual." The question of an before 
h has already been fully discussed in 'N. & Q.' 
(8 th S. i. 89). F. ADAMS. 

ix. 368, 495). If "fierce" was New York's 
latest slang phrase in 1900, it has been a long 
time travelling from England ! Fourteen or 
fifteen years ago it was a very common 
schoolboy adjective, applied in exactly the 
same manner as your correspondent reports 
it at the latter reference. CHAS. WELSH. 

Boston, Mass., U.S. 

With regard to this matter, I recently 
heard in a high-class hotel a remarkably 
well-dressed lady, when ordering luncheon 
for herself and husband, say : " Have you 
any beer ? " On receiving a reply in the 
affirmative, she added, "Then let me have some 
beer right away." HENRY GERALD HOPE. 

119, Elms Road, S.W. 

BOON FOR BOOKWORMS (9 th S. ix. 406, 453 ; 
x. 17). Ribbon-markers are no boon for, but 
a nuisance to me, an old bookworm from 
boyhood. I have always regarded them with 
horror, as doing more harm to books than 
conferring a boon on the reader. At least I, 
for one, have absolutely set my face against 
them, and instantly remove them if found in 
books I purchase. They (such is my experi- 
ence) fray the edges of the leaves and pre- 
vent the book from properly closing, besides 
oftentimes unduly causing a crack either in 
the back or binding. I regard them as amongst 
the worst enemies of books. 

J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C-on-M., Manchester. 

I have a copy of the choice " Bayard 
Series " of companionable books, commencing 
with ' The Story of the Chevalier Bayard,' 
published in 1868, &c., by Sampson Low & 
Co., London. Four of the volumes have a 
silk ribbon-marker each, and eleven volumes 
have not been so furnished. 


119, Elms Road, S.W. 

467 ; x. 35). He died in 1560 ; his will was 
proved in P.C.C. in 1561. As correctly stated 
by MR. WILLIAMS, he was M.P. for Carmar- 
then borough, 1547-52 ; for that of Cardigan 
in the last two Parliaments of Mary, Octc-ber 

to December, 1555, and January to Novem- 
ber, 1558 ; and also in the first Parliament of 
Elizabeth, January to May, 1559. If D. M. R. 
will refer to the Parliamentary Returns he 
will find that there was no Parliament 
between May, 1559, and January, 1562/3. 

W. D. PINK. 

GRACE BEFORE MEAT (9 th S. x. 7). 
Very many articles have already appeared 
in 'N. & Q.' on the custom and form of 
saying grace both before and after meals, for 
which see 5 th S. viii., xi. ; 7 th S. i., ii.,iii., viii., 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"Box HARRY" (9 th S. ix. 449 ; x. 13). May I 
point out that in 1893 (8 th S. iii. 128) 1 asked 
for the derivation of this phrase? Replies as 
to the meaning came at pp. 237 and 275 of 
that volume, but no light was thrown on the 
derivation. The subject is indexed under 
' Proverbs and Phrases,' s.v. ( Harry.' 



HOBBINS FAMILY (9 th S. x. 28). Twenty 
years ago I was acquainted with three maiden 
ladies, sisters, who all lived to a great age, 
and were connected with Worcester and 
Warwick. They lent me a family Bible 
(1632-3-4), from the fly-leaf of which I copied 
these notes : 

Oliuer Hobbins his Bible, 26 Apr. 1674. 

Stephen Hobbins his Book, 1763. 

Oliuer Hobbins was baptized the 19 day of 
January, 1658 [1658/9]. 

William Hobbins was baptized the 28 of Novem- 
ber, 1660. 

Oliuer Hobbins was born the 26 of December in 
the year of our Lord God 1668 [? error for 1658]. 

William Hobbins the brother of Oliuer Hobbins 
was born the first day of Nouember in the year of 
our Lord 1670 [? error for 1660]. 

Alice Hobbins widdow died the first day of 
June 1699 about fowr of the clock in the after- 

For "Redmarsley," "Herefordshire," read 
Redmarley, Worcestershire. W. C. B. 

There are still remaining in Warwick- 
shire a few members of a Catholic yeoman 
family of Hobbins, who for generations were 
free tenants of the Throckmortons. If your 
correspondent cares to have particulars of 
them, I can put him in the way of obtaining 
the information. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

TIB'S EVE (9 th S. ix. 109, 238, 335 ; x. 33). I 
would ask to be allowed to tender my hearty 
thanks to all the kind friends who have 
written under this heading. I have just 
come across the following in Lytton's 

g> s.x. AUG. 2, 



' Harold,' which, I think, might fitly be added 
to the Tib bibliography : 

" 'Ye are still in your leading-strings, Norman,' 
replied the Saxon, waxing good-humoured in his 
contempt. ' We have an old saying and a wise one 
All came from Adam except Tib the ploughman ; 
but when Tib grows rich all men call him " dear 
brother." ' " Chap. vi. Book vi. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


Antonio Stradivari : his Life and Work, 1644-11 '37. 

By W. Henry Hill, Arthur F. Hill, F.S.A., and 

Alfred E. Hill. (Hill & Sons.) 
As the man who perfected the violin, Antonio 
Stradivari deserves and has found biographers. 
These belong to recent years. Until the last 
century was well advanced the idea that a 
craftsman could merit such attention as has been 
bestowed upon Stradivari had not entered the 
minds of men, and the honours of a full biography 
were reserved for the monarch, the statesman, the 
warrior, the writer, and the artist. Recognition of 
the merits of Stradivari was, moreover, slow in 
growth. In England, and in France also, it was 
not. until late in the eighteenth century that the 
violins of Stradivari triumphed in general estima- 
tion over those of his master Nicolo Amati and 
other members of the same family, and of Jacob 
Stainer, the great German violin-maker. In the 
penultimate decade of the last century Signer 
Mandelli, of Cremona, collected materials for a life 
of Antonio Stradivari in special honour of his native 
city. These materials were placed in the hands of 
Messrs. Hill, who are experts as well as enthusiasts, 
and whose researches have extended over a further 
ten years. The result is seen in the handsome, well- 
written, and brilliantly illustrated volume before 
us. The main facts of the life of Antonio Stradivari 
are as well known as they are likely to be, and com- 
paratively little has been added in this respect to 
the information which has been for a score years 
accessible to the public. Zealously conducted 
researches have been made into the origin and 
pedigree of Stradivari, but have been attended 
with no very conspicuous success. So far back as 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the name, 
variously spelt, was borne by more or less dis- 
tinguished citizens of Cremona. Between these, 
however, and the subject of the biography no con- 
nexion is to be traced, and the genealogical table 
which has been compiled for the volume begins 
with Alessandro Stradivari, born 15 January, 1602, 
the father of Antonio. On the other hand, direct 
descendants of the great Cremona violin-maker 
still exist, the birth 01 one being chronicled under 
the date 1883, and a second having died last 
year. The name, we are told by Mr. E. J. 
Payne, is a plural form of stradivare, a Lombard 
variety of stratiere (stratiaritis), a doiianier or toll- 
collector. A different origin seems favoured by 
Signer Mandelli. No record of the birth of Antonio 
has been traced in Cremona, which his parents are 
supposed to have quitted on account of the ravages 
of the plague. Upon his two marriages there is 
little temptation to dwell. Stradivari s provision 

of a tomb for himself and his children was unavail- 
ing. On his death, on 19 December, 1737, at the 
reputed age of ninety-five' (Messrs. Hill make it a 
year or two less), Antonio was buried in the tomb 
which he had bought in a small chapel, named 
after the yirgin of the Rosary, in the church of 
St. Domenico. This edifice already contained the 
remains of his second wife, and subsequently re- 
ceived those of various descendants. In 1869 this 
church, having fallen into decay and reached a 
stage that was judged dangerous, was pulled down, 
anal its site was converted into a public garden. 
During the process of demolition little attention 
seems to have been paid to the human remains, 
and the bones of Antonio Stradivari and certain of 
his family appear to have been shuffled into an 
obscure grave. When the basilica was destroyed, 
however, the stone which marked the resting-place 
of the Stradivari was respected. It is still, with 
its motto, " Di Antoni Stradivari e suoi eredi 
Anno 1729," to be seen in Cremona, in the vaults of 
the Palazzo dei Tribunali. Of the stone, of what 
remains, or remained, of the church of St. Domenico, 
and of the residence occupied by Antonio and his 
progeny illustrations are given. It is with the 
technical details, supplied in abundance, that the 
musical reader will bVmost concerned. Rightly to 
pronounce on these requires the skill and know- 
ledge of an expert. The opinion generally held, 
that the best work of Stradivari was done in 1710 
and shortly afterwards, seems shared by Messrs. 
Hill. Singular value attaches to the illustrations, 
which form an important contribution to the his- 
tory of musical instruments. In an introductory 
note by Lady Huggins, who has taken an earnest 
and friendly interest in the work, it is said that 
" the strange beauty ofriolins, which has,delighted 
so many, has never oeen so well represented." This 
is strictly true. We know of no designs of a similar 
class approaching in beauty the coloured repre- 
sentations of the violins and violas in the possession 
of Mr. Oldham and other amateurs and col- 
lectors. The illustrations in the text are also 
excellent in all respects. From Lady Huggins we 
also learn that the present volume is the last of a 
trilogy, the first of which in order of appearance, 
issued, in 1892, consisted of the life of Giovanni 
Paolo Maggini (more frequently spelt Magini). 
The second will deal with Gasparo da (or di) 
Salo, and the third is the present work. Di 
Salo is held to represent the beginning, Magini the 
early development, and Stradivari the perfecting 
of violins, the space occupied by the three pro- 
cesses covering roughly a century and a half. The 
augmented prices realized by Stradivari violins 
act, we are told, unfavourably on amateurs, and 
there are now only three known possessors of a 
quartet of Stradivari's instruments. These are Mr. 
C. Oldham, F.R.C.S. (of Brighton), Mr. R. E. 
Brandt, and Baron Knoop. The book is dedicated 
to Mr. William Ebsworth Hill, the father of the 
writers, of whom an excellent likeness is given. 
The elder Mr. Hill was what is known as "a 
character," and was an admirable judge of violins. 
In this respect he must yield, however, to Mr. 
Alfred Hill, whose knowledge is unsurpassed. No 
work equally handsome and authoritative has been 
written on the fascinating subject. Writers such 
as Engel, Fleming, Sibere, and others have dealt 
with violins and their makers. The subject is now 
treated with a thoroughness previously unpre- 
cedented. We are obliged reluctantly to take our 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9> s. x. AUG. 2, 1902. 

leave of a book admirable in all respects, into the 
attractions of which we furnish but the barest 

The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal. Parts 63 and 

64. (Leeds, Whitehead & Son.) 
St. Peter and St. Paul's, Marlborough, Prebendary 
of Lincoln, contributes an admirable paper on cer- 
tain pardons or indulgences preserved in Yorkshire, 
issued in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Documents of this kind have ever since the time of 
Luther been subjects of controversy, and there is a 
widely extended literature relating to them. They 
have, however, rarely been treated from a purely 
historical standpoint. Canon Wordsworth has done 
this, and in consequence we owe him a great 
debt of gratitude. He points out that the word 
indulgentia has come down from the days of the 
imperial jurists, with whom it had a civil meaning. 
To them it signified remission of punishment, im- 
munity from taxation, or amnesty granted by the 
authority of the emperor. Like so many other 
legal terms, it became absorbed by the Church, and 
it is of its ecclesiastical senses that the Canon offers 
an interpretation. The objects for which indul- 
gences were granted varied in different places. The 
author has carefully examined the register of Walter 
Grey, Archbishop of York, and finds that many 
indulgences were issued in his time for building 
churches and chapels, for hospitals, and also for 
making roads and bridges. At times they were 
issued for the purpose of raising money to redeem 
Christian captives who were in slavery to the 
Moslem. A long list of indulgences relating to 
this kingdom is given, ranging from the reign of 
Henry II. to that of Henry VIII. This, though 
incomplete, will be found very useful. 

The Visitations of certain monasteries in the 
diocese of York in 1534-5 are contributed by the 
same learned writer, who suggests that they were 
ordered by Archbishop Lee for the purpose of 
saving, if that were possible, the religious houses 
for which he was indirectly responsible from sup- 

Eression. The king probably was aware of this, 
>r before they were complete he ordered the 
inquiry to cease. So far as they go they witness to 
a certain amount of laxity there are two flagrant 
cases but, as Canon Wordsworth says, their state 
"was by no means so bad as popular report made 

Mr. M. H. Peacock contributes some certificates 
of alleged cures of lunacy by a certain John Smith, 
of Wakefield, in 1615. The original document is in 
the possession of the governors of the Wakefield 
Grammar School. Most of the persons named in 
these certificates seem to have been of the lower 
order, whom it may be impossible at this distance 
of time to identify; but there are two, John Went- 
worth and Henry Nevile, who were most probably 
members of well-known families in the neighbour- 
hood. Was John Smith a quack ? Whether he was 
or not, we should like to know something of his 
mode of treating his patients. 

Mr. Hamilton Hall writes on the well-worn sub- 
ject of Gundrada de Warenne ; and much hitherto 
unknown concerning the priory of Kirklees, so 
celebrated in the tale of Robin Hood, is supplied 
by Mr. S. J. Chadwick. Engravings of the Nun- 
burnholme cross have been given as illustrations to 
a paper on certain Yorkshire churches by Mr. 
A. D. H. Leadman. For some reason probably 

the weathering of the stone they are very difficult 
to make out. The design of the sculpture is of the 
kind which the older antiquaries called runic. The 
cross is now imperfect, but some hope is held out 
that the missing parts may be brought to light. 
The author describes the carvings, but does not 
endeavour to interpret the hidden meaning of their 

THE most interesting article in the new number 
of the English Historical Revieiu is that by Mr. 
C. H. Firth on ' Cromwell and the Crown.' Among 
the ' Notes and Documents ' those of especial value 
are one by Miss Mary Bateson, ' A London Muni- 
cipal Collection of the Reign of John,' and one by 
Mr. J. C. Black, ' Edward I. and Gascony in 1300.' 
Mr. Rose also sends a communication on the vexed 
question of the ' Ice Accident at the Battle of 
Austerlitz.' Among the reviews we note a severe, 
but not undeserved criticism of Mr. Lilly's ' Re- 
naissance Types' by Mr. Armstrong, an interesting 
estimate of Canon Dixon's posthumous volumes by 
Mr. Hume Brown, and a very short and inadequate 
notice of Mr. Bryce's ' Studies in History and Juris- 
prudence ' by Mr. Pogson Smith. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

Eut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

TEMPLE ("If there were no God," &c.). This 
sentiment is best known as Voltafre's in the form, 
",Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait 1'inventer" 
(Epitre k 1'Auteur du Nouveau Livre des Trois 
Imposteurs,' 1769, verse 22) ; but Buchmann, ' Ge- 
fliigelte Worte,' twentieth ed., says Voltaire made 
it out of the ninety-third sermon of Archbishop 
Tillotson ('Works,' 1712, vol. i p. 696): "The 
Being of God is so comfortable so convenient, so 
necessary to the felicity of Mankind, that (as Tully 
admirably says) Dii immortales ad usum hominum 
fabricati pene videantur, if God were not a neces- 
sary Being of himself, he might almost seem to be 
made on purpose for the use and benefit of Men." 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9* s.x. AUG. 9, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 241. 

NOTES : Coronation Danteiana, 101 Church of England 
Sixty Years Ago, 104 Premierships of Victorian Era 
"Reapered" Old Glasgow House, 105 Ferdinando 
Wellington's Spanish Prayer Book, 106" Man in the 
street" " Coburg" " Arising out of," 107. 

QUERIES : Longfellow "Faith, Hope, and Love were 
questioned " Cardinal Allen Lines in Purcell. 107 
School in Scotland Fox ' Caste ': Prototypes M'Quil- 
lans of Dunluce Pepys and Sanderson Families English- 
men Buried Abroad Nominal Burden, 108 Knights of 
the Garter Family Crests "Billy "=Tin Can ' Pur- 
chas his Pilgrimes,' 1625' ' Loophole "Lines on Withered 
Wild Flower PolygraphicrHall-Whitefield's 'Hymns': 
First Edition Rutter Eighteenth-Century Indexes, 109. 

REPLIES : Heraldry before the Conquest References 
Wanted, 110 Many Religions and One Sauce Old Songs 
Knurr and Spell, 111 Great Frost of 1683-4 Coronation 
Dress of Bishops "Muffineer" Gorman, Russian Ad- 
miralBirmingham: "Brumagem," 112 Proverbs in 
1 Jacula Prudentum ' Knighthood " Leaps and bounds " 
Arms of Eton and Winchester Colleges, 113 Merry 
England and the Mass Coleridge Governors of Public 
Schools "Ye gods and little fishes ! "Disappearance of 
Banking Firm, 114 Downie's Slaughter Schaw of Gos- 
petry "Corn-bote," 115 Horse with Four White 
Stockings Flint-Glass Trade Baxter, of Australia Chi- 
Rho Monogram Statistical Data King's Champion, 1 16 
Alison's Rectorial Addresses Boudicca Capt. Morris's 
Wife, 117 The National Flag Capt. Arnold Serjeant 
Edward Dendy, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Rouse's ' Greek Votive Offerings ' 
" Chiswick Shakespeare" Sladen's 'London and its 
Leaders ' Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

IT may not be supposed that a single reader 
of 'N. & Q.' has been misled by the notice, 
necessarily premature, of the Coronation of 
King Edward VII. which appeared in its 
pages. Though its principal appeal is to the 
present generation, the collective erudition 
of which it claims to some extent to incor- 
porate and calendar, the responsibilities of 
'N. & Q.' extend to coming times, and ages 
yet unborn will profit by its stores. It is 
fitting, then, that the postponed Coronation 
should be duly announced, and that the prayers 
breathed in view of the earlier ceremony 
should be renewed now that the celebration 
is at hand. In offering afresh congratulations 
to a country so blessed in its recent rulers, 
and a monarch surrounded by such loyalty, 
regard, and affection as early records do not 
chronicle, the Editor will use, with the 
alteration of a single word, a line from 
Milton's Ode ' On the Morning of Christ's 
Nativity,' written two hundred and seventy- 
three years ago : 

Have thou the honour first thy King to greet. 
Since our first words appeared King Edward 
has waged a strenuous, gallant, and in the 

end successful fight against Death, who, 
though no respecter of persons, and glad, it 
might be thought, to show the equality 
between " sceptre and crown " and " the poor 
crooked scythe and spade," has for once, as 
it seems, sympathized with a people's aspira 
tions and listened to an empire's prayer. 
That struggle (one of the most eventful to 
be recalled, and fraught with highest issues) 
has served the purpose of cementing bonds 
already close, and linking together monarch 
and people in a way for which there is no 
precedent. Englishmen feel that the dominant 
traits of their race are exemplified in their 
king that endurance, resolution, and courage 
are the badges of both ; and that the spirit 
which refuses to accept defeat or surrender 
is common to the two. On his issue from 
the long struggle His Majesty knows that 
not only does he continue his beneficent 
rule over the largest empire that the world 
has known, but that also he is inheritor 
and transmitter of affection and loyalty 
which have been reserved to his imme- 
diate ancestor and her race. Once more, 
then, we plead for blessings upon King 
Edward and his Consort, and echo the words 
that have passed from a national sentiment 
into a universal prayer God save the King. 

1. 'lNF.,'xiii. 115-17. 

Ed ecco duo dalla sinistra costa, 
Nudi e graffiatji, fuggendo si forte, 
Che defla selva rompieno ogni rosta. 

The MS. variants of this passage are 
curious. Thus alia sinistra is found in two 
in the Bodleian, in one at Cambridge, and in 
one in the Vatican ; due venire delta occurs 
in the Bodleian L ; correndo si in Q Cam- 
bridge ; and ogni costa in K Bodleian. This 
latter reading, of course, makes rank non- 
sense of Dante's meaning. Its presence in 
the MS. (dated 1445) can only be explained 
by Dr. Moore's deservedly severe judgment : 

" This is (with' the exception of L) incomparably 
the worst MS. in the Canonici collection, in respect 
of barbarous spelling and of the frequency and reck- 
lessness of its alterations." 

It is just possible, however, that the careless 
scribe, using a palimpsest, may have sub- 
stituted c for r with costa fresh in eye or ear. 
But " coast " (or " space," as Plumptre renders 
it) is not " bough "or whatever may be the 
meaning of rosta. At all events, costa is not 
rosta by any philological conjuring. Though 
it is generally englished by " branch " or 
" bough," Gary takes it to signify " fan o' 
th' wood," and ingeniously glosses his view 
with: "Hence perhaps Milton 



[9 th S. X. AUG. 9, 1902. 

Leaves and fuming rills, Aurora's fan. 
The Delia Crusca favours this explanation : 
"Rosta. Strumento noto da farsi yento." 
Branches certainly resemble fans in this 
sense, or as screens from the sun-rays, but 
the notion, if poetic, is far-fetched. Dante 
simply means by rosta an obstacle which 
may be boughs or any other impediment 
which the duo nudi demolished in their head- 
long flight. Perazzini (quoted by Lombardi) 
confirms this. He says the Veronese 
" pueri apud nos quando aquae rivulum luto 
coercent, ne excurrat, dicunt se fecisse la rosta. 
Igitur quodvis est impedimentum excurrentibus 
per silvam objectum, quod tamen impetu ipso 
superari possit." 

Observe also rompieno for rompevano, as 
(' Par.,' iii. 59 ; x. 81) movieno for movevano, 
and (Boccaccio) even in prose, facieno for 
facevano. The story of the two spendthrifts 
alluded to as the duo nudi is too well known 
to justify anything further than a mere 
2. Ibid., 143-4. 

lo fui della citta che nel Batista 

Mut6 il primo patrone. 

Who was this suicide who found himself in 
the " Dolorosa Selva " 1 Conjecture is almost 
idle, seeing that the crime was so common 
in Florence in the fourteenth century. This 
practically puts all attemps at investigation 
out of court. Even Plumptre's remark that 
this passage depends for its significance on 
a knowledge of the early history of Florence 
is of slight help in this light. Dante (as 
Benvenuto observes) probably left the appli- 
cation open, though Benvenuto suggests Lotto 
degli Agli, a judge " qui, data una sententia 
falsa, ivit dpmum, et statim se suspendit." 
Others identify him with a certain Rocco de' 
Mozzi, whose debaucheries brought him so 
low that "egli stesso s' impicco per la gola 
nella sua casa." 

This is, of course, pure conjecture, but the 
open application will necessarily render it 
permissible up to the Greek Kalends. Witte's 
text, I note, has " mut6 '1 primo patrone " ; 
and, according to Dr. Moore, four MSS. only 
give " patrone," whereas seventeen have 
" padrone." Lombardi and Bianchi follow the 
latter in their texts, with the substitution 
" cangi6 " for " mut6." 

3. Ibid., 149. 

Sovra il cener che d' Attila rimase. 

Is Dante caught tripping in his history 
here 1 ? Possibly, just as greater than he have 
been so found more than once. Was it not 
rather Totila who besieged Florence 1 ? Dean 
Plumptre roundly charges the poet with con- 
fusing the two barbarian chiefs : 

" When the city was laid waste by Totila (whom 
Dante confuses with Attila) in 450, it [the statue of 
Mars] was thrown into the Arno." 

But the Dean's chronology entirely vitiates 
tiis charge. Totila reigned from AD. 541 to 
552, whereas Attila's ravages of Lombardy 
occurred between A.D. 434 and 453. Clearly, 
therefore, if the statue of Mars first found a 
watery bed in the Arno in 450, it must have 
been under Attila and not under Totila 
that is, if the date be correct. It is just 
possible that 450 is a misprint for 550, which 
would place the event in the reign of Totila. 

The Rev. H. F. Tozer ( l An English Com- 
mentary,' 1901, p. 74) echoes the Dean's 
indictment, and further implies that the poet 
had "mixed up a number of [other] tradi- 

"Dante has here confused Attila with Totila. 
King of the Ostrogoths a mistake which is found 
in some other writers of his time. Attila never 
came near Florence ; Totila besieged that city, and 
according to the common tradition destroyed it, 
though in reality he did not do so." 

Of course he did not, owing to the generalship 
of Belisarius, so Dante was in double error. 
Attila never crossed the Apennines, and con- 
sequently could not have reduced Florence to 
a heap of ashes. The line is bad history ; but 
the canto is not ruined therebj 7 . Besides, the 
anachronism is pardonable. 

"E un fatto," says Bianchi, who holds that 
Dante only voiced the erroneous opinion of 
his time in confusing Totila with Attila, 

" che anche in qualche antica iscrizione si trova 
sbagliato il nome di Totila in quello di Attila. A 
Poppi, per esempio, nel Casentino, vi & una pietra 
dove leggesi che le mura di quella terra furono 
distrutte da Attila." 

Evidently there was confusion of names all 
round ; out the mistake in nowise impairs 
the delicate sarcasm of the whole reference to 
the statue of Mars "il primo patrone "- 
which both Plumptre and Bianchi point out, 
though on slightly differing lines. The irony 
of fate is no less remarkable in that Mars 
effigy was thrice immersed, according to 
tradition, in the Arno (A.D. 450, 1078, and 
1333 or 1337), and that his temple afterwards 
formed the substructure of the Baptistery, in 
addition to the city having been later dedi- 
cated to the Baptist. 

4. Ibid., xiv. 30. 

Come di neve in alpe senza vento. 

" Another trace of distant wanderings, probably 
on the journey to Aries, implied in C. ix. 112, or to 
Paris ('Par.,' x. 136). The word 'Alp' is probably 
to be taken in its widest sense, of any lofty moun- 

Thus Plumptre ; but the second half of this 
gloss materially qualifies, if it does not alto- 

9 th S. X. AUG. 9, 1902.] 



gether contradict, the first half. If "alpe" 
means any "lofty mountain," how does it 
supply "another trace of distant wander- 
ings " ? But, apart from this looseness of 
language, I submit that the tendency to 
interpret all Dante's references to places as 
personal visits reaches positive bathos. The 
evidence of his journeys to Paris and Oxford 
is, in my judgment, fairly conclusive, but it 
is surely ultra crepidam to regard all 
allusions to localities as traces of his ''distant 
wanderings." " Alpe " probably signifies here 
(as elsewhere, 'Purg.,' xvii. 1, and xxxiii. 11) 
nothing more than, as Lombardi suggests, 
"per quasivoglia montagna general men te." 
Mr. Tozer notes that " whether used for ' the 
Alps,' or, as here, for ' mountains ' generally, 
'alpe' is always singular in the ' Div. Com.' " 

As a matter of minor criticism I am led to 
join issue here on the instance adduced from 
' Purg.,' xvii. 1, where alpe rimes with talpe, 
which is certainly not singular, though, as 
Lombardi points out, frequently used as 
such in its plural form. It may, of course, 
be argued that talpe was made subservient 
for riming purposes to alpe. Nevertheless, I 
think the instance establishes my contention. 

5. Ibid., 31-2. 

Quali Alessandro in quelle parti calde 
D' India vide. 

Here again Dante supplies a butt for the 
shafts of a not unreasoning criticism. But 
it was not altogether his fault. He had got 
hold of the wrong version or presentment 
of the fabled letter of Alexander to Aristotle, 
that was all. The real culprit was appa- 
rently Albertus Magnus. The letter afore- 
said did not state that " Nubes ignitse de aere 
cadebant, quas ipse militibus calcare prce- 
cepit" but that " visseque nubes de cselo 
ardentes tanquam faces decidere, jussi autem 
milites suas veste* opponere ignibus." The 
italicized words establish an antithesis and 
locate Dante's mistake. The soldiers tram- 
pled upon the snow, but used their clothes 
as a protection against the fiery flames. 
"Dante apparently mixes up the two facts in 
his memory," observes Plumptre. The same 
author is less happy, because misleading, in 
rendering "scalpitar' by " to plough." The 
word means, as Tomlinson correctly has it, 
" to trample 'neath the feet " a somewhat 
different operation. But can Dante be 
honestly charged with "confusion of facts" 
after all? The Nuovo Editore of Lom- 
bardi's notes evidently thinks not. He 
says : 

" Ci pare che Alessandro dicesse a' soldati ' di 
mano in mano che cadoao in terra le fiamme, cal- 
pestatele e soffocatele, affinch^ le altre che ne pio- 

vano appresso, non si uniscano a quelle ancor salde 
e vive, e non facciano un mare di fuoco.' " ~- 

The verdict either way depends upon the 
accuracy or otherwise of the versions of the 
letter supplied by Albertus Magnus and Ben- 
venuto da Imola, while as to the facts 
implied one story is as good as the other. 
To trample on falling flakes of fire would be 
pretty much on a par to the soldiers with 
treading down those of snow. Dante's 
alleged mixing or confusion of facts is then 
both explainable and defensible. Nor is the 
alleged spuriousness of the fact, if not of 
the letter, altogether beyond question. " II 
comentatore della Nidobeatina," says Lom- 
bardi's Nuovo Editore, 

"attesta leggersi cotal fatto nella vita di Ales- 
sandro : chi sa da chi scritta Quinto Curzio cer- 
tamente, come avverte anche il Landino, nulla ha 
di cio, come n6 Giustino, n& Plutarco. Nella let- 
tera di Alessandro ad Aristotele (qualunque abbiala 
scritta) fassi mentzione," &c. 

Mr. Tozer remarks on " quelle parti calde 
d' India," "that hot region of the world, 
India": "This seems better than 'that hot 
district of India through which Alexander's 
march lay,' for the mediae vals regarded the 
whole of India as a hot region." This sugges- 
tion, I submit, implies both a censure on 
Dante's geography and a tampering with (in 
translation) the text> Verily, the ' D. C.' will 
soon come to be regarded as one connected 
mass of errors, theological, astronomical, his- 
torical, and geographical, with an emended 
text (!) and both sense and spirit eliminated. 
By all means let us have elucidatory notes, 
but not perversion of meaning. If Dante 
says "hot parts of India," let the phrase 
remain as written, and be translated as such 
without a distortion implying what he never 
wrote. Fidelity to sense, if not to literalness, is 
the prime canon of all honest translation. I 
do not know who the author of "that hot 
district of India" may be, but to me it is, 
because more accurate, preferable to the alter- 
native suggested. Plumptre renders the line 
in question as'" India's torrid climes "; Gary, 
" in the torrid Indian clime "; Tomlinson as 
"where those parts acquire great heat in 
Inde"; and Ford by "sultry Ind." 

For the beauty and force of the illustration 
there can be nothing but admiration, be it 
true or false or confused. But there could 
only be, at the worst, " confusion " or falsity 
of facts, not of application which is im- 
material. It is a permissible and laudable 
poetic licence, even though it be a conscious 
distortion of either probability or history. 
All myths are such, and as such are lawful 
prey for the poet. 

I trust the above remarks will not be 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 9, 1902. 

regarded as hypercritical, since I have the 
highest esteem for Mr. Tozer's labours in 
the Danteian field. I am only jealous for 
the preservation of the letter and spirit of 
the text. 

6. I note two slips in Dr. Moore's ' Textual 
Criticism.' The first is at p. xviii of the 
Prolegomena. The date there given as that 
of the decree of the Spanish Inquisition con- 
demning three passages of the ' D. C.' is 1612, 
whereas on the opposite page it is stated the 
decree will be found in the ' Index Librorum 
Prohibitorum et Expurgatorum,' Geneva, 
1519 (reprinted from that published at Madrid, 
1514). This is, of course, a chronological im- 

The second occurs at p. 677, and is couched 
thus : 

"This [119 (Bat. 411)] is a very beautiful and 
well-preserved MS. on vellum in the Biblioteca 
Nazionale at Palermo. It is late fourteenth 
century, I should say about 1480-90." 
These errors may be slight, but one furthers 
the perfection of so estimable a work by 
pointing them out for future editions. As 
a small contribution towards its attainment, 
I called Dr. Moore's attention to them last 
August, and received the subjoined reply : 

" On p. 677 clearly ' fourteenth century ' should 
be fifteenth, but these mistakes I am afraid are 
due, now and then, to the Italian way of reckoning 
centuries. On p. xviii I have no time to go to a 
library to see the correct date of the 'Index Libr.,' 
&c., but you could, no doubt, find it in some 
Bibliographical Manual." 

A brief search in our Rylands Library resulted 
in the discovery that "1519" and (i 1514 "should 
be respectively 1619 and 1614. The Index was 
not in existence until some fifty years later 
than the former dates, and the two editions 
referred to belong to the latter. I observed 
in the list of the Pius IV. edition of 1564, 
"Dantis Monarchia." Persecution of Dante 
seems to have been as relentless after as 
before the grave. But the universal homage 
and more liberal policy meted to his memory 
during the last two centuries have more than 
made amends for both. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 


WERE it not for fear of making the heading 
too long, I would add " viewed through a 
pair of American spectacles." In the year 
1842 the Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, D.D., then 
of Philadelphia, visited England, being forti- 
fied with introductory letters. He was a 
protagonist of the powerful Evangelical 
party, and became the rector of St. George's 

New York. He was amazed at the condition 
of the churches in England : 

' It is not the habit or taste of England to keep 
their churches in an attractive or a comfortable 
londition at any time. I did not see a single church 
in England which would be allowed by the poorest 
congregation in Philadelphia to remain in its present 
condition. Even their new churches they try to 
build as much as possible like the old ones ; and 
they are all, to our eyes, cheerless and uncomfort- 
able, from the want of that provision for the ease 
of the occupants to which we are accustomed." 

He visited Watton, Herts : 

' How shall I describe the odd little church, com- 
posed of pieces of many shapes and sizes, jutting 
out with corners in all directions, filled with many 
various monumental stones, having a little oak 
pulpit and desk fastened against a corner of the 
wall, hardly big enough to hold a man of even 
moderate size with comfort ? But, in church build- 
ing, our taste and the English differ widely." 

He found Holy Trinity, Cambridge, " a very 
old, cruciform edifice, most inconvenient and 
uncomfortable ; but in these respects it [had] 
been much improved by the efforts of Mr. 
Carus." St. Jude's, Glasgow, had a very 
" awkward and unchurchlike arrangement." 
This consisted of 

" a pulpit in the centre against the wall, beneath 
which, oetween its two staircases, [was] the com- 
munion table ; and then two other pulpits, which 
[were] used for reading-desks, on the sides, of equal 
height with the centre one. They [were] all three 
round tubs of similar construction, with separate 
winding stairs for each." 

Old St. Giles's, Edinburgh, on the contrary, 
had been " modernized and, improved, and 
divided for several places of worship." 

The great preachers of the day were Henry 
Melville, Baptist Noel, Hugh Stowell, and 
Mr. McNeile, of St. Jude's, Liverpool. Mr. 
Melville, however, was disappointing : 

" The sermon was very deficient, intellectually 
and evangelically, and delivered in a very rapid, 
hurried manner, with great apparent carelessness, 
and without the least appearance of feeling." 

Mr. Noel, though " less deep and instructive 
in doctrine " than Dr. Tyng had expected, 
was characterized by great beauty of appear- 
ance, a soft, gentle, and musical voice, and 
dignity of manner. When Hugh Stowell 

" rose sometimes in his forcible appeals, with his 
amazing command of language, and his accumulating 
energy of voice, the whole multitude seemed moved 
as the heart of one man." 

McNeile was an impressive reader, and " the 
first of preachers." An odd custom obtained 
in his church : 

"Every one was searching the Scriptures, as he 
referred to them, to see if these things were so. 
Even the people who filled the aisles were all hold- 
ing little Bibles in their hands, in the same 

9B.x.Atro.9,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


McNeile was " tall, dignified, elegant in form, 
with a full head of hair, nearly white." 

Samuel Wilberforce had just been made 
Archdeacon of Surrey. " He [was] very small 
in stature, and with an extremely youthful 
countenance ; and, dressed in the peculiar 
costume of an archdeacon, he engaged " Dr. 
Tyng's careful attention. He says : 

"He is a man of increasing influence and very 
rising popularity, much sought for as a preacher ; 
and though he has been supposed to favour the new 
vanities of Oxford, as his brother Robert certainly 
does, he is understood of late to have very publicly 
and repeatedly declared his opposition to them." 

Mr. Noel felt "the vast dangers" of the 
Oxford movement, and so did many. In fact, 
says Dr. Tyng, " the noxious influence of the 
Tractarian party seems now o well under- 
stood, and so generally acknowledged, that I 
hope we may be relieved from the necessity 
of speaking or writing much more about it." 
Hugh Stowell, addressing a meeting presided 
over by Lord Kenyon, made a punning allu- 
sion as follows : " I believe that the con- 
spiracy at Oxford has not its origin there ; I 
have no doubt that there is some wise man in 
the background, wise as a serpent, though 
not harmless as a dove." 

Dr. Tyng was in London in May, 1842, and 
attended the May meetings, among them 
that of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. 
He says of the Wesleyan ministers : " Truly 
I never saw a more robust and able-bodied 
company in my life." From all that he heard 
and saw he became convinced that there was 
" a real and perhaps a very rapid approach 
among the Wesleyans to entire reunion with 
the Church." 

Family prayer was much cultivated. Dr. 
Tyng visited at Oxford "the good old Dr. 
Hill," vice-principal of St. Edmund's Hall : 

" When the evening's conversation closed, which 
had been much enlivened by the vocal and instru- 
mental music of the ladies of the family, the Bibles 
and hymn-books were brought forward, and I was 
invited to lead them in their worship with prayer 
and exposition of the word. This is the uniform 
distinctive habit of pious families whom I met in 

These extracts are taken from Dr. Tyng's 
letters to his Philadelphia parishioners, re- 
printed by Bagsters in 1847. Among other 
distinguished persons he met Lords Ashley, 
Bexley, Glenelg, Harrowby, and Teign mouth, 
Sir T. D. Acland, the Chevalier Bunsen, and 
about a score of bishops. I conclude with his 
remarks on the custom of drinking port and 
sherry. At the great religious anniversaries 
" it is the general custom to have decanters of wine 
in the Committee- rooms and on the jtable of the 
Secretary on the platform. I can hardly say what 
Societies were exceptions to this rule, or whether 

any were. But the American clergyman must get 
habituated to this, for even in many of the vestry- 
rooms of the churches and chapels the sexton will 
offer him a glass of wine as a needful refreshment 
after preaching." 

This practice, indeed, prevailed much later 
than 1842. EICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 

See 'Long Administrations' (9 th S. vi. 245, 
310) for a controversy : " Lord Salisbury has 
now been Prime Minister longer than any 
other statesman since the passing of the 
Reform Bill." The following appeared in the 
Sheffield Daily Telegraph dated Monday, 
14 July, and may be given : 


It is worthy of note that Lord Salisbury has been 
at the head of the State longer than any other man 

of our time and, confining ourselves to what we 

usually speak of as " modern times," we find that 
Lord Salisbury easily- holds the record If the 

Eremierships of the Victorian era in days be tabu- 
ited, and the length of Lord Salisbury's service be 
brought up to Friday last, the list stands thus : 


Lord Salisbury 5,009 

Lord Melbourne ...2,492 

Sir Robert Peel 1,876 

Lord John Russell.. 2,303 
Lord Derby 1,32 


Lord Aberdeen 774 

Lord Palmerston ...3,434 
Lord Beaconsfield... 2,528 

Mr. Gladstone 4,498 

Lord Rosebery 486 

H. J. B. 

"REAPERED." The use of machinery in 
agriculture is affecting the language of the 
country by the introduction of new and 
strange verbs. A man told me the other 
day that he should not mow his grass, but 
" reaper " it ; and Mr. Howells, in his recently 
published novel 'The Kentons,' speaks of a 
garden as having been well " lawn-mowered 
and garden-hosed." Mr. Howells ought to 
know better; but, for some perverse reason, 
he loves to set his readers' teeth on edge by 
an occasional ugly phrase of this sort. 

Cathedral there is an ancient dwelling, 
variously known as " Black Land," " Provan's 
Lordship," and the "Stable-Green Port." 
This building has for long exercised archaeo- 
logists, who are not unanimous regarding the 
date of its erection, while agreed as to its 
very considerable age. An attractive theory, 
urged by a writer in the Glasgow Evening 
News of 25 July, assigns it to the fifteenth 
century, and makes it the residence of 
James IV. in his character of cathedral pre- 
bendary and of Mary, Queen of Scots, just 
before she removed Darnley to the Kirk o' 
Field. The latter contention is supported by 



s. x. AUG. 9, 1902. 

a tradition to the effect that the north attic 
of the house used to be known as "Queen 
Mary's garret." The venerable structure has 
an aspect that creditably supports the claims 
thus made for it. Historic dignity and 
haunting legend are suggested by its style 
and its manifest familiarity with the move- 
ment of centuries. The journalist already 
mentioned considers it as "certainly the 
oldest dwelling-house in the city." 


FERDINANDO. (See .ante, p. 60.) In your 
review of the ' Registers of the Parish Church 
of Wigan ' note is made of the infrequency 
of the use of the name Ferdinando, and the 
second Lord Fairfax, born 1584, is mentioned 
as an example. It must have escaped the 
memory of the reviewer that the name of 
the fifth Earl of Derby was Ferdinando. The 
occurrence of the name at Wigan would very 
probably be due to the proximity of the 
powerful owner of the uncommon Christian 
name. In none of my books of reference is 
it stated exactly when Ferdinando, Earl of 
Derby, was born, but it is said that he died 
16 April, 1594, leaving behind him, from his 
wife Alice, third daughter of Sir John Spencer, 
Knt., of Althorpe, three daughters. Hence 
he was born some considerable time before 
1584, the date of the birth of Lord Fairfax. 

In Baines's 'History of Lancashire,' vol. iv. 
17-18, is given an extract from Harl. MS. 
247, fos. 204a, 205, containing an account of 
the death of Ferdinando, which is therein 
attributed to witchcraft, though others have 
suspected that the death was due to poison 
administered by his master of the horse. 

The three daughters were : 

(1) Anne, married first Grey Brydges, Lord 
Chandos ; secondly, Mervin, Earl of Castle- 

(2) Frances, married John Egerton, Earl of 
Bridge water. 

(3) Elizabeth, married Henry Hastings, 
fifth Earl of Huntingdon. J. H. K. 

PRAYER BOOK. In Wadham College Library 
there may be found in a separate room a 
valuable collection of Spanish books, pre- 
sented to the college by the representatives 
of the late Mr. B. B. Wiffen. The collection 
has been catalogued by the skilful and 
scholarly hand of Mr. George Parker, M.A., 
Senior Assistant in the Bodleian Library. 
Among the books which have thus found in 
Wadham a safe and quiet retreat are rare 
copies of translations of the Bible into 
Spanish, translations of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, and many commentaries and 

works on controversial divinity by famous 
Spanish Reformers, for the most part 
printed in the Netherlands. Among the 
Prayer Books there is a Common Prayer 
entitled "La Liturgia Ynglesa o El Libro 
de la Oracion Comun. Hispanizado por D. 
Felix de Alvaradp, Ministro de la Yglesia 
Anglicana. Edicion Segunda Corregida y 
Augmentada. Londres, MDCCXV." This copy 
contains some pages of MS. notes in the 
hand of Mr. Wiffen, a portion of which 
are copied from memoranda in a copy 
of the same book in the sale of the 
library of Dr. Bliss, Registrar of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, which took place in July, 
1858. The first extract in Mr. Wiffen's copy 
is a letter from the Duke of Wellington to 
"The Rev' 1 P. Bliss, Registrar of the Uni- 
versity, Oxford. Free. Wellington." Besides 
the letter in Mr. Wiffen's handwriting there 
is a tracery of the Duke's letter and of the 
address in facsimile. I give the letter as it 
appears in the facsimile : 

London May 31 1837. 


I am much obliged to you for the account of the 
Prayer Book. 

It was given me by Lady Elinor Butler & Miss 
Ponsonby two Irish Ladies of whom you may 
have heard who resided at Llangollen in North 
Wales. It probably descended to Lady Elinor from 
Her Ancestor the Duke of Ormond who I bel[i]eve 
resided in Spain after His Attainder. 

Has it ever been printed by the University. The 
translation is so good that I am astonished that 
you should not print an Edition of it. 

I beg you will keep it till you will have satisfied 
yourself that you have obtained all the information 
that can be got. 

Beleeve me Ever Yours most faithfully, 

The Rev d D r Bliss. WELLINGTON. 

Here follows Dr. Bliss's note, which Mr. 
Wiffen says was written on the fly-leaf : 

" When the Duke of Wellington first went to 
Spain he had from adverse winds, a much longer 
passage than usual, during which with a copy of 
this Liturgy and a common Spanish Grammar he 
niade himself master of the Language, so much so 
indeed that as his Grace himself told me, he was 
surprised to find that he could make out nearly the 
whole of a speech addressed to him on landing by 
the principal officer of the Port at which he and the 
troops under his command disembarked. 

" The Duke being anxious to know something of 
the Book and the translator sent it to me in 1837, 
when 1 made out the best account I could and for- 
warded it with the volume which his Grace had 
given to a Lady." 

Mr. Wiffen notes that the first edition of 
the ' Liturgia ' appeared in 1707, and that the 
translator, Don Felix de Alvarado, is also 
known for his translation of Barclay's '.Apo- 
logy,' 1710, of which a thousand copies were 
printed by the Society of Friends. 

9 th S. X. AUG. 9, 1902.] 



Mr. Wiffen lias also a note on Lady Elinor 
Butler and Miss Ponsonby, who, as Words- 
worth well expressed it, "had retired into 
notoriety." But I need not transcribe it, as 
their romantic friendship and life in the Vale 
of Llangollen are known to every tourist in 
North Wales. See Wordsworth's ' Miscel- 
laneous Sonnets,' ix. 


spondent of the Spectator of 26 July gives a 
quotation from the ' Greville Memoirs ' which 
snows that Greville uses the phrase "the 
man in the street " in his account of the 
Reform agitation of 1831. The correspondent 
says : 

" It should be noted that Greville a.;d Mr. Balfour 
when speaking of ' the man in the street ' regard 
that shadowy personality from different points of 
view. Mr. Balfour cited him as a type of mere 
ignorance, Greville as a type of ignorance laying 
claim to omniscience." 

Is any earlier instance of the use of this 
phrase known ] 

[Quoted from Emerson (1860) at 9 th S. ii. 131.] 

" COBURG." This word appears in the 
'H.E.D.' as the name of a dress material for 
ladies, once so popular that 1 have known a 
draper to style his shop "Coburg House," but 
now, I think, out of commerce. It denotes 
also a bun-shaped loaf with a crosswise de- 
pression on the convex surface, to be seen in 
nearly all bakers' shops, and has done so for 
perhaps sixty years or more ; but Dr. Murray 
ignores this use of the word, although he 
notices another pistorial term for a loaf of a 
different shape a "cottage loaf," or, shortly, 
a " cottage." F. ADAMS. 

"ARISING OUT OF." Those who attend the 
Strangers' Gallery of the House of Commons 
are aware that in very recent times indeed 
the practice has arisen, and has now become 
almost invariable, even among those who 
ought to know better, of prefacing supple- 
mentary questions by the un-English and 
ridiculous words, "Arising out of that ques- 
tion, I wish to ask." An excellent and amus- 
ing article by Mr. Michael Macdonagh on the 
Prime Minister in a strong number of the 
Fortnightly Review introduces the phrase to 
literature : " Forty years later the Times, 
arising out of the resignation of Pitt in 1801, 
ridiculed a contemporary." This quotation 
shows that not only does the practice of one 
member of the House "come off" on to 
another, but that the usual, though absurd 
practice of the House itself affects " the 
Gallery." There is, by the way, another error 

in this entertaining article namely, the mis- 
spelling (" Packingham ") of the name -.of the 
brothers-in-law of the Duke of Wellington. 
The general who was one of them met with 
mishap in the United States when command- 
ing the best troops of the army from the 
Peninsula, which even Waterloo did not cause 
bo be forgotten, and the name of Pakenham 
is unfortunately still notorious in English 
history. A. O. O. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

LONGFELLOW. In 1868 H. W. Longfellow 
and his family visited this country and the 
Lake District of Cumberland and Westmor- 
land. Can you or any of your readers tell me 
the name of the vessel in which they came 
over from America ? I am anxious to know 
as I have a small plan in pencil of the berths 
of the vessel occupied by the poet and his 
family, drawn by himself. It was given by 
Longfellow to Richard Chorley, who was then 
clerk at the Crown Hotel, Bowness, where 
the great American stayed for some days, and 
by Richard Chorley given to the writer. 


TIONED." The following lines I once met 
with in a sermon by Wilberforce, and now 
quote from memory, perhaps imperfectly : 

Faith, Hope, and Love were questioned 
Of future glory which religion taught. 
Now Faith believed it firmly to be true, 
And Hope expected so to find it, too. 
Love answered with a conscious glow : 
"Believe ! expect ! I know it to be so." 

I shall be glad to have my version corrected 
and to know the name of the author. 

W. F. G. S. 

CARDINAL ALLEN. Any reference to the 
above will oblige. He is said to have been 
related to Wartons of Warton Hall, Lanes, 
1598. Were they connected with Anthony 
Warton, born 1581 at Walton, Lanes ? 

A. C. H. 

[The life of Cardinal Allen in the'D.N.B.' ex- 
tends to nearly fifteen columns. There is a shorter 
account in ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia.'] 

LINES IN PURCELL. Can any reader identify 
the following verses and the play from which 
they are taken ? They occur in a late seven- 
teenth-century MS. headed " The Musick in 
the Play," ana the initials H. P. (presumably 



s. x. A. 9, iwa 

Henry Purcell) are given as those of the 
composer, though I have not found them in 
any other collection of Purcell's music : 

When Night her purple vail had softly spread 
And busie men assembled with the dead, 
When all was hush'd but Zephire's gentle breath 
Which cools the Aire, perfuming all the earth ; 
With silken wings thro' murmuring forests flyes 
Spreading the sweets which from the Woodbine 


With hasty steps and a wild [mild ?] thoughtf ull aire 
Heedless of danger, guided by dispair 
The lovely Damon strives in thickest shades to 

On whom all Graces do and all desires would fix. 

Under a mossy oake he thus begun 

Which bending seem'd to listen as he sung : 

" Ah Silvia, ah unkind, ah cruell faire 

To him so gentle, to me too severe, 

Sweeter then the flow'ry Spring 

Then the dews which bees do bring 

From opening budds with carefull wing 

Which when I strive to taste, like them you sting. 

Great God of Love, to thee I cry, 

Ah pitty, pitty, for I dye. 
While Silvia to a monster yeilds her every joy." 
His trembling lips stopt here, nor cou'd he more, 
But like a shipwreck thrown upon the shore 
Dashed with his tears all o'er extended lay 
Then starting up and with a mien that shew'd 
Disdainfull joy, he smiling thus pursu'd : 

"Dispair, thou bane to my heart, 

For ever we '11 part, 

Begone, tormenting care, 

Her beast let her have, 
I '11 ne'er be a slave to a barbarous faire." 


SCHOOL IN SCOTLAND. I shall be much 
obliged to any correspondent who will tell 
me in what town of Scotland was, at the 
beginning of the last century, " Mr. Andrew's 
School, Drummond Street," of which I have 
a book-plate. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

Fox. On a document relating to an Ex- 
chequer annuity, date 1705, I observe the 
name of Charles Fox, who is described as 
" Paymaster of Her Majesty's Forces abroad," 
and in one of 1706 he is called "late Pay- 
master." Will any one kindly tell me if this 
was the son of Sir Stephen Fox (and half- 
brother of the first Lord Holland), who, 
according to the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography,' was named after his godfather, 
Charles II., and died childless in September, 
1713, being buried at Farley ? 


45, Evelyn Gardens, South Kensington. 

In my schoolboy days in Dublin a 
charming actress named Miss Emily Sanders 
was engaged in the Queen's Theatre, under 
Mr. Henry Webb, and in 1857 married Sir 

W. H. Don, Bart. Sir William, after his 
marriage, retired from the (I think) 3rd 
Dragoon Guards, and became a successful 
actor. May it be surmised that Sir W. H. 
Don and his wife, nee Sanders, were the pro- 
totypes of the Hon. George D'Alroy and his 
wife, ne'e Eccles, the hero and heroine in 
Robertson's ' Caste ' ? ' Caste ' was first pro- 
duced in the old Prince of Wales's Theatre 
off Tottenham Court Road, and recently re- 
vived, with great success, by Messrs. Harri- 
son and Maude in " the little theatre in the 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

give me, or tell me where I could fina, the 
coat of arms and crest of the M'Quillans of 
Dunluce, co. Antrim? I have access to 
Edmondson's 'Heraldry,' Burke's 'Peerage,' 
' Landed Gentry,' ' Family Crests of Great 
Britain and Ireland,' &c., but I have not 
succeeded in finding either the coat of arms 
or crest. B. L. M'QuiLLAN. 

14 June, 1642, were married, by licence, at 
St. Dunstan's, Stepney, " Richard Pepis of 
St. Bartholomews neare the Royall Exchange, 
Upholder, and Anne Saunderson, daughter 
of Robert Saunderson, of the Citty of London, 
Innholder"; while on 6 April, 1766, at St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate, a marriage was solem- 
nized between Richard Pepys, widower, and 
Mary Sanderson, spinster, both of the parish 
of St. Helen's. I should be obliged for any 
information in respect of their ancestors and 
descendants. Particulars, no matter how 
small, would be very thankfully received, 
and duly acknowledged. 

Nightingale Lane, Wanstead. 

reader of 'N. & Q.' tell me of any book 
containing descriptions and illustrations of 
the graves of distinguished Englishmen 
buried abroad ? I refer to such instances as 
Keats and Shelley at Rome, Smollett at Leg- 
horn, and Landor at Florence, and not to 
persons of merely official or diplomatic 
importance in their day. CHARLES HIATT. 

A NOMINAL BURDEN. The Crown Prince 
of Portugal has no fewer than sixteen Christian 
names. Did ever anybody have more ? His 
Royal Highness is Louis Philippe Marie 
Charles Atnelio Ferdinand Victor Manuel 
Antoine Laurent Miguel Raphael Gabriel 
Gonzague Xavier Francis. Well was it for 
him that circumstances defended his infant 
days from the inquiries of the Church 

9 th S. X. Auo. 9, 1902.] 



Catechism ! For him even the first answer, 
so easy for most of us, would have called for 
the exercise of a real feat of memory. 


moner in Great Britain received the Garter? 
If so, please give names. I know, if bio- 
graphies are to be relied on, two com- 
moners who were offered, but refused this 
distinction viz., William Pitt and Sir Robert 
Peel. An exhaustive communication on 
this subject will be, no doubt, of great 
interest to many. E. A. 


FAMILY CRESTS. Is there any book on the 
above on the same plan as Pa"p worth's ' Ordi- 
nary of British Armorials/ by which, on 
referring to a crest, one is enabled at a 
glance to see what family bears it? I am 
acquainted with Fairbairn's and other 
similar works ; but I want the antithesis to 
these, if such a work exists. 


" BILLY "= TIN CAN. Mr. Samuel Butler, 
in 'Erewhon Revisited,' p. 18, informs his 
readers that this word is doubtless of French- 
Canadian origin, and is derived from faire 
bouillir. The ' H.E.D." ignores this ety- 
mology. Is there anything in it ? C. C. B. 

' PURCHAS HIS PILGRIMES,' 1625. I shall be 
glad to hear of the whereabouts of copies of 
this book, of their condition, and of their 
history. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

"LOOPHOLE." Is it possible to explain 
loop in loophole by any of the senses of loop 
as recorded in the old Dutch dictionaries ? 
In the 'Nuevo Tesoro de las dos Lenguas 
Espafiola, y Flamenca,' printed "En Amberes 
en casa de leronymo y Juan Baptista Ver- 
dussen. M.DC.LIX.," the expression "loopdes 
roers " i.e., " the tube or barrel of the cannon " 
is translated "cafion de vn arcabuz, o, 
escopeta." It may be therefore that " loop- 
hole " came into our English tongue from the 
Dutch, in the sense of a gun or cannon hole 
in the wall of a fortified building. 


[One of the suggestions as to the derivation of 
loophole offered by PALAMEDES at 9 th S. iv. 347 was 
that; it might be from loop the barrel of a gun.] 


FLOWER. May I make inquiry, through 
the columns of ' N. & Q.,' for the name of the 
author of the exquisitely beautiful poem 
reprinted in the Sfar (San Francisco) of 
5 March, 1892 ? It originally appeared about 

thirty years ago anonymously in Chambers^ 
Journal, and has been, repeatedly published 
since that time in the newspapers of the 
United States. It seems to me to be a strain 
of pure poetry, and begins as follows : 

Relic of early days ! My casual hand 
Hath made discovery of thy long retreat, 
As carelessly I turned the time-worn page 
Unconscious of its import, for my thoughts 
Were idly roving not on learned lore, 
Or marked and measured task. I look on theo, 
Poor withered thing, and memory's current flows 
Back, back upon the past. 

Mills Building, San Francisco. 

PoLYGRAPHic HALL. Am I correct in the 
supposition that a place of entertainment so 
named stood on the site of the Folly, after- 
wards Toole's Theatre ? I have a handbill of 
a performance given there by Mr. W. S. 
Woodin, without date, but presumably about 
1845-50. . ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

have been informed that there are variations 
in the title-page of the first edition of White- 
field's ' Hymqs,' 1753. I shall be glad if any 
hymnologist who is possessed of a copy of 
the above edition will communicate a tran- 
script of the title-page. H. E. H. J. 

Swansea Public Librltry. 

DOROTHEA RUTTER. Can .one of your 
readers learned in genealogy tell me any- 
thing further concerning this lady ? I know 
an old print, which I may describe as follows. 
In an oval a female head and bust, three- 
quarter face, with the characteristic low 
neck and curls of the period. Without the 
oval are four shields : at the top the dexter 
shield frames the inscription " Dominse 
Dorothea Rutter"; the sinister is filled by 
a coat of arms, Quarterly, 1 and 4, Rutter 
of Kingsley (Gu., three garbs or ; on a chief 
az. a lion pass, ar.) ; 2 and 3, three arrows 
armed and feathered ; at the bottom the 
dexter shield contains the words " Martij 
21 mo Vera Effigies 166"; the sinister, "Anno 
J^tatis suse ult. et 31 mo ." Beneath the whole 
appear .the lines : 

Life more abundant in her lookes you see : 
Picture her Soule ; a Heav'nly Saint is Shee ! 


births, deaths, marriages, promotions, bank- 
ruptcies, &c., noticed in the 'Historical 
Register' (1714 to 1738) and the 'Political 
State of Great Britain ' (1711 to 1740) ever 
been indexed ; and, if so, by whom ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. A. 9, 1902. 

(9 th S. ix. 124, 290.) 

I AM sure that I am not the only reader 
of ' N. & Q.' who would appreciate further 
quotations from that singular document dis- 
covered by CHEVRON and set forth at the 
second reference. 

Doubtless it was the hilarity of the occasion 
which induced Henry I. of Germany to date 
this precious record "938," being just two 
years after his death. The same motive, no 
doubt, induced him to, for the moment, adopt 
officially his nickname, " the Fowler." Docu- 
ments might be produced in which " Charles 
the Fat "or "Louis the Debonnaire," "John 
Lackland" or "Edward Longshanks," &c., 
appear as the official title or style of royalty. 
Such may be rare, but not more so than that 
CHEVRON is the happy possessor of. Then, 
again, how did Henry I. happen to make that 
singular error in his title? He was never 
crowned JSmperor ; the title was in abeyance 
from the death of the Emperor Arnoulf, 899, 
to the crowning of Otto I. by Pope John XII., 
2 February, 962. 

I am in the woods, and have only some 
slight notes to refer to, so all this is subject 
to correction ; but I would humbly suggest 
to CHEVRON three points which might be 
worth looking up : 

1. Was the title " Imperatoris Augusti " 
used at the time in question, even by 
emperors ? 

2. To make sure of the antiquity of 

3. The extremely early occurrence of the 
tournaments mentioned. I laboured under 
the impression shared in, I think, by Wood- 
ward and others that the first tournament 
of which we have a definite record was held 
at Nuremberg, 1127, under Lothaire II. 

Might I also make so bold as to suggest 
that before accusing poor America presum- 
ing CHEVRON means the United States of 
heraldic thefts, it might be well for him to 
glance over some of the articles in the Satur- 
day Review of a few years ago, in which Mr. 
Fox-Davies, an authority dangerous to con- 
tradict, sets forth how peers, prelates, and 
commoners, who certainly could not plead 
ignorance, stole similar articles with a bare- 
faced coolness never before equalled 1 

CHEVRON asks, "What can the upholders 
of the bald statement have to say after this 
dated document 1 " 

The (mis)dated document will not, I greatly 
fear, influence very markedly the prevailing 

belief regarding the beginnings of heraldry ; 
especially will it not influence those who have 
the misfortune to be obliged to study similar 

It seems to me that a better argument 
would be to produce an example, even a 
solitary one, of a fairly well-authenticated 
armorial bearing on a contemporaneous seal, 
carving, shield, illumination, &c., earlier than 
1150. Personally I know of no genuine one 
prior to 1164, always excepting the very 
curious marks and figures on the pennons, 
and those on the shields (which latter are 
different from those on the pennons), depicted 
in that undated document, the so-called 
" Bayeux tapestry," which marks, Wace 
assures us, enabled one Norman to know 

I take this opportunity to offer a suggestion 
which seems to me possibly of some slight 
weight, in case I happen to be in the right. 
I have examined, as no doubt many others 
have, numerous series of family seals, prin- 
cipally French. Previous to, say, 1160-1180 
the knightly bearer of the shield never, or 
most rarely, shows the front of his shield. 
After the epoch mentioned the front of the 
shield is always shown, and it always bears 
a true heraldic device, which device is, with 
the rarest exception, the present known 
bearing of the rider's descendants. 

C. E. D. 

Dublin, N.H. 

There is a slight question of chronology here 
which does somewhat affect the argument. 
We are referred to a document temp. " Hen- 
rici I. Aucupis," dated DCCCCXXXVIII., at Got- 
tingen, in Saxony ; but Henry the Fowler 
died in 936, two years previously, and Got- 
tingen town is first named by Otho I., son of 
Henry. If, therefore, Gottingen was till then 
unknown, there could have been no tourna- 
ment there under Henry. Two years is a small 
discrepancy, but what other evidence is there 
of the tournament and the date of the laws ? 
while " insignia " means banners in form and 
shape, not coats of armour. ABSENS. 

REFERENCES WANTED (9 th S. x. 67). 1. A 
wily abbot. It is, of course, difficult to say 
whether the author had any particular abbot 
in his mind or not ; but probably the follow- 
ing story of Pope Sixtus V. is the origin of 
the reference. It rests upon the authority 
of Gregorio Leti, the historian, but has been 
discredited. When cardinal he suddenly led 
a retired life, and seemed (although in his 
)rime) to succumb to the weight and in- 
irmities of age, always used a crutch, &c. 

a* S.X.AUO. 8,1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Scarcely, however, had he been elected Pope 
before he threw away his crutch and sang the 
" Te Deum " with a powerful voice. A few 
days after, being complimented on this re- 
markable change, he replied that before his 
election he stooped to look for the keys of 
Paradise, but, having found them, he only 
looked up to heaven, no longer having need 
of earthly things. He was Pope for upwards 
of five years. Allusion is often made in 
literature both to the crutch of Sixtus V. 
and to stooping to look for the keys of 

4. A saw, &c. I have only been able to 
ind a variant 

He that is down can fall no lower 
which occurs in Butler's 'Hudibras,' part i. 
canto iii. 1. 877. The first part appeared in 

He that is down needs fear no fall, 
in Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's Progress,' dates from 
1684 (i.e., the second part). The line attri- 
buted to Sir Walter Raleigh 

Fain would I climb, but that I fear to fall- 
is older than either, and may have been the 
origin of both Bunyan's and Butler's lines. 
I find also that 
Fain would I, but I dare not ; I dare, and yet I 

may not, 

is the "first line of a lyric by Sir Walter 

61, Friends Road, E. Croydon. 

SAUCE (9 th S. ix. 407, 472). It was a curious 
coincidence, seeing that I had no recollection 
of having heard this saying before, that the 
same post which brought me ' N. & Q.' of 
24 May should have also brought me a Ceylon 
paper (the Ceylon Observer of 14 June) con- 
taining another version of it. Here, in a letter 
from the Archdeacon of Kansas, it is applied 
to that part of Western America. He says : 

" Western America is swamped with every con- 
ceivable type of schism ever heard or dreamt, and 
one is forcibly reminded at every turn of the young 
Englishman who, in describing the country in a 
letter home, remarked, 'It's all right; but one 
strange feature is that there are 150 different kinds 
of religions and only one kind of soup " noodle." ' 

J. P. L. 


OLD SONGS (9 th S. ix. 388, 492 ; x. 38). 
' The Lincolnshire Poacher ' has been claimed 
by many counties, and has been printed as 
' The Nottinghamshire Poacher,' ' The Somer- 
setshire Poacher,' and, at a later period, as 
' The Lincolnshire Poacher.' Messrs. Chappell 
published it under the last-named title. It 
was arranged by Mr. Hodson, and was " s.ung 

with great applause by Mr. Brough." In 
Boosey's collection of ' Old English Songs ' it 
appears under what was probably its original 
title, ' The Poacher.' As a regimental quick- 
step it has long been popular with the 10th 
Foot (North Lincolnshire), and with the old 
69th (Welsh) Regiment, formerly known as 
the South Lincolnshire, now better known 
as the 2nd Battalion 10th Lincolnshire Regi- 
ment. The present "official" arrangement 
of the melody is attributed to a former 10th 
bandmaster, Mr. Young. The introduction 
to the quickstep is the regimental bugle-call 
of the 1st Battalion 10th Regiment. The 
wording of the song varies slightly, but the 
following is probably the most accurate : 

When I was bound apprentice in famous Lincoln- 
Full well I served my master for more than seven 

'Till I took up to polching, as you shall quickly 

O 'tis my delight on a shining night, in the season 

of the year. 

As me and my comarade was setting of a snare, 
'Twas then we spied the gamekeeper for him we 

did not care. 
For we can wrestle and fight, my boys, and jump 

o'er anywhere. 
O 'tis my delight on a shining night, in the season 

of the year. ** 

As me and my comarade were setting four or five. 
And taking on them up again, we caught the hare 

We caught the hare alive, my boys, and through the 

woods did steer. 
O 'tis my delight on a shining night, in the season 

of the year. 

We throdun him over our shoulder, and then we 

trudged home, 
We took him to a neighbour's house, and sold him 

for a crown. 
We sold him for a crown, my boys, but I did not 

tell you where. 
O 'tis my delight on a shining night, in the season 

of the year. 

Success to every gentleman that lives in Lincoln- 

Success to every polcher that wants to sell a hare, 
Bad luck to every gamekeeper that will not sell his 

'tis my delight on a shining night, in the season 

of the year. 

A. R. C. 

KNURR AND SPELL (9 th S. ix. 385, 452, 511). 
Your correspondents B. (who alludes to this 
game being played fifty years ago by hun- 
dreds) and W. C. B. (who says "it was known 
as dab and trigger" and that he "played at it 
many times about 1855-60") have evidently 
obtained the impression that it is a game of 
the past. Such, however, is not the case, as 
witness the following from the Leeds and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 9, 1002. 

Yorkshire Mercury for so recent a date as 
7 July : 

" Nearly 600 people assembled at the Queen's 
Grounds, Barnsley, to witness a contest to deter- 
mine the longest knock in twenty rises, with wood- 
heads and pot knurs, for 50/., between Charles 
Langley, Penistone, and C. Galloway, of Broomhill. 
Betting ruled at 25s. to 20-*. on Langley. At the close 
it was round that Langley, who won in his sixth rise, 
sent 9 score 44 feet ana 10^ inches. At the Hare 
and Hounds Grounds, Todmorden, there was a good 
company on Saturday, when E. Whipp, of Todmor- 
den, and M. Greenwood, of Hebden Bridge, met in 
a knur and spell match to decide the longest knock 
in thirty rises each, for 3W. Betting : 22 to 20 on 
Whipp. Scores: Whipp 9 score 12 yards, to 
Greenwood 9 score 3 yards." 

48, Hanover Square, Bradford. 

As a second meaning to " knur," Wright 
(quoting North) gives "a round piece of 
wood used in a game called knurspell." The 
game as described by B. is not, to my know- 
ledge, in vogue in this county. When quite 
a young child I remember, however, receiving 
as a present from my uncle a set of the 
necessary requisites. These consisted of a 
small bat, a hard wooden ball, and a trap. 
The game was simply called " bat and trap," 
but it failed to excite much enthusiasm 
amongst my playmates, and was soon 
dropped. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

THE GREAT FROST OF 1683-4 (5 th S. xi. 145). 
This circumstance is commemorated by the 
Rev. Benjamin Camfield, rector of Aileston, 
near Leicester, in a sermon entitled ' Of God 
Almighty's Providence Both in the Sending 
and Dissolving Great Snows and Frosts, And 
the Improvement, we ought to make, of it. 
A Sermon, Occasioned by the Late Extreme 
Cold Weather, Preached in It to his Neigh- 
bours, &c.' (London, 1684). The preacher 
quotes passages from Ovid, Horace, and 
Virgil ; from Buchanan and Vatablus and 
Calvin and Munster and Scultetus (sic) and 
Hammond and Patrick, among the moderns. 
He evidently had a well-stored commonplace 
book. The citation from Ovid is particularly 

Quaque rates ierant, pedibus nunc itur, et undas 
Frigore concretas ungula pulsat equi ; 

Perque novos pontes, subter labentibus undis 
Ducunt Sarmatici barbara plaustra boves. 

Portland, Oregon. 

ix. 506 ; x. 34). It seems to me that the 
scarlet satin chimere worn as the Convocation 
dress by bishops would be more appropriate 
at the Coronation than anything else, and 

would be in harmony. This is, of course, 
worn over the rochet, while the Bishop of 
Winchester might wear the dress as prelate, 
and the Bishop of Oxford as Chancellor 
of the Order of the Garter. It is said that 
Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, objected to 
the chimere being made of scarlet, and con- 
sequently the present episcopal " magpie 
dress," as it is styled, was adopted. The 
cope once worn at Durham Cathedral fell 
long ago into disuse, but several specimens 
are still preserved in the library at Durham 
Cathedral. There is an engraving of Dr. Ire- 
land, then Dean of Westminster, wearing a 
cope and carrying the crown on a cushion at 
the coronation of George IV. in 1821. He 
wears a surplice underneath. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" MUFFINEER" (9 th S. x. 28). Charles Annan- 
dale in his 'Imperial Dictionary ' and 'Nut- 
tail's Standard Dictionary ' both give the 
meaning of this word, "A dish for keeping 
toasted muffins hot." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

(9 th S. x. 27). My authority for the statement 
is to be found in the preface to the ' Diary of 
General Patrick Gordon,' printed for the 
Spalding Club in 1859. The concluding para- 
graph in that preface is as follows : 

"Thomas Gordon, a nephew of Patrick Iwano- 
witsch, distinguished himself in the sea service of 
Russia, which he entered in 1717. He was made 
Admiral in 1727, and died in 1741 at Cronstadt, of 
which he had been governor for nearly twenty 

w. s. 

In 1697 General Gordon at the head of 
four regiments subdued an insurrection near 
Moscow ; see the particulars in Tho. Consett's 
' Present State of Russia,' 1729, p. xxxvi, n. 

W. C. B. 

BIRMINGHAM : " BRUMAGEM " (9 th S. x. 22). 
I entirely agree with MR. DUIGNAN that the 
latter is no vulgarism, as commonly supposed, 
but that it is the true survival of the archaic 
form. I can testify that over sixty years 
ago, long before "Brumagem" had become 
an expressive common adjective, it was so 
pronounced by people who had never heard 
of " Brumagem jewellery." The old con- 
servative peasantry of the West used always 
to speak of "up to Brumagem, wher' they 
maks the boourd naails." This pronunciation 
by a people whose natural tendency is to 
transpose r followed by a vowel (arid who 
would be expected to say Burm ) seems to 

9 th S. X. AUG. 9, 1902.] 



me conclusive of MR. DUIGNAN'S contention. 
I was not aware of the early instances of the 
present polite form cited by him, and had 
always rather unquestioningly accepted the 
original name to nave been Bromwichham. 
The earliest quotation under Brumagem in 
4 H.E.D.' is Bromicham ; and it appears that 
so early as the seventeenth century the town 
had acquired an evil reputation by the manu- 
facture of counterfeit coins, hence we can 
readily trace the development of the place- 
name into a term for sham generally, applied 
to persons, manners, and things. The term 
is only now beginning to establish its place 
in literature, spelt still with a capital, though 
the inverted commas are already gone, but 
will not have become a household word like 
boycott until it appears in the Times as 
brumagem. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

TUM ' (9 th S. v. 108, 177, 382)." The German's 
wit is in his fingers " may be illustrated by 
the following passage from Burton's 'Anatomy 
of Melancholy ' (' Democritus to the Reader,' 
vol. i. pp. 101, 102, in Mr. A. R. Shilleto's 
edition) : 

"Nuremberg in Germany is sited in a most 
barren soil, yet a noble Imperial city, by the sole 
industry of artificers, and cunning trades ; they 
draw the riches of most countries to them, so expert 
in manufactures, that, as Sallust long since gave 
out of the like, sedem animae in extremis digitis 
habent, their soul, or intellectus agens, was placed 
in theii fingers' ends ; & so we may say of Basil, 
Spires, Camoray, Frankfurt, &c" 

Mr. Shilleto compares the German proverb. 
"Nurnberger Witz und kiinstliche Hand 
finden Wege durch alle Land," and notes that 
"this the Latin] quotation is certainly not 
in Sallust. It is not in Dietsch's very com- 
plete index, nor could a writer in Notes and 
Queries, [1 st S.] ii. 464, find it." 

The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

KNIGHTHOOD (9 th S. x. 28). Many gentle- 
men paid a heavy fine to be excused from 
attending to receive knighthood at the hands 
of King James I.; among them was John 
Stephens of St. Ives, Cornwall. See the 
' History of the Borough of Saint Ives ' 
(Elliot Stock, 1892). No doubt this action 
was taken on the writ referred to. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

''LEAPS AND BOUNDS" (6 th S. iii. 229, 395; 
iv. 278 ; 7 th S. i. 69, 153, 216, 296 ; 8 th S. i. 86 ; 
v. 32 ; ix. 427). In ' H.E.D.' the Illustrated 
London Neios of 8 August, 1885, is given as 
the only authority for the phrase indicating 

an advancement "by leaps and bounds," 
though at the references above given there 
are various earlier and more classical autho- 
rities adduced. But, as far as the present 
generation of Englishmen is concerned, the 
phrase is best known as having been used by 
Gladstone I believe in the seventies. When 
and where did that statesman employ it? 


(9 th S. ix. 241, 330 ; x. 29). I ought perhaps 
to rest content with having written upon this 
subject twice. But I should like now to 
offer some remarks upon MR. A. II. BAYLEY'S 
note at the second reference, and his state- 
ment that William of Wykeham " is supposed 
to have been the son of a carpenter." 

I cannot find anything in Lowth's 'Life of 
William of Wykeham ' (1758), or in any other 
trustworthy account of the bishop, which 
justifies the supposition. But the pleasant 
fiction is gaining -ground. Thus readers of 
the Ex-Libris Journal were told last June 
(vol. xii. pt. vi. p. 69; that Wykeham 

" was the first of his family to bear the well-known 
coat of arms, and it is said that the chevrons 
bear witness to the fact that he was the son of a 

This reference to chevrons suggests the origin 
of the fiction. Nicholas Upton, a Wyke- 
hamist, who died in 1457 (' D.N.B.,' Iviii. 39), 
in his ' De Militari Officio,' lib. iv. (p. 246 in 
Bysshe's edition of 1654), said, speaking of 
chevrons : 

"Quo quidem signa de facto primo per carpen- 
tarios & domorum factores portabantur. Et in 
latino sermone vocantur tigna, & Gallice vocantur 
Gheverons, quia domus nunquam perficitur, quo- 
usque, ad modum capitis, ilia tigna super ponan- 

Upton's symbolical interpretation of the 
chevron was accepted and applied by Robert 
Glover, Somerset herald, when he sent to 
Lord Burghley a report (dated March, 1572) 
upon the dispute between Sir Richard Fiennes 
and Humphrey Wickham, of Swalcliffe, which 
arose out of the latter 's claim to be of foun- 
der's kin at Winchester College. This report 
contained the following passage : 

"Arid agayne, behouldinge the Armes sometyme 
with one and then after with two cheverons, quae 
quidem signa per Carpentarios & domorum factores 
olim portabantur, as Nicholas Upton wryteth, 
and comparing them to the quality of the berar, 
who is sayd to have had his chiefe preferment for 

his skill in Architecture, I was also induced to 

thinke per conjecturam Heraldicam, that the 
Bishop himself was the first berar of them." 
Lowth, 'Life of Wykeham,' p. 12, n. 

This passage has nothing whatever to do 
with the bishop's father, but the modern 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 9, 1902. 

idea that he was a carpenter has probably 
been evolved from it. 

ME. BAYLEY apparently rejects Glover's 
conjecture as to the origin of the bishop's 
arras, because a writer in Archceologia Ox- 
oniensis has stated that the Wickhams of 
Oxfordshire " are found bearing the present 
arms of New College with red chevronels," 
and that William of Wykeham "adopted" 
these arms, " with black ordinaries for a dis- 
tinction," for both his colleges. I should be 
grateful for further "information about this 
discovery of the red chevronels. When and 
where was the discovery made 1 And what 
is the evidence, if any, that red chevronels 
were borne by Wickhams of Oxfordshire in 
the fourteenth century, when the two colleges 
were founded 1 In support of his unsuccessful 
claim to be founder's kin, Humphrey Wick- 
ham relied (inter alia) upon the fact that his 
own arms (which had been allowed to him by 
heralds) were absolutely identical with those 
borne by the bishop and his colleges. A 
collection of documents relating to this claim 
was printed in Collectanea Top. et Gen., 
vols. ii. 225, 368, and iii. 178, 345 (1836-7). 

H. C. 

508 ; x. 55). I have for some time past been 
making notes for a short account of the folk- 
lore and minor antiquities of the Mass, and 
was struck, at an. early stage in my research, 
with the great importance anciently attached 
to a sight of the elevated Host. The hearing 
of Mass is often spoken of as " seeing God," 
both in Welsh and English manuscripts of 
pre-Reformation date ; and in probably every 
country of Christendom there was a popular 
belief that if one missed Mass on a Sunday he 
ought not to smile until the Sunday following. 
Joyousness was certainly associated with the 
Mass in the popular mind. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

'Christ's Hospital,' by R. Brimley Johnson, 
1896, contains a reduced facsimile of the 
petition of Ann Coleridge, widow of the Rev. 
John Coleridge, of the parish of Ottery 
St. Mary in the county of Devon, who died 
in the month of October, 1781, leaving her 
with a family of eleven children. This 
petition, which was dated 1 May, 1782, prayed 
that her son Samuel Coleridge, aged nine 
years and six months, might be admitted 
into Christ's Hospital. It required the signa- 
tures of the minister, churchwardens, and 
three householders. One of the latter was a 
Samuel Taylor. It is, therefore, probable 

that he was either a relative, intimate friend, 
or maybe godfather after whom the boy was 
named. This is only a suggestion. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

In a letter from S. T. Coleridge to Thomas 
Poole, Sunday, March, 1797, occurs the fol- 
lowing : " Christened Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge my godfather's name being Samuel 
Taylor, Esq." R. A. POTTS. 

reply to PERTINAX, the governing bodies of 
most of our public schools are composed of 
distinguished public men, some of whom are 
alumni of the school, while others are terri- 
torial magnates of the district or educational 
authorities, the chairman usually being the 
most distinguished or influential. Many of 
the heads of colleges at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge are, ex officio, on the governing body 
or council of one or other of the large public 
schools. I know of no instance where the 
head master has a seat on the governing 
body. He is appointed by it, his reports are 
made to it, and probably he is often called 
in to assist at its deliberations. PERTINAX 
will find particulars of the governing bodies 
in the various histories which have been 
published of most of the large public schools. 
I shall be happy to send a list, and to give 
further information if needed. 


Alperton Park, Wembley. 

" YE GODS AND LITTLE FISHES ! " (9 th S. ix. 

369 ; x. 77.) I beg that I may be allowed to 
correct a slight mistake in my reply on this 
subject. The word "were" was printed instead 
of was in my communication. I believe I 
stated that Charles Lever, the creator of 
Charles O'Malley and the inimitable Micky 
Free, was (not were) very fond of amateur 
theatricals in Dublin. 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

[If " creator " had been written, the mistake 
would have been saved, but " author" is the word 
in our contributor's MS. Loose writing is difficult 
to correct, yet can hardly be left as it is.] 

BANKING FIRM (9 th S. x. 27). It may be noted 
in connexion with MR. HARLAND-OXLEY'S 
communication that in 1874 a cast-iron slab, 
probably an old Sussex iron fireback, repre- 
senting a cock and a snake, was found during 
alterations made on the premises of Messrs. 
Smith, Payne & Smith's bank, then No. 1, 
Lombard Street. It bore the date 1652. It 

9<* s. x. ATTO 9, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


may be further noted that the bank occupied 
the site of the premises of Messrs. Harley & 
Co., bankers, the latter bank having become 
extinct in 1789. There was a house here 
with the sign of the " Cock " in 1734, in the 
occupation of Thomas Stevenson. Possibly 
the iron slab appertained to tbis date, when 
street signs had not yet been abolished, as 
well as to the date it bore, namely, 1652. The 
relic was, I believe, preserved on the premises. 
Possibly it was of ^Esculapian origin, for the 
cock and serpent were sacred to the god of 
healing, and I believe there was, and still is, 
a similar representation of the " Cock and 
Serpents " to be seen let into the front wall of 
a house in Lower Church Street, Chelsea. 


ME. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY'S note is ob- 
viously derived from the long re'sume' of 
the history of Messrs. Smith & Payne's bank 
published in the Daily Telegrapli, 17 June. 
This, in due order, is "inspired" by that 
familiar work 'The Handbook of London 
Bankers,' by Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, who 
quotes from Mr. F. Martin's ' Stories of Banks 
and Bankers.' This evolution is interesting, 
but it is to be regretted that the con- 
tributor of the note to these pages did not 
think it necessary to refer to original autho- 

DOWNIE'S SLAUGHTER (9 th S. ix. 367, 474). 
Instances of death due to fear were legendary 
even in the sixteenth century. In his essay 
'Of the Force of Imagination' Montaigne, 
as translated by Cotton, writes thus : 

" Some there are who through fear prevent the 
hangman ; like him whose eyes being unbound to 
have his pardon read to him, was found stark dead 
upon the scaffold, by the stroak of imagination." 


SCHAW OF GOSPETRY (9 th S. x. 8). Is MR. 
CRAWFORD acquainted with what has already 
appeared in ' N. & Q.' respecting the Schaws 
of Ganoway, c. Down, about the years 
1033-41? See 7 th S. i. 169. 

" CORN-BOTE " IN BARBOUR's ' BRUCE ' (9 th S. 

x. 61). I thank MR. NEILSON for his sug- 
gestion, viz., that the right reading in 'Bruce,' 
ii. 438, is corn-hut, where but is the mod. E. 
boot, a recompense. Cf. fut for "foot" (iii. 

I was rather sorry than otherwise to see 
Mrs. Banks's edition of the 'Morte Arthure.' 
It tells us little that is new, and stands in the 
way of a much better edition, such as might 
otherwise have been offered. I have myself 
noticed many possible improvements, and I 

know there are others who have done the 
same. At any rate, Mr. Gollancz drew my 
attention to corn-bote long ago. We do not 
believe that corne has anything to do with 
the E. corn, or is an English word at all. 
Surely it is the French corne, a horn, used 
metaphorically as the symbol of pride, and is 
closely related to escomer, which meant to dis- 
horn, or to take a man down. As Cotgrave 
says, corne prendre meant " to wax proud," 
and escomer is "to dishorn, to disgrace." 
Corn - bote is requital for pride, a taking 
down. MR. NEILSON should have quoted 
just two more lines from the 'Morte Arthure,' 
viz., 11. 1840-1, which throw a strong light on 
the context : 

Thow skornede us lang ere with thi slcornefidl wordez, 
And nowe hast thow cheuede soo ; it is thyn awen 

i.e., "You scorned, us formerly, and now you 
have been repaid in kind ; it is your own turn 
to suffer now." 

I was careful to say in my glossary to the 
'Bruce,' s.v. 'But,' "The reading is perhaps 
corrupt." My explanation was merely a forced 
explanation of a reading which I distrusted. 
I should now explain the line by " we shall, 
in some measure, requite them with a recom- 
pense for their pride," though corne is, more 
strictly, the outwaraL/md visible expression of 
pride, very evident in the scornful cry of Sir 
Philip de Mowbray in 1. 416, " Help ! help ! 1 
have the new-maid king." 

We live and learn. Here are three examples 
of a word not in the great ' English Diction- 

It does not seem unlikely that this may be 
a satirical reference to the ancient custom of 
"acervation," in'which the amount of com- 
pensation was estimated by pouring "clean 
wheat " upon the body of the slain until it 
was completely hidden. See 9 th S. viii. 70, &c. 

W. C. B. 

In such a case as this one regrets to see no 
reference to any light the ' N.E.D.'may throw 
on the passage in question, for it seems to me 
that this invaluable lexicon affords a solution 
to the. corn-bote enigma. Under 'Choose' 
(A 6) the past participle corn is registered, 
and a couple of columns are devoted to boot, 
sb. 1. of which bote is but a variant. The 
general sense of this latter word is "advan- 
tage, profit, avail, remedy, compensation": 
but the " especial " meaning of " a medicinal 
cure or remedy" appears to be appropriate 
here. Sir Cador ironically vows the king 
shall have a choice remedy for homicidal 
brag, and, after administering it personally, 
indulges in further satire at the expense of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. At. 9, 1002. 

the mortified recipient. Mediaeval humour 
was apt to be somewhat poignant on occasion. 


FREE (9 th S. vi. 507; vii. Ill, 193). See 
further, as to this odd exemption, L'lnter- 
mddiaire. xxvi. 601 : xxvii. 173 : xliv. 241. 

O. O. H. 

FLINT-GLASS TRADE (9 th S. ix. 365, 473). 
Those who have witnessed the operation of 
glass-blowing can have no difficulty about 
the word " chair," as they will remember that 
the operator sits on a chair of special con- 
struction, using the arms as supports for the 
pontil as he rolls it backwards and forwards. 
By a very natural extension the word 
"chair" came to mean the gang of men who 
work in and about a chair. The "chair- 
system " of working is thoroughly explained 
in Apsley Pellatt's 'Curiosities of Glass- 
making,' pp. 83, 86-9. R. B. P. 

486 ; x. 38). At the kind suggestion of MR. 
C. MASON I wrote to the secretary of Lloyd's, 
and I have had a reply to the effect that the 
ship England, Capt. Thomson, is reported to 
have sailed from Liverpool for Port Phillip 
on 4 April, 1841, and is also reported in 
' Lloyd's List ' of 7 December, 1841, as having 
arrived at her destination, but without date 
of arrival. William Baxter no doubt landed 
at Port Phillip or in the neighbourhood, and 
if any of the Australian readers of ' N. & Q.' 
can give me any information about him or 
his descendants (if any) I shall be much 
obliged. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

CHI-RHO MONOGRAM (9 th S. x. 49). There 
is a most elaborate article on this subject, 
4 L' Origine del la Leggenda del Monogramma 
e del Labaro,' by Prof. Amadeo Crivellucci, in 
vol. ii. of 'Studi Storici ' (Pisa, 1893), pp. 88- 
104, 222-60. See also the article by Bratke 
noticed at p. 275. Whether these would add 
to MR. McGoyERN's information on the 
special point raised by him I do not know ; 
but the articles are well worth study. 

Q. V. 

I am able in part to reply to my own 
query on this monogram. Shortly after it was 
penned I received the May number of the 
Journal of the Isle of Man Antiquarian 
Society, containing a very interesting article 
by Mr. P. M. C. Kermode on some recent 
archaeological discoveries in the island, one of 
which presented distinct evidence of the 
presence of the monogram in Man. This is 

the information I sought, but in part only. 
I have, so far, discovered no trace of the 
monogram in Ireland. When found my quest 
will be complete. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

STATISTICAL DATA (9 th S. x. 29). A book 
in my possession bears the following explicit 
title : 

" Popular Statistics | and | Universal Geography, 
| %, perpetual companion to all the Almanacs ; | 
containing the | length, breadth, population, chief 
cities, produce, government, | revenue, military and 
naval strength, arts, religion, &c. | of every state in 
the world ; | a Distance Table | of England, Scot- 
land, Ireland and Wales, | With the Principal 
Travelling Stations of France and the Netherlands ; 
| together with | Distinct Distance Tables | of Scot- 
land, Ireland and Wales ; | Chronological Tables of 
Ancient and Modern History, Biography and Geo- 

Saphical | Discovery, Names and Value in British 
oney of all Foreign Coins, Height of the | prin- 
cipal Mountains, and Length of the principal 
Rivers, Bridges, Piers, &c. | Tables | Showing any 
Day of the Week in any Month in any Year of the 
Nineteenth Century, | and the Expectation of Life 
according to the Law of Mortality at Carlisle. | 
Also | a general introduction to a knowledge of Geo- 

?-aphy and | Statistics, illustrated with Tables of 
opulation for the | Great Divisions of the Globe, | 
many other curious and useful tables, and an En- 
graved | Chart of the World, | after Mercator's 
Projection. | London : | Joseph Thomas, 1, Finch 
Lane. | M.DCCC.XXXV." 

I have often found this little book of 100 pp. 
very useful, and were it brought up to date 
I imagine it would exactly suit the require- 
ments of SIGMA. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

Some of the measurements asked for are 

given in "London Exhibited in 1851 

Edited and published by John Weale. Lon- 
don" e. g., on p. 181 are "sections through 
the transept and dome of St. Peter's, Florence 
Cathedral, London ditto, and St. Genevieve, 
Paris, showing their comparative widths and 
heights," according to scales in English feet 
and Roman palms. This book has, I think, 
been repubhshed by Messrs. Bell & Sons 
under the title of 'Pictorial Handbook of 
London,' being one of "Bohn's Illustrated 
Library." See also Peter Cunningham's 
' Handbook of London ' (John Murray). 


KING'S CHAMPION (9 th S. ix. 507 ^ x. 58). 
Though the account given by Sir Walter 
Scott in ' Redgauntlet ' of Lilias, the niece 
of Hugh Redgauntlet, called in the novel 
" Green Mantle," taking up the Champion's 
gauntlet, and replacing it by another, is 
purely fictitious, yet some part of the account 
of the coronation of George III. in 1761 is 
accurate enough. Lord Errol, the High Con- 

9">s.x.Aca9,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


stable of Scotland, who was present, as Sir 
Walter records, is mentioned by Horace Wai- 
pole as " the noblest figure I ever saw " ; he 
was 6 ft. 4 in. in height, and towered over all 
the others. In 1773 Dr. Johnson and Boswell 
visited him at Slains Castle in Aberdeen- 
shire, and went to see the Bullers o' Buchan, 
not far distant. His father, Lord Kilmar- 
nock, had been, after trial in Westminster 
Hall, beheaded for his share in the rebellion 
of 1745. At the coronation of George III. a 
valuable jewel fell from the crown, but was 
afterwards recovered. It was said to foretell 
the loss of the United States of America. 

An old friend of mine, who died some dozen 
years ago at the great age of ninety, told me 
that he remembered, when second master of 
Westminster School, Queen Caroline trying 
to force an entrance into the Abbey at the 
coronation of George IV., 19 July, 1821, and 
attempting to enter at the great west door, 
and again from the entrance to the cloisters, 
but, of course, in vain. Only some six weeks 
afterwards she died, and the populace re- 
sisted the attempt to smuggle the corpse 
quietly away. The same friend witnessed 
the burial of Mrs. Garrick, in 1822, in the 
same grave with her husband in Poets' 

The Rev. John Dymoke claimed to be 
styled the Honourable the Champion, but 
there was always a strong doubt as to whether 
the office could be held by a clergyman. He 
died at Florence, and was cremated on the 
same day. It does not seem to be recorded 
whether the Champion's steed was " barbed," 
heraldically speaking, and it would also seem 
that the office conferred the honour of knight- 
hood, or ought so to have done. The Cham- 
pion ought to have worn the gilt spurs as 
" eques auratus." JOHN PICKFOKD, M. A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I observe that Canon Lodge, in his 
' Scrivelsby, the -Home of the Champions,' 
1894, p. 110, says that, "as a matter or fact, 
the challenge never has been accepted, al- 
though there have been occasions when the 
sovereign's title might have been fairly ques- 
tioned." That the Champions were never 
really intended to be anything more than 
faineants is probably true, but Mr. Cuming 
reminds me that at the coronation of 
George III: the Champion's gauntlet was 
picked up, apparently by an old woman, who 
made her escape without detection. Jesse, 
in his ' Memoirs of the Pretenders and their 
Adherents,' ed. 1860, p. 356, makes allusion 
to the event, and the story is worked up into 
a powerful scene in Scott's ' Redgauntlet.' 

Mr. Cuming remembers -a long conversation 
he had with Prince John Sobieski Stuart 
respecting the challenge, and the prince 
assured him that they had no record in their 
family as to who the person was who picked 
up the gauntlet, but they were positive it 
was a man in female guise. 


DRESSES AT ABERDEEN (9 th S. ix. 427). Since 
I sent a query on this subject I have found in 
Alison's ' Autobiography ' an even more inex- 
plicable statement. On p. 35 of vol. ii. he 
writes of his election as Rector by the Glas- 
gow students : 

" The installation took place in the University 

Hall on the 15th January, 1852 The speech which 

I delivered on the occasion, and which is printed in 
the volumes of these -University orations, was very 
well received." 

Will it be credited that his installation took 
place not on 15 January, 1852, but on 27 Feb- 
ruary, 1851, and that not merely was his 
address not printed " in the volumes of these 
University orations," but that there were no 
such volumes in which it could have appeared, 
the latest collection of Glasgow rectorial ad- 
dresses having been issued in 1848, three years 
before Alison spoke ij^ Glasgow? The "calm 
conviction of his own merits" which Mr. 
Leslie Stephen attributes to the historian of 
Europe is amusingly in evidence on almost 
every page of his 'Autobiography.' If his 
Aberdeen and Glasgow rectorial addresses 
were not really reprinted, it is abundantly 
obvious that Sir Archibald thought they de- 
served to be. P. J. ANDERSON. 
University Library, Aberdeen. 

64). If the "new orthography of an old 
friend" is to be pronounced as if in Portu- 
guese, as MR. PLATT says, I must remind him 
that there are no diphthongs in Portuguese 
(vide Wall's 'Grammar'), and that both vowels 
are pronounced, though the stress is laid more 
on one than the other, generally on the first. 
The second one is something like a chateph 
vowel in. Hebrew. Thus, to express it typo- 
graphically, the river is pronounced Douro, 
and though the pronunciation may be so 
slurred as to sound like Dooro, the u is dis- 
tinctly audible in the speech of educated 
persons. E. E. STREET. 

CAPT. MORRIS'S WIPE (9 th S. x. 67). Sir 
William Stanhope had three wives first, Mar- 
garet, daughter of John Rudge, of Wheatfield, 
co. Oxon, and had issue a daughter Elizabeth, 
who was the first wife of Welbore Ellis, Lord 
Mendip; secondly, Mary, daughter of John 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 9, 1902. 

Crowley or Crawley, Alderman of London; 
thirdly, Anne Hussey, daughter of Francis 
Blake Delaval, of Seaton Delaval, co. North- 
umberland. By the last two he had no issue 
(Collins's ' Peerage,' 1812, vol. iii. p. 426). For 
the Delaval pedigree consult Lodge's ' Peerage 
of Ireland' (enlarged by Archdall), 1789, vol. vii. 
p. 225. As to the marriage, an entry might 
be found in the registers at Earsdon. 


THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 th S. ix. 485 ; x. 31, 
94). It is altogether wrong for a church or 
other public building or private person to 
display the white ensign. This flag belongs 
exclusively to His Majesty's navy, until 1864 
the navy was divided into the white, the 
blue, and the red squadrons ; but, as Mr. 
Edward Hulme relates in his 'Flags of the 
World,' the three sets of colours caused much 
inconvenience, and Nelson at Trafalgar 
ordered the whole of his fleet to hoist the 
white ensign. An Order of Council dated 
18th October, 1864, put an end to the use of 
different flags by tne navy, and the white 
ensign alone was declared to be its flag. By 
very exceptional privilege it is allowed to be 
flown by the Royal Yacht Squadron, but, by 
a special minute issued by the Admiralty, no 
other club is allowed to use it. I cannot at 
all agree with MR. NUTTALL that we should 
use flags to which we are not entitled for 
" the sake of a little variety in our decora- 
tions." If we did this we might as well hang 
from our flagstaffs silks of diverse colours. 
If variety is required (and I quite agree with 
MR. NUTTALL as to the advantage of this) I 
would suggest that the plan of a friend of 
mine should be followed. He comes from 
East Anglia, and on the occasion of public 
festivities he displays the East Anglian flag. 
If citizens displayed the flags of the cities or 
districts associated with their families this 
would give variety and add much historical 
interest to the display. During the present 
Coronation festivities His Majesty has 
granted special permission for the Royal 
Standard to be displayed by his subjects. 

A. Q. 

CAPT. ARNOLD (9 th S. ix. 447). The 
'Biographical Dictionary,' published by the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 
1844, says Benedict Arnold was twice married. 
By his first wife, whose name was Mansfield, 
he had three sons, one of whom held a com- 
mission in the British army ; the others 
received grants of land in Canada, and were 
men of property there in 1829. His second 
wife, Miss Shippen, a Philadelphia lady of 
great accomplishments, and a friend and 

correspondent of Andre, was married to him 
at the age of eighteen, just before he obtained 
the command of West Point. She died 
in London in 1803. The church at which 
Benedict Arnold was buried still remains a 
mystery. See 9 th S. iii. 152. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SERJEANT EDWARD DENDY (9 th S. ix. 508). 
This worthy was so appointed in 1621, vice 
Hamilton, under the Crown. In 1648 his 
services were transferred to Parliament, and 
so continued till 10 August, 1659, when he 
acted for the Privy Council only. In 1660 he 
petitioned for an appointment under the 
Customs at Bristol, but being prosecuted at 
the Restoration he escaped to Lausanne, 
where he appears to have been living till 
1666. He had a father of the same name 
Jiving at Wigan in 1659 ; and apparently a 
son named John, a sub-official at trie Mint in 
1648. This connexion with Wigan points to 
a Northern origin, and there was a family 
named Dande from Cheshire, who settled in 
Derbyshire and Notts from 1575 to 1670, from 
whom some Dendys of Sussex and Surrey 
claim descent. ABSENS. 


Greek Votive Offerings. By William Henry Denhain 

Rouse, M.A. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
MR. ROUSE has been astute enough to discover in 
the history of Greek religion a province all but 
unoccupied, and diligent enough to write a work 
concerning it which supplies all accessible informa- 
tion. His volume is, accordingly, a solid con- 
tribution to scholarship, and, indirectly, to our 
knowledge of primitive culture. Materials for a 
task such as he has accomplished are superabundant, 
and may be gleaned from all sources. Pausanias 
alone is a mine of information, not only of per- 
sonal observation, but of historical and mythical 
recollection and survival. Athenseus and the 
Greek Anthology yield a full store, and there is 
scarcely a writer of antiquity, from Hesiod and 
Homer to Theocritus, Horace, and Lucian, from 
whom something cannot be gleaned. The various 
museums abound with specimens of votive objects, 
and the Transactions of various learned societies 
give numerous articles on the subject. Up to now, 
however, no attempt to deal thoroughly with 
Greek votive offerings seems to have been made. 
Jacopo Filippo Thomasini (1597-1654), Bishop 
of Citta-Nuova, wrote a book, 'De Donariis ac 
Labellis Votivis' (1654), which reposes on the 
shelves of most large libraries. Much information 
is found in Mr. FarnelPs ' Cults of the Greek States' 
(see 8 th S. ix. 519), for the third volume of which 
we wait. Mr. Rouse is the first to deal with the 
subject on a scale commensurate with its import- 
ance, though his work is in some respects tentative, 

9^s.x.AuG.9,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and his explanations are often, necessarily, con- 

Not easy is the matter to deal with, on account of 
its range and extent and the manner in which it 
links itself to all phases of early belief. The notion 
that deities are to be propitiated, or even coerced, 
is found in all primitive and most existing religions, 
and prevails after nineteen centuries of Christianity. 
Anathemata, or permanent memorials of a special 
benefit to the deity whom gifts are supposed to 
please or propitiate, date back to the earliest times 
of Greek religion. They were most frequently an 
acknowledgment of favours conferred, but were 
also intended to disarm wrath or obtain benefits. 
In later days they often took the shape of works of 
art or value, but they were given by rich and poor 
alike. Few gifts were more common m the early days 
than locks of hair, and the custom survived until 
later days. The youthful bride si.ore or cut off a 
portion of her tresses and dedicated it to some 
deity. We believe, though we speak without exact 
information, that it is, or was, common for Hebrew 
brides to denude their heads. Costly garments and 
gifts of gold were accepted forms of propitiation in 
Homeric times. Mistaking Odysseus for a god, 
Telemachus implores him, "Be gracious, that we 
may give thee sacrifices to please thee aye, gifts of 
wrought gold." The crew of Odysseus, when about 
to steal the Sun's oxen, vow to build a temple to 
the Sun and fill it with fine offerings. Many a 
crime in mediaeval days has been expiated in similar 
fashion, and many a Christian fane owes its erection 
to an enforced penance and may be regarded as a 
votive offering. We are everywhere met by modern 
analogy to ancient pagan practice. What is the 
custom of hanging up in our cathedrals flags cap- 
tured in combat but a survival of votive offerings ? 
So large is the entire subject that one is dismayed and 
knows not where to begin. Sometimes, after the 
successful execution of a task, a workman dedicates 
at some shrine the tools with which the labour was 
accomplished. Horace tells of hanging his 
Dank and dropping weeds 
To the stern god of sea, 

and Theocritus devotes to Aphrodite the garments 
of which the shepherdess is deprived. 

Among more luxurious offerings were richly orna- 
mented craters from which the guests at Greek 
banquets were supplied with mixed wine and 
water. The shields of enemies and the dress 
pierced by the spear were hung up in temples, and 
Heracles dedicated at Delphi the spoils of the 
Amazons. Most interesting of the things dedicated 
to the heroes and the Chthonian deities are the 
reliefs, always numerous, and largely increased by 
recent discoveries. At times the hero is repre- 
sented by customary attributes, as Heracles by the 
club and the lion skin. Ordinarily he is a hand- 
some young man, seated or recumbent, and accom- 
panied by other figures, masculine or feminine. In 
the case of deities, although, as might be supposed, 
special gifts are assigned to certain gods, it is 
curious to see how large a variety of gifts might be 
dedicated to the same being, from whom also an 
undefined number of blessings might be expected. 

We have but dipped into a book of exceptional 
interest, and have selected from it almost at 
haphazard. There is not a page of the four hundred 
and more which constitute the work that does not 
supply matter interesting and often discutable. 
Mr. Rouse is commendably free from dogmatism, 

and is, indeed, singularly pioderate in statement. 
He is careful to assert that his main purpose is 
less to deal with tithes and firstfruits, important 
and interesting as these are, than to collect and 
classify the offerings which are not immediately 
perishable, and to trace so far as is possible the 
motives of the dedicator and the meaning of the 
votive act. The illustrations, which are numerous, 
add to the value of a book which scholars are 
bound to welcome. 

All's Well that End* Well: King Henry VIII. 
With Introductions and Notes by John Dennis 
and Illustrations by Byam Shaw. (Bell & Sons. ) 
Two further volumes have been added to the dainty 
" Chiswick Shakespeare" of Messrs. Bell & Sons. 
Both keep up the merits and attractions of this 
prettiest and most convenient of editions. In the 
case of the earlier play Mr. Dennis shows himself 
stricter than Hazlitt and Lamb, and declares that 
" this beautiful girl's design and its accomplish- 
ment are incompatible with womanly modesty," 
which is judging yesterday by the standard of 
to-day. We do not agree with Mr. Dennis that 
Fletcher, Shakespeare's associate in 'King Henry 
VIII. ,' is in that play a*bove his best ; but these are 
matters on which differences of opinion will always 
exist. The notes remain short and useful, and the, 
illustrations are -full of character. 

SLADEN'S London and its Leaders (Sands & Co. ) is 
a guide-book serving a purpose similar to that of 
'Who's Who,' of which Mr. Douglas Sladen was 
formerly editor. It supplies portraits of leading 
ladies of the Court, a list of hostesses, alpha- 
betical lists of the tftbility and the House of 
Commons, and, in fact, is a guide-book' to most 
that concerns the existence of the day. 

M. MAURICE MAETERLINCK, the mistrusted of 
authority, sends to the fortnightly ' The Foretelling 
of the Future,' an article in which he shows the 
consequences of an application to modern sibyls, 
prophets, and seers. Tne results that attended his 
investigations are precisely those which are to be 
expected in all cases of so-called spiritualism. There 
is revelation only of what lurks within the mind 
of some one partaking in the ceremony. In the 
instance in which, through the agency of a " seer," 
a mislaid and half -forgotten object is recovered, 
the diviner is naturally supposed to have found and 
awakened " the latent and almost animal memory 
and brought it to the human light, which it had 
vainly tried to reach." We are a little puzzled to 
find M. Maeterjinck declaring it "almost incredible 
that we should not know the future." ' With the 
Eyes of Youth,' by the late William Black, describes 
boy life in an insignificant Scotch village. It shows 
the pow.ers of observation with which that writer 
has always been credited, and is informed by the 
very spirit of boyhood. Dr. Karl Blind tells why 
Alsace-Lorraine is to remain German. In 'Some 
Phases in Fiction* Mr. Walter Sichel shows how 
great is the change from the novels of Fielding, 
Scott, Jane Austen, and Trollope to those of Miss 
Marie Corelli, Ouida; and other modern novelists. 
Many things said are sensible and just, but the 
complaint becomes a little monotonous. The same 
may be said of the second part of ' An Author at 
Grass,' edited by Mr. George Gissing. One side of 
a question is seen very clearly, and is not badly 
put. Mr. Gissing does not, however, cover the 
whole question at issue. He marvels at those 



x. AUG. 9. MOB. 

who dwell in cities when they might live in 
the country, and condemns the mingling with the 
" well millinered and tailored herd," and yet seems 
unaware that there is another view which is as de- 
fensible as that he adopts. In the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury Mr. Walter Frewen Lord undertakes the 
defence of his bigoted utterances concerning ' Monna 
Vanna.' He tells us, whether in explanation or 
apology, that he is a provincial, and spends a good 
deal of the year at Newcastle. His provenance 
does not seem to have much to do with the matter, 
and we must leave the Tynesider to declare 
how far a residence in Newcastle constitutes an 
apology for ignorance, bad .taste, and presumption. 
Mr. ^Hamilton Fyfe deals with the blunder of 
the licenser, of plays from another point of view. 
An essay on ' The Folk - lore of Horseshoes 
and Horse - shoeing,' by the late Dr. George 
Fleming, will have remarkable interest for our 
readers. Horseshoe folk - lore is more or less 
familiar to every resident in the country. The 
mediaeval legends concerning St. Eloy will be new 
to most, and are very interesting. Concerning the 
luck supposed to be involved in finding a horseshoe 
we will only add to what is given a form of com- 
plaint concerning bad fortune current in the West 
Hiding : " Lucky devil, lost a shilling and found a 
horsesnoe ! ' is the wail of a man discontented with 
or derisive of the awards of Fate. Sir Robert 
Hunter writes on ' The Reconstruction of Hainault 
Forest.' Hove slowly wisdom and foresight reach 
us is shown in the fact that the land it is now 
sought to reclaim was only disafforested half a 
century Ago. In ' Old Masters and Modern Critics ' 
Mr. Charles L. Eastlake describes the futility of 
much of what is called " art criticism." ' The Last 
Resting- Place of our Angevin Kings,' by Mr. Cecil 
Hallett, describes the vicissitudes that have befallen 
the royal tombs at Fontevrault. Mr. George D. 
Abraham depicts in the Pall Mall ' The Most 
Difficult Climbs in Britain.' To one who is himself 
no climber these seem to be sufficiently appalling 
to satisfy the wildest aspirations after danger. 
The Great Gable, Cader Idris, Snowdpn, and 
Glencoe appear to be the spots of extreme difficulty. 
Mr. Howard Cunnington's 'Our Forgotten An- 
cestors ' deals with the question of flint implements 
and the method of using them. Special attention 
is paid to the weapons, &c., found in the plateau 
gravels, which are, supposedly, of earlier date than 
those of the valley gravels. 'Marconi's Ambition,' 
by Mr. P. McGrath, is, of course, the linking 
together by wireless telegraphy of the component 
parts of Greater Britain. 'Nature Study in Lon- 
don ' describes the holiday pursuits of entomologists. 
'In Tierra del Fuegan Waters,' by Mr. W. S Bar- 
clay, is admirably illustrated. Other papers of 
interest are ' The Centenary of Alexandre Dumas,' 
' First Impressions of Parliament,' and ' The Round 
Table.' ' Lapland in Summer,' contributed to the 
Cornhill, shows great familiarity with the subject, 
and depicts very vividly a life which is likely before 
long to be a thing of the past. What is said con- 
cerning the mosquito seems to us exaggerated, but 
our experiences do not extend to Lapland proper. 
'Four Tarpauling Captains' describes the heroic 
adventures of Sir Christopher Myngs, Clowdisley 
Shovell, John Narborough, and John Benbow, all 
of them Norfolk men. The use of the term " tar- 
paulin " to characterize genuine sailors seems out 
of date so far as the general public is concerned. 
The record of the venality of our commanders in 

Stuart days is appalling. That of heroism is, fortu- 
nately, not less remarkable. 'A Page from the 
Past ' consists of selections from the pages of Jane 
Porter, the author of ' Scottish Chiefs. It gives 
pleasant sketches of Charles Kemble, with whom 
Miss Porter seems to have been in love, Thomas 
Campbell, John Braham, Sir Sidney Smith, and 
other celebrities. The cricketers' classic is ' The 
Young Cricketers' Tutor ' of John Nyren. ' Pro- 
vincial Letters,' viii., from St. Albans, brings up the 
Shakespeare-Bacon question, which it treats with 
what seems intended to be banter. 'Guernsey 
Folk-lore' in the Gentleman's is interesting. Many 
of the fairy stories told have elements of novelty. 
4 A Last Century [but one] Tourist ' is John Humf rey, 
barrister-at-law, of Killerrig, County Carlow. ' The 
Strange Story of Viscountess Beaconsfield,' by Mr. 
James Sykes, is an elaborate and very careful sum- 
ming-up of all that is known concerning the origin 
and character of that lady, who is presented to us 
under many aspects. Mr. Charles L. Eastlake sup- 
plies to Longman's, from family papers, an account 
of ' St. Sebastian after the Siege of 1813.' 'A 
Sussex Marsh,' by Mr. H. A. Bryden, is good in its 
way. There is, however, more than a little incon- 
sistency in the writer, who, after saying, concern- 
ing the snowy spoonbill, that a specimen was 
" shot, I regret to say, a few years since," calmly 
informs us that he himself shot equally rare visitors 
to our shores. Not an attractive creature is the 
self-styled " naturalist." In ' At the Sign of the 
Ship' Mr. Lang begins with studies in natural 
history, then turns to the more familiar subjects of 
ethnology and totems. The midsummer number of 
the Idler is wholly occupied with fiction, most of it 
dealing with adventure. The Playgoer has a good 
picture of Mr. Tree as Falstaff. 


We must call upecial attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

E. L. ("Though lost to sight," &c.). Your second 
supposition concerning Linley is correct. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

g s. x. AUG. 16, MOB.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 242. 

NOTES : -Ballads on the Coronation of George II., 121 
Bibliography of Dibdin's Works, 122 Bacon-Shakespeare 
Question, 124 Shakespeare, Sonnet Ixxvi., 125 Inventor 
of the Postcard" Cond " ' Sergeant Bell and his Raree- 
Show ' Themistocles aivl the Peloponnesian War, 126 
"Swindler," 127. 

QUERIES :" Livings" in the Game of Maw Charles 
Gordon, of the Chesapeake" Sithence no fairy lights " 
French Quotation Name of Book Wanted, 127 Peri- 
winkle Marjorie Fleming's Portrait Italian Bankers and 
the Holy See Greece and Gladstone" Different than " 
Freund Hein Bugle as a Signal Instrument "Gentle- 
man from Ohio" A. Hepplewhite, Cabinet-maker, 128 
Macaulay: References "Le Furmager" Dandy-cart 
Farmiloe, Whicheloe, and Swinhoe Scott and Wilkie 
Alexander MacDougall John of Gaunt at Markeaton 
Earthworks at Burpbam Episcopal College of St. Edward 
' Hertfordshire Historians,' 129. 

REPLIES : Michael Bruce and Burns, 130 Thackeray and 
Homoeopathy King's-taper Heraldic Danes in Pem- 
broke Duke of Brabant, 132 Desborough Portraits and 
Relics Green an Unlucky Colour Projection on a Saw, 
133 "Flapper" Various Lengths of the Perch" Mere- 
steads" or " Mesesteads " O and its Pronunciation, 134 
"Barracked " Byron's Bust by Bartolini Ceiling 
Inscription in Shropshire, 135 Lambrook Strariling 
"Ycleping" the Church Mallet used by Wren, 136 
Jews' Way : Jews' Gate : Jews' Lane Shakespeare v. 
Bacon Defoe, 137 Legend of Lady Alice Lea Thacke- 
ray's Residences in London " Upwards of," 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Potter's ' Sohrab and Rustem' 
Copinger's 'History of BuxhalP 'The Saga Book of the 
Viking Club ' Littledale's Dyce's 'Glossary of the Works 
of William Shakespeare ' ' Edinburgh Review." 

Notices to Correspondents. 


I HAVE in my possession a very curious 
volume, containing a collection of ballads 
and garlands printed in the earlier half of 
the eighteenth century, which was formerly 
in the library of the late Mr. James Maidment, 
and constituted lot 136 in that gentleman's sale 
in April, 1880. Amongst them is ' The French- 
men s Garland, containing Four Excellent 
New Songs,' the first two of which have 
reference to the coronation of King George II., 
of which an account was recently given by 
the author of that clever suvercherie, ' A 
Foreign View of England in the Reigns of 
George I. and George II. ' (see ' N. & O.,' 
9 th S. ix. 479). As the tracts forming the 
collection in question are all extremely rare, 
if not unique, I will venture to transcribe 
the two Coronation ballads in the hope that 
' N. & Q.' may be able to find room for them. 
I have omitted the last stanza of the second 
ballad, for reasons which the students of the 
popular literature of that day will recognize. 


There was three Frenchmen came over from France 

To England, for their own Pleasure, 
As well as to see King George the Second crown'd, 
And with them they brought Store of Treasure ; 
Good Money and Rings, and other fine Things ; 

But was mad and full of Vexation, 
For th' People was so throng, they could not pass 

To see our King's Coronation. 

But when that they to Westminster were come, 

O the Frenchmen did stare and wonder 
For to see how the Coaches and Horses did fly 

Like Storms of Lightning and Thunder, 
With the Bells they did ring, and the English did 

With Joy and Acclamations, 
They huff'd the French Dons, and bad them begone, 

For this was the King's Coronation. 

Beggar, says the Frenchmen, what do you mean ? 

We lately have come over, 
From Calice I came but the other Day, 

And last Night I landed at Dover ; 
Me bro't over Store of Gold, therefore be not ao 

To us in your English Nation ; 
For, Beggar, if you do, we will make you to rue 

Altho tis the King's Coronation. 

Then the Sharpers they, did hasten straightway 

For to bite them of all their Treasure, 
For one shew'd them*^iere, and another shew'd 

Till they bit them of all at Leisure ; 
Beggar, says one, when he found his Money gone, 

Be this your English Fashion, 
We will never come more unto the British Shore 

For to see the King's Coronation. 

Then the other two, did cry out Morbleu, 

And was in a Devilish Passion, 
And said all their Money from them was ta'en 

Which was to them a sad Vexation. 
Then, Beggar, says one, come let us be gone, 

If this be English Fashion, 
Me will ne'er come more unto the British Shore 

For to see the King's Coronation. 

But as they in the Height of their Fury were, 

A Welshman'he ran up to them, 
And looked round about, and thus he replied, 

What is the Matter with the Frenchmen ? 
But th' Frenchmen turn'd strai't, and knock'd him 
on the Pate, 

As they did beat him and bang him, 
They said their Money was gone, and he was the 

So they all three cried, Let 's hang him. 

But the Welshman he, fell on his bare Knee, 

And to them he did stammer and splutter, 
And said his Pocket was also well piclct 

Of Forty Shillings or better ; 
So Gad splutter hur Nails, hur will run into Wales, 

And will ne'er come out of hur Nation, 
For the De'il take me, if e'er I come to see, 

Any more of their King's Coronation. 



[9 th S. X. AUG. 16, 1902. 

Well met, my dear Doll, I wish you a good Morn, 
Where have you been, I han't seen you so long? 
I Ve sought all the Plains and the Groves all around. 
John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

There did I see the brave Dukes and Lords, 
And the best of the Nobles all England affords, 
Some had Stars on their Sides, some in Scarlet 

John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

There did I see the fine Canopy bright, 
With Gold and good Lace, fit to dazzle your Sight, 
Held up by twelve Noblemen in their fine Gowns. 
John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

There did I see the fine Coronation Chair 
All cover'd with Velvet so costly and rare, 
With a fine Satin Cushion, well stufFd full of Down. 
John, I've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury stood on hia right 


The Archbishop of York he the Bible did guide ; 
When the King kiss'd the Book, the Trumpets did 

John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

There I See the King's Champion a Challenge 


In Armour on Horseback, with Sword in his Hand. 
There was all the 12 Judges, with chains and red 

John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 

There was Scaffolds on both sides of Westminster 


There was Sharpers and Biters, the Devil and all ; 
There some lost their Watches, and others them 

John, I 've been at London to see the King crown'd. 




(Continued from 9 ih S. ix. 423.) 

1788. The Musical Tour of M r Dibdin ; in which, 
previous to his embarkation for India, he 
finished his career as a public character. "There 
was a grain of sand that lamented itself as the most 
unfortunate atom upon the face of the universe ; 
but, in process of time, it became a diamond ! " 
Readings and Music. Sheffield: Printed for the 
Author by J. Gales, and sold by all the Booksellers 
throughout the Kingdom. M, DCC, LXXXVIII. 

4to, pp. 6 (unnumbered, containing title, 
dedication to Prince of Wales, and "Adver- 
tisement "), iv (list of subscribers), 443. 
Directions to binder on 444. Pp. 174 and 175 
are numbered 168 and 169, 210 as 110, 220 as 
208, 262 as 261 : 294 has the 2 reversed, 300 
as 330, 309 as 307, and from the latter num- 
ber the pages run on to 338; after 338 the 
next are 335, 336, &c.; 378 is numbered as 
178. There are, therefore, six pages more than 
the pagination indicates, besides fifteen leaves 
containing seven engraved songs. The text 
consists of 107 letters addressed to various 

correspondents, the first dated Hereford. 
16 August, 1787 ; the last, London, 1 May, 
1788. The dates are not always accurate. 
The volume contains a full account of Dib- 
din's first musical tour, a description of the 
Entertainment, with some of the music, and a 
list of eighty-six works produced by him at 
the theatres, &c. The "advertisement" states 
that the first edition consisted of 600 copies, 
and that a second edition was being printed 
in London. I have not seen or heard of a 
copy of this. 

Up to this point 1 have not referred to 
individual songs in operas, pantomimes, Ac., 
but here, and in following entertainments, 
I shall set down a list of the songs (titles or 
first lines) introduced by Dibdin, with such 
particulars as may seem desirable. In this 
entertainment forty-eight songs were used 
(not all on any one evening), the majority 
taken from previous plays. I number them 
in the order in which Dibdin mentions them, 
but they are rearranged so as to show source, 
&c. Those of which the music is given in the 
' Tour ' are Nos. 1, 2, 11, 13, 18, 36, and 47. It 
is probably published there for the first time, 
although two of the pieces are from ' Reason- 
able Animals ' (see under ' Pasquin's Budget,' 
1780). The song ' Little Ben ' (afterwards in 
' The Wags ') was also used at some of the 
later performances. 

1. Probably written for the ' Tour.' 

1. You must begin Pomposo (music). 

2. When impell'd by my fortune new worlds to 
explore (music). 

4. That all the world is up in arms. 

6. Fait, honey, in Ireland, I 'd find out a flaw. 

8. At the sound of the horn, we rise in the morn. 

11. I thought we were fiddle and bow (music). 

12. Sweet ditties would my Patty sing. 
16. Spirits of distress, of ev'ry occupation. 
24. Quaco Bungy go about. 

33. I've made to marches Mars descend. 

34. Do but thy recollection jog. 

35. No more of winds and waves the sport. 

36. When last from the Straits we had fairly cast 
anchor (music). 

37. Recit. To peep or not to peep 's the question. 

46. Ye jobbers, underwriters, ye tribes of pen 
and ink. 

47. But thou, O Hope, with eyes so fair. Words 
by Collins (music). 

48. Lawyers pay you with words. 

Of these Nos. 6 and 16 were afterwards 
used in 'The Whim of the Moment,' No. 35 in 
'Will o' the Wisp,' and No. 48 in 'The Coali- 
tion' and 'Nature in Nubibus.' 

2. From ' The Quaker' (1775). 
39. Thou man of firmness, turn this way. 

3. From ' The Wires Revenged' (1778). 
10. Curtis was old Hodge's wife. 

9<s.x.AuG.i6,i902.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


4. From 'Plymouth in an Uproar ' (1779). 

20. We on the present hour relying. 

5. From ' The Chelsea Pensioner' (1779). 
45. Sing the loves of John and Jean. 
6. From ' The Shepherdess of the Alps' (1780). 
9. Oh men, what silly things you are." 
14. Bright gems that twinkle from afar. 
7. From ' The Islanders ' (1780). 

25. Poor Orra tink of Yanko dear. 

26. When Yanko dear fight far away. 

8. From 'Reasonable Animals' (1780). 
13. I sing of a war set on foot for a toy (music). 

18. I sing Ulysses and those chiefs (music). 

21. Recit. What beast art thou, my good friend, 
Hard-Phiz ? Air. By roguery 'tis true, I opulent 

22. Recit. This asthma gives me such a dizziness. 
Air. For dainties I've had of thf.m all. 

23. Recit. What's this, a Bull! oy the ghost of 
Priam. Air. Is't my story you'd know? I was 
Patrick Mulrooney. 

9. From ' Tom Thumb ' (1784). 

19. 1 '11 tell you a story, a story that's true. 

30. Is it little Tom Thumb dat you mean ? 

40. In Paris as in London. 

41. Behold the fairies' jocund band. 

43. Chairs to mend, old chairs to mend. 

44. A tinker I am, my name's Natty Sam. 

10. From ' Clump and Cudden ' (1785). * 

42. This then my lad 'a a soldier's life. 

11. From ' The Benevolent Tar ' (1785). 
5. A plague of those musty old lubbers. 

17. A sailor's love is void of art. 

27. What argufies pride and ambition ? 

12. From ' Pandora' (?). 
38. What a pity 'twill be, odds babies and lambs. 

13. From 'Liberty Hall' (1785). 

3. Who to my wounds a balm advises. 

7. Jack Ratlin was the ablest seaman. 

16. See the course throng'd with gazers. 

28. Recit. Curate Ap Hugh, driving a triple trade. 
Air. Was Winny kind to me. 

29. Recit. Now changing, the transition quick as 
re. Air. Do salmons love a lucid stream ? 

31. When fairies are lighted by night's silver 

14. From ' Harvest Home' (1786). 

32. As Dermot toil'd one summer's day. 

The following songs (and probably others) 
were published in folio by Preston. I give 
the titles, with numbers for reference : 

1. Pomposo. Composed by Mr. Dibdin. and sung 
by him with the greatest applause at his late Read- 
ings and Music. 4 pp. Pr. Is. " Where may be 
had all the songs sung in the above entertainment." 

5. Nothing like Grog at his late readings at 

Bath, Bristol, Worcester, Oxford, &c. 3 pp., front 
blank. Pr. I/. With arrang' for trie German Flute. 

16. Spirits of Distress 3 pp., front blank. 

Pr. 6d. Arrt. for Ger. Flute. 

17. Lovely Polly. A favorite song. Written, 
composed, and sung by Mr. Dibdin. 3 pp., front 
blame. Pr. Is. Arr. for Guittar and German Flute. 

36. Bonny Kitty. Similar heading to No. 1. 
Pr. tid. 3 pp., front blank. Arr. for Ger. Flute. 

48. Lawyers pay you with words 3 pp., front 

blank. Arr. for Ger. Flute or Guittar. Pr. 6d. 

1789. Twelve Songs in The Whim of the Moment 
or Nature in Little Written, Composed, -Sung, & 
Accompanied, by Mr. Dibdin. Price 10s: 6d. 
Printed for the Author & Sold by him in St. George's 
Fields, Messrs. Preston & Son, No. 97 Strand, & all 
the Music Sellers in Town & Country. Folio, pp. ij, 
36 ; ij, and 1 blank. 

This is the only instance known to me of the 
songs from one of Dibdin's Table Entertain- 
ments published with a general title and con- 
secutive pagination. The titles of the songs 
it contains are as follows : 

1. Wives and Sweethearts, p. 2. 

2. The Mellow Toned Horn, p. 5. 

3. Pleasure the result of reflection, p. 8. 

4. The Lassy of my heart, p. 10. 

5. Poor Jack, p. 13. 

6. The Soldier's Grave, p. 16. 

7. The Triumph of Wine, p. 18. 

8. The Sailor's Sheet Anchor, p. 20. 

9. The Voice of Nature, p 24. 

10. The Jolly Fisherman, p. 27. 

11. Indian Battle, p. 30. 

12. Homer and I, p. 34. 

The following songs seem also to have been 
used in the Entertainment, which was first- 
performed 23 January, 1789 : 

1. Probably written for it. 

13. Little Neddy. 

14. The World's Epitome. 

15. Colin and Chloe. 

16. The Bumpkin in Town (or ' The Bumpkin no 
Fool'). * 

17. I don't believe a word on 't. 

18. The Return of Ulysses to Ithica [sic]. 

2. From ' The Islanders. 

19. Come round me and weep. 

3. From ' Tom Thumb.' 

20. The Fairy Train. 

4. From ' Long Odds. 

21. I vow I thought you at first sight. 

22. 'Tis true the marks. 

23. The Lady of Ton. 

5. From the Musical Tour Entertainment. 

24. The Incantation (" Spirits of distress," No. 16) t 

25. Fait, honey, in Ireland (No. 6). 

26. "The Character of Hope" (probably No. 47, 
" But thou, O Hope " 

6. Afterwards in ' The Oddities. 

27. The Portrait. 

7. Uncertain, but most likely produced 1789. 

28. A Linnet's Nest. 

29. My .Poll and Partner JOQ. 

The separate sheet songs (all folio) were 
probably first published in the same manner 
as the set of twelve, although I only know of 
two with author as publisher, viz. : 

16. The Bumpkin no Fool. 2 pp. Signed. No 
price stated. 

23. The Lady of Ton. 2 pp. Signed. No price 

It is probable Dibdin soon discontinued 
this first attempt as music publisher, for 
Preston & Son were sole publishers, e.g., of 



. x. A. IG, 1902. 

the following, each described as "a Favorite 
song in the Whim of the Moment " : 

5. Poor Jack. 4 pp. Price Is. ; arrangement for 
German Flute. 

15. Colin and Chloe. 2pp. Price Qd. 

18. The Return of Ulysses to Ithica [aic]. 2 pp. 
Price 6d. For Ger. Flute. 

The following, also published by Preston & 
Son, are described as " Written, Composed 
and Sung by Mr. Dibdin at the Lyceum ": 

I. Wives and Sweethearts, or Saturday Night. 
4 pp. Price Is. Arrt. for Guittar. 

6. The Chelsea Pensioner, "a celebrated Song" 
(i.e , The Soldier's Grave). 3 pp. Price Is. Arr. 
for German Flute or Guittar. 

Another copy, price 6d. 

9. The Voice of Nature. "An admired Indian 
Song." 3 pp. Price Qd. Arr. for German Flute. 

10. The Jolly Fisherman, " a favorite song." 
3 pp. Price Qd. 

II. The celebrated Indian Battle. 4 pp. Price Is. 

None of these are signed ; neither are the 
following, which are printed by Longman 
& Broderip, No. 26, Cheapside, and No. 13, 

28. A Linnet's Nest with anxious care. A Favorite 
Ballad. Composed and Sung at the Lyceum in the 
Strand, by Charles Dibdin. Enter'd at Stationers 
Hall. Pr. Is. 4 pp. Scored for violins, oboes, 
horns and basso. Also arranget. for Guitar. 

29. I was, d'ye see, a Waterman [My Poll and Part- 
ner Joe]. A favorite Ballad Composed, &c., as 
above, but in short score. Also arr* for Guitar. 

Other early folio editions of separate songs : 

5. The new Song of Poor Jack. Composed by 
Dibdin. 1 p. Dublin, published by John Lee. 

5. Poor Jack. Dibdin. Price &d. London, Printed 
& sold by Dale, 19 Cornhill, &c. (from Dale's 9th 
book of songs). 2 pp. 

5. Poor Jack. Composed by C. Dibdin. Pr. In. 
2 pp. Printed & sold by H. Andrews, No. 11 Little 
Canterbury Place, Lambeth Walk. 

1. Wives and Sweethearts. Written and Com- 
posed by C. Dibdin. Price la. 2 pp. No publisher's 
name. Water-mark date 1803. 

29. I was d'ye see a Waterman. A Favorite song, 
Composed by Mr- Dibdin. For the Piano Forte. 
Price Is. 2 pp. London, Printed for G. Walker, 
106, Great Portland Street. 

Several of the songs in this entertainment 
have appended arrangements for German 
flute or guitar. Some of them were published 
in 'The Bystander,' 1789, q.v. 

Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. 
(To be continued.) 


(Continued from p. 44-) 

UP to the present I have made but little 
attempt to illustrate passages in Bacon by 
others in Ben Jonson, and I have deliberately 
refrained from doing so, it having been 
my object to show that the 'Promus' notes 

and other matter adduced by Baconians can 
be paralleled out of the work of all writers of 
the period or previously. There is little or 
nothing that is new in the ' Promus ' ; and 
the vocabulary, phrasing, and learning dis- 
played in Shakespeare's work are common- 
place. The examples that I dealt with, except 
in one or two cases, were chosen because of 
their supposed difficulty ; and almost in- 
variably they prove not only that Shake- 
speare was not necessarily a Latin and Greek 
scholar, but that the Baconians had not 
mastered Bacon's own work. That is a 
point worth remembering. These men, who 
pretend to know so much about their master's 
work, are apparently wilfully ignorant of 
vital matters with which they should be 
acquainted ; and they either do not know or 
pretend not to know that Bacon's notes and 
other matter which they adduce to dethrone 
Shakespeare are commonplaces. If they had 
honestly worked the ' Promus ' with other 
writers, such as John Lyly, Robert Greene, 
Beaumont and Fletcher, or with any other 
authors who produced work equal in volume 
to -that of Shakespeare, they would have 
known that the work of Mrs. Pott is a huge 
joke, and that the attempt to filch Shake- 
speare's work from him is a task beyond 
their strength. The manner in which Shake- 
speare is made to furnish parallels for the 
'Promus' is sometimes highly diverting ; as, 
for instance, when we find the same passage 
at one time doing duty as an English pro- 
verb, then as an allusion to a Bible sentence, 
next as an adaptation of Ovid, and, finally, 
grinning under a French proverb. That kind 
of thing very frequently occurs in Mrs. Pott's 
work, which is full of gross inaccuracies and 
wild assertions. However, I saw it would 
never do to let the chance of a complete 
answer to the Baconian case slip by, and 
therefore, as Mrs. Pott had taken the trouble 
to illustrate the 'Promus' by copious extracts 
from Shakespeare, I thought - it would be 
wise to follow suit by showing that other 
men's work was equally, or even more, fruit- 
ful of parallels ; and as the entries are 
nearly all commonplaces, the task, although 
laborious, was not difficult of achievement. 
I tried Marlowe, Spenser, Lyly, and Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, and found they were all 
strong " Baconians "; but finally I selected 
Ben Jonson, not because he used or paralleled 
the ' Promus ' entries more frequently than 
others, but because he was a close student of 
Bacon and copied from him. The Baconian 
case is centred in the assertion that the repe- 
titions in Bacon and Shakespeare are not 
commonplaces ; and that the learning they 

9* s. x. AUG. IB, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


display proves not only that the plays and 
poems are by a profound Greek and Latin 
scholar, but that tnat scholar must have been 
Bacon. Ben Jonson is constantly mentioned 
by them as one whose work is in striking 
contrast to that of Shakespeare, and Mrs. 
Pott could hardly find a single line in his 
work to parallel any of the ' Promus ' entries. 
Well, let readers judge for themselves. The 
work of Ben Jonson is that of a man who 
was steeped to the lips in classical authors ; 
consequently we shall find him repeating the 
learning of Bacon with a literalism that is 
almost painfully different from Shakespeare, 
whose knowledge of the classics was derived 
almost entirely through English channels. 
Once or twice only does Shakespeare happen 
to bring into his plays Latin tags noted by 
Bacon, although they can be found by the 
score in others ; but in Ben Jonson they 
abound, and not unfrequently in a context 
that is manifestly stolen from Bacon. 

There is no evidence to prove conclusively 
that Bacon and Shakespeare ever met, or 
were acquainted with each other. But the 
case of Ben Jonson is different. Jonson 
at one time acted as a kind of secretary 
to Bacon, and translated, or assisted to 
translate, his essays into Latin. Jonson's 
'Discoveries,' moreover, prove that he had 
often been in Bacon's company. The fact 
that Bacon and Jonson were known to each 
other is not disputed ; but it is not known, 
even by those who are most versed in 
Bacon's work, that certain entries in the 
' Promus ' have a direct relation to Ben 
Jonson's masques and plays. I will deal 
with these entries in the proper place. All 
I urge now is that if parallels can be used to 
filch from a man the work that was uni- 
versally assigned to him by contemporaries 
if we must ignore all tradition, and the voice 
of a cloud of witnesses if gross and palpable 
differences in the style of writers are to count 
for nothing then Shakespeare must be 
thrown overboard by the Baconians, and 
they must elect Ben Jonson in his place, 
because Jonson repeats Bacon much more 
nearly than Shakespeare does, and because, 
on their own showing, the writer of the 
Jonson plays is a different man from the 
writer of the Shakespeare plays and poems. 
Shakespeare does not and cannot be made to 
illustrate many of the 'Promus' entries in 
the way that Bacon and Jonson illustrate 

kthem ; and the ludicrous manner in which 
Mrs. Pott essayed the task only serves to 
show that it is an easy matter to prove by 
such parallels that Bacon must have written 
everything that had been penned up to- his 

time, including the Bible, and not forgetting 
that portion of it which' is entitled the Book 
of Judges. For it is a truth, and one that 
we should ponder over when we begin to 
flatter ourselves and imagine what clever 
people we are, that the range of our thoughts 
is extremely limited, and that the number of 
essentially different ideas that man is capable 
of expressing or of cogitating in his mind 
is on about a par with the number of 
the letters in the alphabet. These ideas, 
like the letters of the alphabet, which can 
be made to represent all sounds and all 
knowledge, are simply capable of being 
expanded and varied by an infinite number 
of combinations ; yet, when all is said, it 
comes to this, that the greatest of the philo- 
sophers and the most lofty of the poets 
cannot express a thought which cannot be 
paralleled out of the crude notions of the 
ignorant ploughman. It is, therefore, easy 
to explain why Shakespeare can be made to 
illustrate, with more or less faithfulness, the 
things which Bacon noted in his ' Promus,' 
or which have been brought from his prose 
works. Mrs. Pott thinks it a legitimate thing 
to parallel a Greek saying with a time-worn 
English proverb, or a Bible sentence with a 
bit of Ovid or of Virgil which Shakespeare 
caught up from son^ English writer, and to 
use the same passage many times over and 
under various headings which only agree in 
containing the same notion in a more or less 
crude form. I say again, if one is to decide 
on parallels of that land, then Bacon must 
have written everything that had been 
written up to his time and during the time 
that he lived. Is it any wonder, then, that 
the critics who work upon such a plan as 
that, and who, just as the ostrich when it sees 
an enemy buries its head in the sand, refuse 
to read or who ignore the writings of all other 
men because they would convict them, con- 
fining their reading to Shakespeare and Bacon 
is it any wonder that they are able to pre- 
sent a specious case against Shakespeare and 
to impose on men who either have not the time 
or lack the critical faculty to see through 
their false and preposterous resemblances ? 
Bacon calls that kind of work legerdemain, 
and he compares it to the tricks of tumblers, 
who only thrive until their tricks are known. 

53, Hampden Road, Hornsey, N. 
(To be continued.) 

In Judge Webb's recent book 'The Mystery 
of William Shakespeare ' there is one special 
argument against the ordinarily received 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. x. A. IG, 1902. 

authorship based on Sonnet Ixxvi., to which 
the learned judge frequently recurs. He says 
,p. 156): 

" The author of the Sonnets, admittedly, was the 
Author of the Poems and the Plays, and the whole 
Shakespearian question would seem to resolve 
itself into the question, who was the author of the 

Sonnets? The author could not have been Shake- 

spere. If he kept Invention he did not keep it in 
a noted weed. He had no reason to conceal his 

Judge Webb again quotes the line about 
invention at p. 162. At p. 64, after quoting 
the sonnet, he says : " Here the author 
certainly intimates that Shakespeare was 
not his real name, and that he was fearful 
lest his real name should be discovered." 

Again (p. 264), writing of this sonnet, he 
speaks of "the sonnet which warned the 
public that Shakespeare was not the real 
name of the author, but the noted weed in 
which he kept Invention." See also p. 65. 

But does the author of the sonnet really 
endeavour to conceal his name? What are 
the lines relied on ? 

Why write I still all one, ever the same, 
Andl keep invention in a noted weed, 
That every word doth almost tell my name, 
Showing their birth, and where they did proceed ? 
O know, sweet love, I always write of you. 

Here I think the ordinary reader would 
attribute to the words no other meaning 
than that the poet ever wrote to the same 
purpose, ever (as he says) kept his poetry 
dressed in the same well-known dress : 

O know, sweet love, I always write of you, 
And you and love are still my argument. 

It follows that the person addressed could 
recognize the author as plainly as if the 
sonnet had been signed William Shakespeare. 
In Sonnets cxxxv., cxxxvi., and cxliii. 
the poet, so far from concealing his name, 
plays on it again and again. Now why 
Francis Bacon should write three sonnets 
punning on a name by which (on the Baconian 
hypothesis) the person addressed can never 
have known him or, indeed, any one else 
for that matter remains altogether un- 
explained. W. E. ORMSBY. 

Emanl. Hermann, Councillor of the Austrian 
Ministry of Commerce, to whom is ascribed 
the invention of the postcard, died in Vienna 
14 July, at the age of sixty-three. Dr. Her- 
mann first suggested the idea of the postcard 
in an article which appeared in the Neue 
Freie Presse in 1869, and his suggestion was 
carried into effect by the Austrian post office 
almost immediately. The price was two 
kreutzers, which is less than a halfpenny, and 

the communication on the card was restricted 
to twenty words ; but this limitation was 
soon dropped. Germany was, I believe, the 
next country to adopt the postcard, after 
which it very soon became universal. 


"CoND." The 'N.E.D.' gives the verb cond 
in the senses of "to conduct, to direct the 
helmsman how to steer a ship." I do not, 
however, find the noun cond, which in the 
passage below seems to mean " the place from 
which orders are given for the steering of a 
ship ":- 

1766. " Such, for example, as the ship that came 
in one night from the Cfape of Good Hope plump 
into the harbor of Goa, a distance of some thousands 
of miles, the devil holding the helm, and the Virgin 
Mary at the cond, in quality of quarter-master. - 
Grose, ' A Voyage to the East Indies,' new edition, 
2 vols., ii. 170. 


[Dr. Murray gives the word under con, conn, but 
the earliest quotation is 1825.] 

Sotheby's sale catalogue for 22 July includes 
the following item : 

"[Dickens (C.)] Sergeant Bell and his Raree- 
Show, embellished with woodcuts by Cruikshank, 
Thompson, Williams, &c. Tegg, 1839." 

The book was, I believe, written by George 
Mogridge, a voluminous writer for the young, 
and one of those who " borrowed " the pseu- 
donym of " Peter Parley " from the American 
Goodrich, who first made it famous. The 
association of Dickens's name with it is surely 
a cataloguer's mistake. If not, I should be 
glad to learn the extent of the novelist's 
connexion with a book so widely different from 
his usual work. By the way, the ' D.N.B.' 
(vol. xxxvi. p. 302) gives 1842 as the date of 
publication. WALTER JERROLD. 


FLEET. There is a curious slip in Mr. Bury's 
truly admirable 'History or Greece,' with 
reference to which a few words may be of 
interest. It is at the bottom of p. 326 
(ed. 1900), where we read : 

"The activity of Themistocles in defeating the 
designs of Sparta at this period is reflected in the 
story that he induced the Athenians to set fire to 
the Peloponnesian fleet in Thessalian waters." 

In Latin there are separate verbs (suadeo 
and persuadeo) for endeavouring to persuade 
others to do anything and for actually 
succeeding in such endeavour, but in English 
persuade can only mean the latter, and for 
the former we are obliged to use three words, 
" try to persuade." In like manner to induce 
is to lead or prevail upon a person to do a 

9* s.x. A. 16, M02.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


certain thing, and cannot mean only to try 
to produce that effect. Now we are all 
familiar with the famous story told in two 
places in Plutarch (under Themistocles and 
Aristides) that Themistocles proposed to 
the Athenians a scheme for securing their 
supremacy, but was ordered to refer it to 
Aristides, and he reporting that it was 
advantageous but unjust, it was rejected 
without being explained ; and that it con- 
sisted in burning the whole of the confederate 
fleet except the Athenian portion. Lang- 
horne, in his translation of the life of 
Themistocles, without stopping to consider 
whether the story could be true or indeed 
possible (for the confederates would scarcely 
stand by and see all their ships destroyed 
without resistance), indulges in a note on the 
enormity of the scheme, prompted by a 
" policy which was diabolical." Kollin uses 
similar language. It may be worth while 
to refer to Grote's note (vol. iv. p. 293) on 
this story, which owes its wide circulation 
to the popularity of Plutarch. Grote says 

"some allusion to it was necessary, though it has 

long ceased to be received as matter of history 

Pagasse was Thessalian, and as such hostile to the 
Greek fleet rather than otherwise ; the fleet seems 
to have never been there ; moreover we may add 
that, taking matters as they then stood, when the 
fear from Persia was not at all terminated, the 
Athenians would have lost more than they gained 
by burning the ships of the other Greeks, so that 
Themistocles was not very likely to conceive the 
scheme, nor Aristides to describe it in the language 
put into his mouth. The story is probably the 
invention of some Greek of the Platonic age, who 
wished to contrast justice with expediency, and 
Aristides with Themistocles as well as to bestow 
at the same time panegyric upon Athens in the 
days of her glory." 

But what I am pointing out now is that 
the expression in Mr. Bury's reference to the 
story implies that the imaginary and nefarious 
scheme was not merely proposed, but actually 
carried out " that he induced the Athenians 
to set fire to the Peloponnesian fleet in 
Thessalian waters." W. T. LYNN. 


" SWINDLER." This has been regarded by 
Prof. Skeat and others as one of our few loan- 
words from the German viz., Schwindler. It 
should be noted, however, that the Germans 
themselves consider their Schwindler to be an 
adaptation of the English swindler, intro- 
duced by Lichtenberg in his explanation of 
Hogarth's engravings (1794-99). See Dr. 
H. Dunger, 'Englanderie in der deutsche 
Sprache,' 1899, p. 7. It is not easy to see 
what is the original meaning of the word, 
whether it is (from A.-S. swindan, to vanish) 

one who vanishes or cuts away with his 
booty, or one who dazzles or deceives the 
eyes of his victim, like a thimble-rigger, by 
assimilation to Ger. Kfatwndeln, to be dizzy. 
S. Woodford. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

is the meaning of the term livings in the 
following extracts from ' The Groome- porters 
lawes at Ma we ' (about 1570), in ' Collection of 
Black-Letter Ballads and Broadsides' (1867), 
pp. 124-5? 

"If you turne vp the ace of hartes, and thereby 
make either par tie aboue xxvj, the contrary part 
must haue liuings ; but if the contrary parte bee 
xxv, by meanes whereof liuings sets them out, then* 
is he who turned vp the ace of hartes to make for 
the set." 

" You may not aske a carde to set the contrary 
parte or your selfe at liuings or out. 

" Prouided alwaies that, if the contrarie parte be 
xxiij or aboue, by reason that fower sets the other 
partie behinde the liuirfi^es, it shalbe lawfull for the 
partie which is behinde to aske a carde,' although 
the carde so asked piit the other to liuings." 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

To what family did Charles Gordon, of the 
U.S. warship Chesapeake, belong] He was 
tried with the captain, James Barron, for 
surrendering to H.M.S. Leopard, 1808. 


118, Pall Mall. 

reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me the name of the 
author of the following lines, which are 
quoted by Hazlitt in his essay on Jeffre*y 
'Spirit of the Age,' 1825, p. 307? 

Sithence no fairy lights, no quickning ray, 
Nor stir of pulse, nor object to entice 
Abroad the spirits ; but the cloister'd heart 
Sits squat at home, like Pagod in a niche 

141, Ebury Street, S.W. 

FRENCH QUOTATION. "Beaucoup de per- 
sonnes voudraient savoir, mais peu desirent 
apprendre." Whence does this come? 


NAME OF BOOK WANTED. Could you or 
any of your readers tell me the name or title 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. x. AUG. ie, im 

of a novel published about forty-five years 
ago containing a very excellent description 
of Gwrych Castle, near Abergele ? 


PERIWINKLE. Can any one throw light on 
the following early uses of this word ? 

1. En a poem preserved in Harl. MS. 2253, 
fol. 63, it is said : 

The priraerole he passeth, the parvenke of pria : 
i.e , the pretty precious periwinkle, "of pris" 
being merely added in .alliteration. Not so in 

2. 'Sir Degrevant,' 1. 730 ('Thornton 
Romances,' Camden Society) : 

Corteys lady and wyse, 
As thou art pervenke of pryse, 
1 do me on tni gentryse, 
Why wolt thou me spyll ? 

Where "pervenke of pryse" must certainly 
mean " supreme," " paragon of excellence." 
But it is strange to find the periwinkle 
chosen as an image for this. I would compare 
an entry in Godefroy's ' O.F. Diet.' : 

3. " Pervenke, semble signifier qui surpasse tous 
les autres : 

De tous vins ce est le pervenke. 

Jofroi de Watreford, Richel., 1822." 

On the other hand, I find the flower spoken 
of as symbol of dishonour. 

4. John Lydgate, Bochas's ' Fall of Princes,' 
vi. 1 : 

Thou hast 

Crowned one with laurer hye on hys head set ; 
Other with perwinke made for the gybet. 

Whence comes this association with the 
gibbet ? 

5. In a will, dated 1501 (Somerset House), 
William Hylle bequeaths " ij of my goblettes 
of pirwyncles." Can some precious stone be 
here meant ? 

6. In Purchas's ' Pilgrims,' ix. xii. 4 : 
"The Manamotaha and his subjects weare 
a white periwinkle in the forehead for a 
Jewell, fastened in the haire." Here "Jewell" 
may mean nothing more than "ornament," 
and the flower may be meant, but by com- 
parison with the preceding extract one is led 
to think of a precious stone. 

I find nothing in the Indices of ' N. & Q.' 


one kindly inform me whether the portrait, 
taken by her sister, of Marjorie Fleming has 
been reproduced or published ; if so, where it 
is obtainable 1 The pictures in my edition of 
the book do not pretend to be genuine por- 
traits of the little maid, I believe, but simply 
pretty and fanciful sketches. 



I shall be grateful to any reader who 
has a copy of the fifth volume of the 

'Compte rendu du 3 me Congres des Catho- 

liques a Bruxelles, 1894,' if he will lend it to 
me for a few days. I am anxious to read 
Jordan's article on this subject, and cannot 
find the book in the Britisn Museum or the 
Bodleian. ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

GREECE AND GLADSTONE. Can any of your 
readers refer me to some satirical lines written 
about fifteen years ago, when an offer was 
made by Hellas (Greece) to send marble for a 
monument to Gladstone in London 1 

W. R. S. 

[.The lines in question, with the authorship of 
which we are acquainted, have not been printed. 
If you will give us your full address we will send 
them to you direct.] 

" DIFFERENT THAN." In Truth of 3 July I 
read : " Future generations will undoubtedly 
consider Mr. Swinburne's poetry in a different 
light than the present one does." Is it good 
grammar to say " different than " \ I observe 
a similar use made of the words in the City 
article of the Birmingham Daily Post of 
13 July. YOUNGSTER. 

[The entire sentence is inaccurate and inelegant.] 

FREUND HEIN. In what German folk-tale 
or folk-tales is death personified under the 
name of " Freund Hein " ? T.R.E.N.T. 

did the bugle take the place of the drum as 
a signal instrument in the army ? 


Royal Institution, Hull. 

Greenpugh and G. L. Kittredge (Harvard) 
write in ' Words and their Ways in English 
Speech ' : 

"Among some savages, it is a deadly insult to call 
a man by his right name an idea which has left its 
traces in the parliamentary phrase ' the gentle- 
man from Ohio.' " 

What are the origin and meaning of this 
phrase? J- J- F. 


Can any reader tell me what is known 
of A. Hepplewhite, who in 1788 published 
a book called 'The Cabinet - Maker and 
Upholsterer's Guide,' by Hepplewhite & Co., 
and contributed a few plates to the ' Cabinet- 
Maker's Book of Prices,' 1788? I want to 
know when Hepplewhite was born, when he 
died, where he lived, and if he was himself 

9* s. x. AUG. 16, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a maker of furniture. I have searched all 
the best-known books on cabinet - making, 
and find that nothing is known of Hepple- 
white by the writers of these books. I am, 
therefore, very anxious, for biographical 
purposes, to know if any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
has any personal information on the subject. 

24, Ladbroke Square, W. 


" One lively poet proposed that the great acts 
of the fair Marian's present husband should be 
immortalized by the pencil of his predecessor ; and 
that Imhoff should be employed to embellish the 
House of Commons with paintings of the bleeding 
Rohillas, of Nuncomar swinging, of Cheyte Sing 
letting himself down to the Ganges. Another, in 
an exquisitely humorous parody of Virgil's third 
eclogue, propounded the question what that mineral 
could be of which the rays had power to make 
the most austere of princesses the friend of a 
wanton." Macaulay, 'Essay on Warren Hastings.' 

Can any one give me the reference to these 
poems? F. C. M. 

" LE FURMAGER." In ancient Bristol days 
several of the citizens, and a certain number 
of Jews likewise, are found distinguished 
with this qualification, meaning, I apprehend, 
cheesemonger or cheese factor. Was Bristol 
ever noted for its cheese industry 1 


[Several persons named Le Furmager occur, 1277- 
1410, in Dr. R. R. Sharpe's 'Calendar of Wills 
proved in the Court of Huating.'] 

DANDY-CART. In the 'New English Dic- 
tionary ' a " dandy-cart " is defined as a kind 
of spring- cart used by milkmen, &c., and the 
earliest illustration which the editor can give 
of the employment of the word is taken from 
Ramsay's ' Reminiscences,' 1861. In the north 
of England the "dandy-cart" was a low truck 
used on the old railroads and waggon ways in 
the days of horse-traction. On arriving at an 
inclined plane the horse was unhitched, and, 
letting the waggons which he had been drag- 
ging run past him, trotted behind, jumped 
on the low truck, and rode down the bank. 
The earliest reference I have to the use of the 
word is dated 31 August, 1831, and appears 
in a report to the directors of the Stockton 
and Darlington Railway, which states that 
a driver named Thos. Anderson left his horse 
and got into the " dandy-cart " belonging to 
a set of waggons going up the line before 
him and fell asleep. Can any of your readers 
supply me with an earlier reference or say 
how the word came to be applied to this 
primitive horse-carriage by the old waggon- 
men of the North ] WM. W. TOMLINSON. 


Will some one inform me whence come the 
names Farmiloe, Whicholoe, and Swinhoe? 
They do not seem to be derivatives of Danish, 
Saxon, or Norman. A. LELAND-NOEL. 

Allan Cunningham, in his 'Life of Sir 
David Wilkie,' makes what appears to me 
a somewhat remarkable statement regarding 
the great artist's relations with Scott. Speak- 
ing of Wilkie's friends, the biographer says 
(vol. ii. p. 43) : 

"Among the men of genius Walter Scott stood 
foremost; of his friend Wilkie he loved to talk 
as well as write ; the painter stands repeatedly 
recorded in the pages of his inimitable romances." 

It is to the last observation that I refer. What 
is Cunningham's authority for it ? W. B. 

your readers kindly tell me where the mar- 
riage register of the above gentleman is to 
be found, or furnish me with any particulars 
respecting him 1 ? I may add that he was* 
born on 1 January, 1761, and practised in the 
King's Bench Court from 1789 (address, 10, 
Staple Inn). His wife's name was Elizabeth 

, and their eldest child was baptized 

at Allhallows' Chuych, Lombard Street, on 
23 October, 1796. ,4t is possible that the 
marriage may have taken place in Edinburgh. 


be glad of any information regarding a state- 
ment that John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
slept at Markeaton, co. Derby, on the night 
of 9 May, 1399, the guest of Sir Robert 
Mundy, or possibly his son. P. M. 

glad to have some information respecting 
the ancient earthworks at Burpham, Sussex. 
They protect the river Arun, and run in a 
sort of detached terraced work towards a low- 
lying part of the Downs, where there is a 
very distinct raised parallelogram with 
circular ends, intersected by squares. There 
is also a sunk road on the top of the Downs 
of which I should like to know the history. 


Burpham, Arundel. 

have a book-plate of this college, surmounted 
by an episcopal hat. Can any correspondent 
tell me where this college stands, or stood 1 
I should be grateful for the information. 


Norden, 1548-1626 ; Sir Henry Chauncy, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. A. IG, 1902. 

1632-1719; Nathaniel Salmon, 1675-1742 
Robert Clutterbuck, 1772-1831 ; John Edwin 
Cussans, 1837-1899. For the purpose oi 
preparing a paper with the above title 1 
should be glad of any biographical note? 
or other particulars relating to the foregoing 
supplementary to their biographies in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography.' 

Bishop's Stortford. 


(9 th S. vii. 466 ; viii. 70, 148, 312, 388, 527 ; 

ix. 95, 209, 309, 414, 469, 512 ; x. 69.) 

THE Bruce-Logan controversy owes much 
of its intricacy to the imperfect manner in 
which the Rev. William Mackelvie, D.D., 
executed his task in 1837 when he published, 
along with the 'Poems,' a 'Life of Michael 
Bruce.' In 1865 the Rev. A. B. Grosart, 
D.D., LL.D., issued his edition of Bruce's 
'Poems' with 'Memoir 'and an 'Introduction 
to the Poems. ' Instead of helping to elucidate 
the subject, his unfortunate style, utterly 
wanting in judicial calmness, has but further 
increased the difficulty of removing from the 
minds of his readers the impression that 
Logan acted in the scandalous manner 
charged against him. In the latest edition 
of Bruce's 'Poems' with 'Life,' issued in 
1895 by the Rev. William Stephen, of Kelty, 
there is a repetition of all the former charges. 
Nor is there any evidence that a comparison 
of the uncon tested productions of the two 
authors was undertaken. Mr. Stephen has 
not come forward to explain or defend his 
position, although evidence has been adduced 
proving that Tooke incorporated a consider- 
able portion of one of Logan's sermons to 
embellish one in a second edition of Zollikofer, 
the charge having been made that it was 
Logan who stole from Tooke's translation. 

The following extracts from letters still 
extant show how groundless is another 
charge, and a most serious one, that Logan 
utilized for his own advancement lectures 
which he had, surreptitiously or otherwise, 
obtained from a friend. Both letters are 
addressed to the Rev. Dr. Carlyle, Mussel- 
burgh, near Edinburgh : 

London, 20 th Aug' [1787]. 

DEAR SIR, There has been a long interruption of 
our correspondence from accidents which I do not 

know I fancy you recollect a Dr. Rutherford 

who came from Scotland about twelve years ago, 
to be a dissenting clergyman and Teacher of an 
Academy at Uxbridge. He is now publishing 'A 
View of Antient History ' by subscription May I 

hope that you will do him the honour to be one of his 
subscribers and promote a subscription for his book 
among your acquaintance ? It is to consist of three 

volumes octavo If you could interest the family 

of Buccleugh [.sic] in this affair I would look upon it 

as a great favour I go [to] the country this day 

to stay for some weeks Yours faithfully, 


Uxbridge, 27 th Sept' '87. 

I have been living at Uxbridge for these six 

weeks, which is one of the most beautiful spots in 
England. Another summer in the country will 
perfectly re-establish my health. 

He died in December of the following year. 
In a foot-note to vol. i. chap. xiii. Rutherford 
refers thus to the synopsis of Logan's lectures 
to show that he was indebted to it for 
material: "Vide Logan's Elements." These 
two charges being removed, I propose to 
subject the remaining ones to an examina- 
tion, so as, if possible, to show that they also 
are unfounded. In doing so I will ignore 
Dr. Grosart's dictum (p 105): "Internal 
evidence is not very much to be depended 
on." One wonders if he had detected how 
strong it was in Logan's favour. 

In order to attain my end it will be neces- 
sary to compare the authentic pieces with 
Logan's undisputed ' Runnamede ' and his 
sermons. The compositions that require 
examination are (1) 'A Tale,' beginning 
" Where pastoral Tweed "; (2) ' Levina,' being 
278 lines of Bruce's ' Lochleven,' from " Low 
lies a lake " and onwards ; (3) a collection of 
hymns, most of which are now included in 
the Paraphrases found at the end of most 
editions of the Bible as printed for use in 
Scotland. After these are disposed of, the 
'Ode to the Cuckoo' will alone xemain for 
consideration ; for the Rev. Dr. Robert 
Small, Edinburgh, has already in the British 
and Foreign Evangelical Review (April and 
October, 1879) conclusively shown that the 
' Ode to Paoli ' and the ' Danish Odes ' could 
not have been written by Bruce, the data for 
the former having been non-existent, and 
Gray's ' Odes,' of which the latter were imita- 
tions, not published till after Bruce's death. 
For an exhaustive treatment of the subject 
readers of ' N. & O.' are referred to the 
British and Foreign Evangelical Review. But 
some material not utilized by Dr. Small 
will be considered here to strengthen the 
onclusion at which that writer found him- 
self reluctantly compelled to arrive. To 
make the matter perfectly clear it is im- 
possible to avoid altogether going over old 

Let us then first consider ' A Tale.' ^ Rely- 

ng upon a certain parallelism in it with 

similar lines in ' Levina,' Dr. Mackelvie con- 

luded, " These are not accidental coincidences 

s. x. AUG. 16, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of thought Our firm conviction is tha 

both are the composition of Michael Bruce 
(par. 87). Mr. Stephen endorses this opinion 
and adds : 

" The coincidences are, as Dr. Small points out 

very striking, and would have strongly sup 

ported his argument had Logan not destroye< 

the quarto volume which might enable him 

consciously or unconsciously, to repeat and ever 
transmute into what seemed his own characteristic 
phrases the poetic vocabulary of Michael Bruce." 

This is equivalent to saying that Logan was 
possessed of a most retentive memory. He 
published Bruce's ' Poems ' in 1770. How long 
'Runnamede' took to compose we have nc 
means of knowing. But it waa not publishec 
until 1783, and in it are to be round severa 
most important parallelisms with lines in 'A 
Tale.' Even in sermons and other poems 
expressions corresponding to those in 'A 
Tale' are to be found; so that this piece, 
long though it is, must have made a lasting 
impression on Logan's memory. It contains 
ninety-four verses, thirty-two of which reflect 
more or less distinctly Logan's language. A 
few extracts taken from compositions which 
. are indubitably Logan's are here given for 
comparison with those from 'A Tale.' Some 
of these, it will be seen, occur in more than 
one production. Logan's ' Poems ' appeared 
in 1781 two years before 'Runnamede.' 
A Tale,. Runnamede. 

Long did he look in Long did he look with 

silence sad. aspect wild. 

What these sad eyes What these sad eyes 

have seen. have seen. 

The lover of her youth. The gallant lover of her 

Now sainted in the sky A saint in heaven [the 

[the mother]. mother]. 

The angel of his age. My daughter, thou wast 

an angel once. 
She rose in beauty by You rose in beauty, 

my side. smiling by my side. 

The halcyon main. The halcyon hour. 

That peerless maid. That peerless maid. 

A Tale. Logan's Sermons. 

Apple of his eye. Apple of his eye. 

Vale of tears. Vale of tears. 

Shifts the scene. Shift the scene. 

The shower of night did The shower of summer 

'all. descends. 

Wept a lover's woe. Weep for the woes of 


A Tale. The Lovers. 

A lover s woe. A hapless lover's woe. 

[This idea of " weeping 

for the woes" of others Ode, in Autumn. 

occurs in the ' Sermons ' Weep for imaged woes, 
and in these three pieces : 
' A Tale,' ' The Lovers,' 
and 'Ode, written in 

Here is a notable parallelism. At the end 
of 'Sermon XIX.' Logan says : 

"Thus the vale of tears is the theatre of Jmman 
glory ; that dark cloud presents the scene for 
all the beauties in the bow of virtue to appear." 

The same mind can be recognized in this 
verse from 'A Tale ': 

The stream that carries us along 

Flows through the rale of tears ; 
Yet, on the darhican of our day, 

The bow of Heaven appears. 
"Vale of tears " occurs several times in the 
'Sermons,' and twice in 'A Tale.' The idea 
contained in these lines of another verse of 
' A Tale,' 

a hand unseen 
Upon the curtain ever rests, 
And sudden shifts the scene 

is found in the ' Sermons,' in ' Runnamede,' 
and in 'The Lovers.' In the last it is "an 
unforeseen and fatal hand "; in 'Runnamede,' 
"No hand invisible to write his doom ; no 

demon to draw his curtain" (Act IV.); 

in ' Sermon V.,' vol. i., "How often doth 

a hand unseen shift the scene ! " In the same 
sermon reference is made to "an invisible, 
hand" that "interposes and overturns." In 
'Sermon XVI.,' vol. ii., occurs "drawing 

thee with a hand unseen." 

From many more that might be brought 
forward to support the claim made on behalf 
of Logan the following striking parallelisms 
are chosen : 

For now the lover of her youth 
To Indian climes had roved. 

'A Tale.' 
My lord to Indian climates went. 

' Monimia.' 

And, if I find her not, I fly 
To Indian climes again. ' A Tale.' 

The hero in ' Runnamede,' having returned 
:rom the Holy Land, and fancying that his 
Elvina has proved false, exclaims : 

let us depart, 
I spread my banners for the Holy Land. 

She came in every dream. ' A Tale.' 

You came an angel to my constant dream. 
' Runnamede.' 

A better country blooms to view, 

Beneath a brighter sky. ' A Tale.' 

And brighter days in better skies. 

' Ode written in Spring.' 

Dr. Mackelvie's parallelism brings us to 

Levina,' the consideration of which must be 

leld over for the present. Enough has been 

ubmitted in connexion with 'A Tale' to 

enable readers of 'N. & Q.' to judge whether 

)r. Mackelvie was justified in concluding, 

r rom one resemblance, or rather identical 

expression, occurring both in ' A Tale ' and in 

part of Bruce's ' Lochleven,' that the former 

)iece was also by Bruce. 

A. M. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. A. IB, 1902. 

(9 th S. x. 63). DR. SYKES says, " I believe 
from internal evidence that Thackeray was a 
convinced homoeopathist, and that Dr. John 
Elliotson. ...was a homoeopathic practitioner." 
Will DR. SYKES give his authority for stating 
that Dr. Elliotson was a "disciple of the 
homoeopathic heresy'"? The biography of 
Dr. Elliotson in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' by Robert Hunt, F.R.S., who 
personally knew the doctor, and also the 
biography in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica' 
do not state that Dr. Elliotson was a homoeo- 
pathist, and from my personal knowledge of 
him for some years I am satisfied that he 
was not. DR. SYKES appears to have little 
knowledge of Dr. Elliotson, and seems not to 
know that he was one of the most eminent 
physicians of his day, and that he had a large 
number of friends and patients distinguished 
in literature, science, and art. When Thacke- 
ray was so seriously ill in 1849, I think it 
was owing to Dr. Elliotson's fame as a phy- 
sician that he was called in. DR. SYKES 
implies that he was not " a regular prac- 
titioner." It is true that he was a believer 
in mesmerism, but Mr. Hunt in the 'D.N.B.' 
says that, although he " continued to practise 
mesmerism upon his patients, he refrained 
from introducing the subject to any of those 
by whom he was largely consulted." 

DR. SYKES has quoted the well - known 
dedication of ' Pendennis ' to Dr. Elliotson, 
and I should like, if you will permit me, to 
refer to another dedication, not so well known. 
There was a small book written by a poor 
carpenter, dying of consumption, to which 
Dickens, with his usual kind ness, wrote a pre- 
face, with a view to help the sale of the book. 
Mr. Forster, in his ' Life of Charles Dickens,' 
says, "The book was dedicated to the kind 
physician Dr. Elliotson, whose name was for 
nearly thirty years a synonym with us all 
for unwearied, self-sacrificing, beneficent ser- 
vices to every one in need " (vol. ii. p. 86). 
The name of the poor carpenter was Overs, 
and Dickens, in a letter to his friend Mac- 
ready, says, " What a good fellow Elliotson 
is. He kept him [Overs] in his room a whole 
hour, and has gone into his case as if he were 
Prince Albert" (Dickens's 'Letters,' vol. ii. 
p. 49). When Dr. Elliotson was obliged to 
tell this man that he must not work at his 
trade, besides his care of him as a physician 
he helped him liberally out of his own purse. 
Beyond being an eminent physician, Dr 
Elliotson was a most generous, kind, anc 
warm - hearted man, as I personally wel' 

Inner Temple. 

KING'S-TAPER (9 th S. x. 68). If H. K. means 
;hat this name is omitted from the 'New 
English Dictionary,' he or she is mistaken. 
[t is not only there, but is accompanied by 
a quotation from Mrs. Lankester's ' Wild 
Flowers,' published in 1861, in which she 
*ives as "the common name" of the great 
r nullein " Torch- blade, or King's taper." Prior, 
aowever, knows it not in 1870, the date of 
the second edition of his ' Popular Names of 
British Plants.' except in Latin, Candela 

egia, and old German, Konig-kerz (1531), 
modern Konigskerze (art. ' Hig-taper '). Scan- 
dinavian terms are kongelys (Dan.), kongsljus 
(Swed.), kongstaka (Norw.). See Grimm's 

Deutsches Worterbuch.' F. ADAMS. 

HERALDIC (9 th S. ix. 487). The different 
species of the Corvidse, or crow family, are 
very common bearings in heraldry, and are 
borne by persons with such names as Corbett, 
Raven, Croker, Beekly, &c., and names begin- 
ning with Tre. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

DANES IN PEMBROKE (9 th S. x. 89). Judg- 
ing from the many place-names found in 
Pembroke of Scandinavian origin, both in- 
land and along the south and west coast to 
St. David's Head, there seems every likeli- 
hood that a flourishing Danish or Norwegian 
colony existed here in the tenth century. 
Names like Colby, Ramsey, Gateholm Island, 
Caldy Island, Tenby, Sageston (Sagatun ?), 
Jordestun, Hasguard (Asgard, Aysgarth ?), 
Reynalton, Upton, Freytrop (Frey thorp ?), 
Hubberston, Herbrandston, and Haraldston 
all give proof of a settlement. In the ' Saga 
of the Jomsvikingar ' is mentioned a certain 
Beorn or Bjorn the Briton, who may have 
had his stronghold in Pembroke or Glamor- 
gan, which also abounds in Danish names on 
the coast, as well as the two leading Welsh 
ports, while Carmarthen has no coast towns 
to speak of and hardly any Northern names. 

W. R. P. 

The Norse (not Danes) settled in this 
county, as witness the many Norse place- 
names of the islands and along the sea coast 
and the fiords of Milford Haven. There were 
Norse settlements at Lower Fishguard (in 
Kernes), Langum, and Angle, which survive 
in part to this day. H. V. 

DUKE OF BRABANT (9 th S. x. 68). God- 
frey I., surnamed Barbatus, Duke of Brabant, 
was descended from Charlemagne through 
Gerberga,his great-grandmother, and through 
his great-grandfather from the Counts of 
Hainault. He was father of Adeliza, the 
second wife of King Henry I., and of Josce- 
line, who married Agnes de Percy, from whom 

X. AUG. le, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Percies, Earls of Northumberland, were 
descended. He was also ancestor of the 
Landgraves of Hesse. The dukedom passed 
through Margaret, daughter of Margaret and 
Lewis, the last Count of Flanders, to the 
Dukes of Burgundy of the House of Valois. 

H. L. will find much information in ' L'Art 
de Verifier les Dates,' and at a glance trace 
Duke Godfrey's ancestry back to the last 
quarter of the ninth century, up through the 
Counts of Louvain to Rainier I., Count of 
Hainault. In ' Diet. Nat. Biog.'(art. ' Adeliza,' 
by Mr. Round) we are told that Godfrey 
descended in the male line from Charles the 
Great. That I have not been ,able to verify, 
but do not presume to doubt. 

C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

The ' D.N.B.' states that Godfrey (Barba- 
tus) of Louvain, Duke of Brabant or Lower 
Lotharingia, who was descended in the male 
line from Charles the Great, founded the 
Abbey of Affligam, near Alost, in Flanders ; 
to which his daughter Queen Adeliza leaving 
her second husband William de Albini 
retired, and where she died and was buried. 
Her brother Henry had already withdrawn 
there (1149). Another brother, Joceline (' the 
Castellan "), ancestor of the Earls of North- 
umberland, she had, while lady of Arundel, 
subenfeoffed in the lordship of Petworth. 


viii. 497 ; ix. 30, 175). I have seen, by the 
kindness of Prof. Newton, of Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, a copy of the catalogue 
of the Leverian Museum, and in it appears 

"Oliver Cromwell's armour given by a 

lady, a descendant of General Desborough, to 
Mr. Busby, and by him to Sir Ashton Lever." 
The purchaser of this lot for five guineas was 
Mr. Bullock, who himself, as Prof. Newton 
tells me, formed a museum, which was 
exhibited at what is now the Egyptian Hall. 
But in the catalogue of this museum, when it 
came to be sold, this armour does not appear, 
and it was probably previously sold sepa- 
rately. I should be glad to trace the where- 
abouts of this armour, which consisted of 
"Oliver Cromwell's helmet, gorget, armour 
for the body and left arm, and leathern sur- 
tout." I remember being told when a child 
that Oliver Cromwell's sword had been given 
by some members of our family to the British 
Museum. This, 1 take it, was an incorrect 
version of the fact that his armour had been 
given, as above stated, by my grandmother, 
who was a descendant of General Desbrowe. 

Was it ever the practice to carry armour on 
the left arm only, perhaps in order to leave 
the sword more free? E. F. Du CANE. 

121, 192 ; ix. 234, 490 ; x. 32). It cannot have 
been so accounted in Italy in Dante's time or 
he would not have seen the angels thus : 
Verdi, come fogliette pur mo nate, 
Erano in veste, che da verdi penne 
Percosse traean dietro e ventilate. 

'Purg.,' viii. 28. 

Nor is it likely that he would have said of 
Hope that she was 

Come se le carni e 1' ossa 
Fossero state di smeraldo fatte 

('Purg.,'xxix. 124); 

or of Beatrice, the beloved, that her eyes were 
emeralds ('Purg.,' xxxi. 116), or that she 
appeared to him "sotto verde manto" 
(' Purg.,' xxx. 32), emblematic of hope. 

It is not very probable that Manfred of 
Sicily would have been always dressed in 
green if the colour had been accounted un- 

If "gren" mean green in the following 
passage from ' English Metrical Homilies 
from MSS. of the Fourteenth Century ' (John 
Small, M.A., Edinburgh, 1862), we have 
another indication that the hue was not 
deemed of ill omen :-J* 

Quat yed ye, he said, to se 

In wildernes, ye tel me, 

A man robed in wlank wede, 

Als qua sai, nai, ue in fairhede, 

For al men wist that knew sain Jon, 

That he hauid camel har him upon, 

For thi asked Crist, quethir thei yed 

Te se sain Jon in wlanke wede, 

Als qua sai, es he nan of tha 

That er clad in gren and gra. 

Crist spac of thaim that gas in gren, 

To scheu the folc quat he wald men. 

In kinge-houses, he said, won thai 

That er cled in gren and grai. 

' Dom. iii. Advent. Domini." 


PROJECTION ,ON A SAW (9 th S. x. 49). Surely 
this is merely to assist in keeping the kerf 
clear. I have seen Disston saws with the 
notch, though possibly they are thus made 
for the English market. J. D. 

Inquiry of the foreman of a large iron- 
monger's business results in the reply that 
the projection has no name and no use, and 
that it is being discontinued by manufac- 
turers. The query might have stated that 
at the point in question there is a dip in the 
back of the saw, involving a lesser relative 
breadth. A similar query to a Chinaman 
about one of his tools would be aptly dismissed 
with the words, " B'long olo custom," which 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. A. ie, 1902. 

apparently sums up the present matter. I 
shall be glad to learn whether my informa- 
tion is correct. H. P. L. 

260, 373, 455). An instrument exactly similar 
to that described at the last reference is in 
constant use during the summer by one of 
the butchers in this village. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

I understand that at flapper is a little duck 
this, then, is why a young girl may be termed 
a flapper. ST. SWITHIN. 

I have always heard a young wild duck 
called a flapper. About ten years ago I 
heard the name applied as a slang term to 
girls of sixteen or seventeen years of age. I 
have not heard it before or since, but it was 
used by a rather " fast " young man of my 
acquaintance. F. R. R. 

213, 296, 376, 437 j 4 th S. iii. 360, 4461 In a 
copy of the 1510 edition (Wynkyn de Worde) 
of ' The boke of iustyces of peas ' in the Bod- 
leian, of which the press-mark is " Rawlinson, 
4, 457," are a series of notes, made apparently 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
Among them is the following : 

" Notandum est quod Dominus Henricus de Lacy 
Comes Lincolnise constituit perticam istius Dominii 
continentem xxj pedes de pedibus suis propriis, 
qusequidem pertica non continet de assisa Regis 
Anglise nisi xviij pedes et dimidium et vnum polli- 
cem. Et pertica ilia fit mensuratio terrarum et 
bosoorum et vastorum et omnium quae mensurantur 
in ista Ex[ten]ta." 

The above is in a seventeenth - century 
hand ; the copy of an extent referred to has 
disappeared. Is it possible to ascertain 
whether the Earl of Lincoln (presumably the 
Henry de Lacy born c. 1250, ob. 1311) really 
made such a " constitution," and over how 
large an area it was binding ? O. O. H. 

ix. 248, 437 ; x. 9, 53). It is not the fact that 
" messuage" is " due to the Latin manere" It 
is due, as I have already proved (9 th S. v. 349, 
520 ; vi. 122), to the Latin mensus, participle 
of metiri, to measure. The prefix mess- in 
mess-uage is the same word as mess, a measure 
or portion, as in the phrases " a mess of pot- 
tage," or "a meeas of ale," as they say in 
South Yorkshire. I have before (9 th S. vi. 
162) referred to a document, quoted by Du 
Cange, in which an allowance of a mesagium 
panis i.e., a mess or measure of bread, weigh- 
ing five pounds is made to each of certain 

During the last year 1 have met with many 
confirmations of the conclusion at which I 
had arrived. It is quite a common thing in 
Latin documents relating to England and 
elsewhere to find a messuage described as 
mensura. Thus a grant of two mensuroe is 
recorded in 'Rotuli Chartarum,' p. 124 b. 
Again, it appears from Hatfield's 'Survey' 
(Surtees Soc.) that four men held, as tenants 
in common, twenty-two acres of arable land, 
together with a mensura, in Wydop.* Occa- 
sionally the messuage is described as maisura 
i.e., measure. t That tofts, building-plots, or 
messuages in villages and cities were regularly 
measured, and were mostly uniform in length, 
can be proved by many extracts from old 
records.* It is obvious that a mens-ura, mais- 
ura, or mess-iiage was a measured plot of land. 
If more evidence were needed, I would point 
to the fact that in the ' Whitby Chartulary,' 
published by the Surtees Society (i. 198), 
messuagiwm is used as identical in meaning 
with malwagium. Here the prefix mal- in 
mal-wagium translates the prefix mess- in 
mess-uagium, and is the old Norse mal, a 
measure. In Norway, according to Ivar 
Aasen's ' Norsk Ordbog,' maal means not 
only " measure," but " measured piece of 

It is true that the French " maison repre- 
sents the Latin mansionem." But it does not 
follow from this that mansio in old surveys 
is connected with manere, or that it means 
" a dwelling-place." It is quite as likely to 
be a late form of mensio, a measure. The 
minutce mansiones at York mentioned in 
Domesday Book are possibly "small 

I am glad that C. 0. B. has discovered that 
William Bradford, Governor of the colony 
at Plymouth, came from Austerfield, near 
Bawtry. Austerfield is in South Yorkshire, 
and is about twenty-five miles from Royston, 
where I found the word meadstead, and 
about thirty-five miles from Dewsbury, where 
Mr. Chad wick found the word meestead or 
neastead in the Court Rolls. S. O. ADDY. 

The pronunciation of " God " as Gaud, to 
whatever it may bo due, is no new thing. A 
harsh critic might possibly say it was a 
sanctimonious drawl, but it is kinder to 
suppose it due to a mistaken feeling of 

* "Tenuerunt inter se xxij acraa terrse cum 
mensura in Wydop." 

f " Homo obiit in quadam maisura." ' Rotuli 
Hundredorum,' ii. 175 a. 

Thus we have " Toftum unum xij perticarum 
in latitudine, et longitudine quantum torta aliorum 
hominum." ' Whitby Chartulary,' i. 179. 

s. x. AUG. IB, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


reverence for the Divine name. I know this 
was my own feeling as a child, when I, in 
common with most people round me, always 
said Gaud. My friends were mostly Wesley an 
Methodists (without ceasing to be Church- 
people), and I fancy this pronunciation was 
and is more common among Methodists than 
elsewhere. The use of Wesley's hymns 
would certainly foster it, for in them the o in 
" God " is often lengthened. Charles Wesley 
lengthens it to provide a rime to "endued" ; 
either he or his brother makes it rime with 
u abroad " (more than once), and Cowper, in 
a hymn included in the Wesleyan book, 
with "road." "Abode," "bestowed," "load," 
"stood," and even " loud " are Irsed as rimes, 
as also, it is fair to add, is " blood " ; but it is 
noticeable that in almost all cases where a 
true rime is not used the vowel is length- 
ened. I believe this is because it was 
customary to pronounce " God " slowly, from 
a feeling of awe. 

The case is different as regards " coffee " 
and "broth." Your correspondent will do 
well to consult the 'H.E.D.'for the history of 
these words. He will there learn that the o 
in " coffee " represents an earlier au (from the 
Turkish kahveh), and that in " broth '' the 
vowel seems to have been originally long, 
early forms of the word (though not the very 
earliest) being " broath " and " broathe." 
Probably "cawffee" and "brauth are 
dialectal survivals. As to the general 
question of vowel-sounds, I do not think it is 
possible to arrange these by "shires," but my 
impression is that the broader and longer 
sounds are more heard in the southern than 
in the more northerly counties. C. C. B. 

On Tyneside, and I should say in the North 
and Durham generally, the o in "note," &c., 
has still the pure sound. The a in "glass," 
&c., is also sounded almost the same as a in 
"cat." R. B-K. 

" BARRACKED " (9 th S. ix. 63, 196,232,355, 
514 ; x. 76). In contradiction to Prof. Morris's 
theory that barrack is derived from borak 
may be mentioned the fact that both words 
are still in use with well-defined differing 
meanings. Barrack is a verb the substan- 
tive being formed by the addition of -er 
while borak, so far as my observation goes, is 
always a noun, signifying chaff or banter. 
Thus a barracker, barracking for his favourite 
football team, will " poke borak " plentifully 
at the opposing side or their supporters. 
Any one who has heard the barracking at a 
Victorian football match, even at a consider- 
able distance, will be disposed to regard the 
word as a playful variant of barking, in the 

same way that larrikin was derived from an 
Irish policeman's pronunciation of larking, 
per medium of an ingenious facetious police- 
court reporter in the early eighties. I can 
vouch for the fact that in 1885, when I arrived 
in Victoria, both words were well established, 
and that a police-court origin of barracking 
was current and apparently accepted. 


The following appears in 6 th S. vi. 422, under 
the heading ' Busts and Portraits of Lord 
Byron ' : 

" Marble bust by Bartolini, Pisa, 1822. Property 
of Lord Malmesbury. In an unpublished letter to 
Mr. Murray, Byron says, ' The bust does not turn 
out a good one, though it may be like for aught I 
know, as it exactly resembles a superannuated 
Jesuit.' " 


71, Brecknock Road. 

ix. 386). The arrangement of the panel- 
ling, and the ornamentation within the 
panels, of the ceiling in the old house at 
Wilderhope, in the parish of Rush bury, are 
almost identical with ceilings in the abbot's 
house at the abbey ^t Build was, and in a 
small house, probatly a grange of the' abbey, 
distant from it about a mile and a half. The 
ornamentation in the small house consists of 
the Tudor rose, fleur-de-lys, a stellate flower, 
and shields, one bearing the word IESU, the 
other having the Prince of Wales's plume. 
The ceiling in the abbot's house is enriched 
with much foliate work in the rectangular 
spaces, and in addition to the other devices 
(excepting the star flower) has the portcullis, 
and at the intersections of the rectangles 
a panel with motto. The reverse order is 
curious, but it appears to be intended to read 
as MAL MEV EST DEV DROiT. Their order at 
Wilderhope is given differently, thus : MEV EST 
DEV IAM DROIT ; but the fourth word should 
no doubt be MAL. It is possible a terminal 
consonant may be omitted from MEV and 
DEV. The work at Build was is excellently 
done ; but the room at the abbey has been 
divided, and the ceiling much damaged in 
consequence. The use of the Tudor badges 
would indicate an intentional design and 
strong party loyalty in the owner. Whether 
the letters E E refer to the owner is doubtful. 

Herefordshire and South Shropshire were 
strongly Yorkist. King Edward IV. granted 
representation in Parliament to the borough 
of Ludlow, and also to the territorial area, 
which he constituted a municipal borough, 
still known as the Borough of Wenlock, 



s. x. AUG. IB, 1902. 

belonging to the priory at Wenlock Magna. 
The Burnells were liberal donors to the abbey 
at Build was, and it acquired from them 
the advowson and tithes of Kushbury in 
1 Henry IV. Most probably the house at 
Wilderhope was under Build was influence, 
and the three ceilings were put up in the 
later years of King Henry VII. Build was 
Abbey was dissolved in 1535. The ceilings 
must have been done long before that event. 
The name of Henry SraaJemon, of Stanweye, 
in the parish of Rushbury, adjacent to 
Wilderhope, appears in 9 Edward II., 1315-6. 
In the 'Castles and Old Mansions of Shrop- 
shire ' Mrs. Stackhouse Acton states the motto 
at Wilderhope is MAL MEA DBA EST, and that 
the initials ES, FS, and PS, and a date 1602 
appear on some panels. This is not correct 
with regard to the motto, and if it should 
have been so at one time with regard to the 
initials and the year, it cannot be that these 
were contemporaneous with the erection of 
the ceilings. I submit my remarks with 
hesitation. The details of the ceilings are 
taken from photographs by the late Dr. W. E. 
Thursfield, of Shrewsbury. If accurate in- 
formation as to the dates and motto can be 
given, I shall be glad. W. G. NORRIS. 


LAMBROOK STRADLING (9 th S. x. 47). A per- 
son named Lamorack Stradlynge witnessed 
in 1600 the will of Henry Mathew, of Radyr, 
and was almost certainly the testator's 
relative. Lamrock was the Christian name 
of a son of Robert Mathew, of Cardiff, who 
died circa 1610, and whose will, dated in 
1608, was witnessed by Lamrock Stradling, 
of Roath, esquire (' Cardiff Records,' vol. iii. 
pp. 117, 118). In a survey of the manor of 
Spital, Cardiff, 1666, reference is made to 
lands of Lamorack Stradling, esquire, deceased, 
at Rpath (?'&., vol. ii. p. 85). A rent-roll of 
Cardiff town, 1686, names Jane, widow of 
Larnbrocke Stradling, esquire (ib., vol. iv. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

" YCLEPING" THE CHURCH (9 th S. viii. 420, 
486 ; ix. 55, 216, 394 j x. 54). Note Exodus, 
chap, xxxiii., last three verses, 21, 22, 23, more 
especially the last verse, in connexion with 
the extract cited by MR. DOUGLAS OWEN, 
ante, p. 55, passages in lines 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27, from the top of 
the page. GNOMON. 


ix. 346, 493 ; x. 17). I was very glad to see 
the note by MR. J. Ross ROBERTSON re Sir 

Christopher Wren (M.P., D.C.L., P.R.S.). It 
is astonishing how many Masonic historians 
have been led into error re Wren's Masonic 
career. According to Kenning's ' Cyclopaedia 
of Freemasonry,' it has been general for many 
years to credit Sir Christopher Wren witn 
everything great and good before the " Re- 
vival," but on very slender evidence. He is 
said to have been a member of the "Lodge 
of Antiquity " for many years ; " and the 
maul ana trowel used at the laying of the 
stone of St. Paul's, with a pair of mahogany 
candlesticks, were presented " to him, and are 
now in the possession of the lodge. Dr. 
Anderson mentions him as Grand Master 
in 1685; but according to a manuscript of 
Aubrey's in the Royal Society he was not 
admitted a Brother Freemason until 1691. 
(Wren is popularly supposed to have suc- 
ceeded Henry Bennett, Earl of Arlington, 
and, " for the second time," King William HI.) 
Unfortunately, the early records of the cele- 
brated " Lodge of Antiquity " have been lost 
or destroyed, so there is nothing certain as to 
Wren's Masonic career, and what little has 
been circulated is contradictory. It is, of 
course, more than likely he took an active 
part in Freemasonry, though he was not a 
member of the Masons' Company; but as the 
records are wanting it is idle to speculate, 
and absurd to credit to his labours on behalf 
of our society what there is not a tittle of 
evidence to prove. 

48, Hanover Square, Bradford. 

I am afraid that MR. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL 
has been somewhat led astray in depending 
on ' Old and New London ' for his informa- 
tion concerning Wren and Freemasonry. 
When the destruction of that venerable hos- 
telry the " Goose and Gridiron " was in con- 
templation, a very interesting account, with a 
sketch of the building and its sign, appeared 
in the Daily Graphic of 28 August, 1894. 
The paragraph concerning Wren and Free- 
masonry was there dished up much as it 
appears in ' Old and New London ' (i. 272), 
and was contradicted by several corre- 
spondents in a subsequent number. From 
one of the letters, signed W. F. L , I extract 
the following paragraph : 

" Touching the connection of the Freemasons 

with the 'Goose and Gridiron,' will you permit 

me to differ from your statement that Sir Chris- 
topher Wren belonged to the Masonic body, or that 
a Grand Lodge existed previously to that founded 
in 1717 at the old hostelry in question ? Both inci- 
dents are simply legends, and as such are discarded 
as matters of fact by the leading Masonic historians 
of the present day, for the very tangible reason that 
no documentary evidence has ever been forthcoming 

9ts.x.AuG.i6,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to prove either statement. On the other hand, the 
foundation of the first Grand Lodge of England in 
1717 at the ' Goose and Gridiron' can be verified by 
records in Freemasons' Hall, London. I may further 
add that the Lodge of Antiquity No. 2, now meet- 
ing at Freemasons Hall, is the only one left of the 
four lodges that founded the first Grand Lodge of 
England. In 1717 its domicile was the ' Goose and 
Gridiron.' " 

Another error propagated by 'Old and New 
London ' and repeated by MR. MACMICHAEL 
is the substitution of the name of the physi- 
cian Sir Hans Sloane for that of the architect 
Sir John Soane. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

Dutch carvers 

Hither to whet [not wet] their whistles daily come. 

&c. (9 th S. ix. 508; x. 54). The name of 
Jews' Court is applied to two houses situated, 
near the Jews' House, on the Steep Hill, 
Lincoln. They are of considerable antiquity, 
but they are not in any way connected with 
the period at which the Jews lived in Lincoln. 
Tradition, however, claims that one of the 
houses contains the well into which little 
St. Hugh's body was thrown after his sup- 
posed murder, whilst a cellar in the rear of 
the same building is said to be the scene 
of his crucifixion. The St. Dunstan's Lock 
mentioned by ST. SWITHIN was, it is sup- 
posed, the lower boundary of the Jews' 
quarter, beyond which no Jew was per- 
mitted, at all events after sunset. The real 
name, probably, of the gateway is Dernestall 
Lock, an old -time local board being re- 
sponsible for the corruption. Even Derne- 
stall Lock is said by some to be a corruption 
of " the Dernestall," the place where little 
St. Hugh was born. Further information on 
this subject may be gleaned from two ad- 
mirable articles on the Jews in Lincoln in 
the Transactions of the Jewish Historical 
Society, sessions 1896-8. A. R. 0. 

SHAKESPEARE t. BACON (9 th S. ix. 245, 414 ; 
x. 11). I am not a Scott student, but I am 
told that in ' Ivanhoe ' and ' Rob Roy ' the 
"Author of 'Waverley'" quotes from the 
acknowledged poems of Walter Scott. Doubt- 
less some of your readers can supply these 
references, and possibly others. 

At the same time it would be well to have 
exact references to the places where the 
"Author of 'Waverley '" "makes honourable 
mention of almost every distinguished con- 
temporary poet," and the terms in which he 
speaks of them. When we have this list, and 
a full list, corresponding to it, of Francis 
Bacon's references to his distinguished 

poetical contemporaries, we shall be in a 
position to discuss the weight of the_argu- 
ment that MR. STRONACH and MR. THEOBALD 
raise at the last reference. It seems to me 
a very interesting aspect of the question, 
and well worth looking into with a view to 
ascertaining the direct and acknowledged 
effect on the mind of a great writer of the 
works of his contemporaries. Q. V. 

[The motto at the head of ' Guy Mannering ' is 
from ' The Lay of the Last Minstrel.'] 

Adolphus, in his 'Letters to Heber,' is 
wrong in saying that the author of ' Waver- 
ley' never makes honourable mention of 
Walter Scott. Some lines from ' The Lay of 
the Last Minstrel ' are the motto to ' Guy 
Mannering.' And surely this may be called 
honourable mention. I have a notion that 
Scott refers to himself elsewhere in the 
" Waverley Novels," and that he has done so 
designedly in order to convince the public 
that he was not the- author of them. Shak- 
speare had nothing to do with Henslowe and 
Alleyn. He wrote for his own theatre. The 
playwrights mentioned were connected with 
other theatres. As is the way with small 
writers, the minor dramatists wrote com- 
mendatory verses on one another. Shak- 
speare was too great to do this. He disdained 
to recommend himself by praising others in 
order that he might himself be praised. Still 
it must be remembered that he is sometimes 
mentioned by authors of his time, and that 
Ben Jonson wrote commendatory verses on 
him, after his death, which are worth more 
than all the other eulogies written in that 
age. E. YARDLEY. 

DEFOE (9 th S. ix. 207, 318 ; x. 32). Since 
the statement that in the late Miss Mary 
Ann Defoe died the last of the descendants 
of Daniel Defoe has gone the round of the 
papers, two letters on the subject have 
appeared in the Daily Mail. The first, 
written by Mr. C. E. Baker, of Nottingham, 
is as follows : 

" I notice it 'is stated that the late Mary Ann 
Defoe, of Croydon, was the last descendant of 
the author of ' Robinson Crusoe.' This may be on 
the male side, but Daniel Defoe's daughter Sophia, 
who died in 1772, married Henry Baker, F.R.S., the 
author of several microscopical works, and their 
descendants are represented by Hugh Baker, Esq., 
of St. Albans, and others, Defoe having been 
coupled with that of Baker until quite recently in 
the late Rev. W. De Foe Baker, late rector of 
Thruxton, Hants." Daily Mail, 23 June. 

The second letter came from the Rev. 
Canon De Foe Baker, of Lincoln, who wrote 
as follows : 

" A namesake, Mr. C. E. Baker, of Mapperley 
Rise, has stated correctly in a recent number of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. x. AUG. ie, 1902. 

Daily Mail that there are descendants living of 
De Foe's daughter Sophia, who in 1729 married 
Henry Baker, F.R.S. and F.S.A. There are omis- 
sions and mistakes in Mr. C. E. Baker's letter, as 
to which I need not trouble you ; but perhaps 

B>u will allow me to say that I am not yet the late 
e Foe Baker." Daily Mail, 7 July. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

LEGEND OF LADY ALICE LEA (9 th S. x. 68). 
Under the general heading 'Folk-Lore,' and 
with the more extended title, 'The First 
Mole in Cornwall ; a Morality from the 
Stowe of Morwenna, in the Rocky Land,' 
a correspondent signing himself H., and 
obviously Hawker of Morwenstowe, con- 
tributed to a very early number (1 st S. ii. 225) 
a detailed and characteristic sketch of the 
legend of Lady Alice Lea and her ill-starred 
love for Sir Beville Grenville, of Stowe. 


D. K. T. may find this told, and probably 
by Mr. Hawker, in 1 st S. ii. 225, or in ' Choice 
Notes from " Notes and Queries " : Folk- 
Lore,' pp. 48-51. ST. SWITHIN. 

S. ix. 508). The best authority on matters 
concerning W. M. Thackeray (his daughter) 
knows nothing of this supposed residence of 
her father, nor the reason of the tablet being 
placed on 28, Clerkenwell Road. She says : 
"My father was eleven and thirteen in 
1822-24, and at school. I don't know what it 
means. Please write and say so." 


96, Philbeach Gardens, S.W. 

"UPWARDS OF " (9 th S. ix. 446, 516 ; x. 38). 
I must demur to the assertion that in the 
West the above phrase is commonly used in 
the sense of "almost." "I've agot up a 
score " in my experience would mean " close 
upon a score " = a score more or less gener- 
ally in the sense of rather less. But " upwards 
of a score" would not be used by dialect 
speakers, or any other class, unless at least 
some excess of number over twenty was 
intended to be understood. 




Sohrab and Rustem : the Epic Theme of a Combat 
between Father and Son. By Murray Anthony 
Potter, A.M. (Nutt.) 

To the "Grimm Library" of Mr. Nutt, of which it 
forms No. 14, has been added a study of the genesis 
and use in literature and popular tradition of the 

,heme of combat between father and son, the most 
amiliar aspect of which is the story of Sohrab and 
rlustem. Originally accepted at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1899 as a doctorate thesis, this essay easily 
inks itself with ' The Legend of Perseus ' of Mr. 
Sartland, the studies in Arthurian romance of Miss 
Jessie L. Weston, and similar works with which it 
s now conjoined. That combats of this or a similar 
nature were so common in literature few who have 
not looked closely into the question can have sur- 
mised. In his opening chapter Mr. Potter points 
to its occurrence in Tasso's ' Jerusalem Delivered,' 
Shakespeare s ' King Henry VI.,' Voltaire's ' Hen- 
riade,' Lillo's ' Fatal Curiosity,' Miiller's ' Der 
neun und zwanzigste Februar,' 'Lucrece Borgia,' 
&c., by Victor Hugo, and in other works. To the 
classical scholar the story of Odysseus and Tele- 
gonus, his son by Circe, at once occurs, as fulfilling 
all the requirements of the legend. The most 
characteristic forms are found in the famous ' Hilde- 
brandslied' and the Persian 'Shah Numeh' episode 
of Sohrab and Rustem. Mr. Potter does not confine 
himself to the fight between father and son, but deals 
with the combats generally, which would have been 
avoided by the proclamation of a name. Briefly 
summarized, the points of the tale are : a man 
embraces, generally at her request, a woman whom 
his beauty or bravery has attracted, and rides 
away, leaving her to give birth to a child of heroic 
mould. Branded as a bastard by his fellows, the 
youth obtains from his mother the secret of his 
parentage, takes arms, and starts in search of his 
Father. The pair meet, generally in ignorance of 
the relationship between them, and fight, because 
each thinks it unworthy to give up his name. The 
result of the combat is different in different cases. 
What strikes our author as most suggestive in the 
story, innumerable variants of which he gives, are 
the "uncertainty of paternity connected with the 
man's marriage from home, the callous neglect by 
the hero of his wife or mistress and child, the 
prominent role played by the woman in seduction 
or other matters, and the departure of the son in 
search of his father. An explanation of these things 
he seeks in exogamy and matriarchy. Very inge- 
nious, if not always conclusive, are his arguments, 
and the chapters in which he deals with these 
points are the most interesting in his volume. It 
is only in recent years that Australasian folk-lore has 
been scientifically studied, and a vast mass of 
matter available for his purpose has come under 
Mr. Potter's observation ana been diligently em- 
ployed. The book cannot, indeed, be neglected by 
the folk-lorist, the anthropologist, or the student 
of comparative mythology, and its decisions, even 
when they fail to carry conviction, will command 

History of the Parish of Buxhall, in the County of 
Suffolk. By W. A. Copinger, LL.LX, F.S.A., &c. 
(Sotheran & Co.) 

SELDOM can a parish so small have had accorded 
it honours such as those of which Buxhall is the 
recipient. According to the latest authority to 
which we have access, Buxhall, which is situated 
some three miles west of Stowmarket, contains 
2,560 acres and a population of 401 souls. To it is 
dedicated a handsome quarto volume of over three 
hundred and twenty pages, with twenty-four full- 
page illustrations and a large parish map, contain- 
ing all the field-names, which bring the average to 
not far short of a page per inhabitant. This is not 

os.x. AUG. 16,1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


all. Large as it is, the book may be regarded as a 
continuation of a previous work, which we have 
not seen, devoted to the family of the author, long, 
closely, and honourably connected with the place. 
Those interested in the family who do not possess 
the history by Prof. Copinger need only turn to the 
latest edition of Burke s ' Landed Gentry,' wherein 
they will find dedicated to Copinger of Buxhall 
close upon two columns. With the family, which 
claims, among other members, more than one dis- 
tinguished bibliophile, French or English, we are 
not allowed now to concern ourselves. Very far 
are we from condemning the length at which the 
parish has been treated, since we hold that in 
time most villages and hamlets will have their 
independent histories, and the more parish records 
that are put beyond the reach of destruction the 
better. The treatment is, at least, exemplary in 
fulness, and there can be few sceneV or objects of 
importance in Buxhall of which views are not given. 
Buxhall is called in Domesday Book Bukessalla- 
buressalla=the bower of health and the hall of 
flagons, a striking testimony to the salubrity of 
situation and the hospitality of its owner. It is a 
scattered village in the hundred of Stow and the 
diocese of Norwich. Its soil being a strong or clayey 
loam, which is rather persistently misnamed clay, 
it has little geological interest. In matters of 
antiquity it boasts the customary dovecote, 
mill, pound, and stocks, though the pillory and 
tumbrel the latter a species of ducking-stool 
for scolds, which it should have had, since the 
lord of the manor had the franchise of view 
of frankpledge are not to be traced. We find 
in the time of Elizabeth and James more than one 
rector presented for playing bowls on the green. 
This must have been done in view of the statutes 
for the encouragement of archery. For the Dane- 
gelt Buxhall was rated at 25rf., equal to about 
67. 5s. of modern money. The amount seems to 
have been readily paid, Buxhall, with a river then 
navigable to vessels of light draught, being open to 
incursions from the Danish rovers. In the ' 1 eet of 
Fines' the name of Copeuger occurs so early as 
7 Richard II. The vill of Buxhall was a tithing in 
itself, the tithing- man being called the headborough. 
Its manorial court had the right to execute the law 
of frankpledge, and, beside other privileges, to 
hold twice a year a court leet. Among the fines 
exacted 14 April, 27 Eliz., for trivial offences was 
iijs. iiiyl. for not using caps on Sundays and feast 
days. The inhabitants and parishioners within 
the precincts of the leet were also "in mercy iij d 
for not providing and having a sufficient snare 
called ' A Rooke Nett.' " For not shooting with 
bows and arrows the parishioners were fined 
vj,s. viijrf. among them all, the penalty having 
been much reduced. The Court Rolls are intact 
from the reign of Henry VIII. to to-day, and 
courts baron have been regularly held. In the 
time of Edward the Confessor the manor belonged 
(1050) to Leswin Croc, who also had the advowson 
of the church. The first Norman lord was Roger 
Pictaviensis (Roger of Poictou), third son of Roger 
de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, by Mabel his 
wife, daughter and heiress of William Talvace. 
Through three successive descents the manor came, 
in 1412, by marriage into the hands of John Copin- 
ger, of Buxhall, Esq. His family had long lived in 
Buxhall, and exercised such hospitality that to 
" live like the Copingers" became a common phrase 
in Suffolk. The manor was in the hands of the Copin- 

gers until the close of the seventeenth century, and in 
1899 the Buxhall estates, including the manor, came 
into the possession of Walter Arthur Copinger, the 
forty-fifth lord of the manor, and the author of the 
present work. For a period of close on a thousand 
years, or from the time of Edward the Confessor to 
Edward VII., there has been no break in the con- 
tinuity of the lords of Buxhall. The parish registers 
from 6 January, 1558, to 1699 so far as they are 
decipherable, some injuries having been experienced 
are printed. The illustrations are numerous and 
serviceable, and the book is entitled to a high place 
among works of topographical, antiquarian, and 
genealogical interest. 

The Saga Book of the Viking Club. Vol. III. Part I. 
THE first part of the third volume of the Saga 
Club, issued under the care of the Saga Master, 
F. T. Norris, supplies the title-pages, indexes, and 
other prefatory matter to vols. i. and ii., reports of 
meetings in 1901 and those of the district secre- 
taries, and three separate and important papers. 
The first of these consists of ' Traces of their 
[Viking] Folk-lore in Marshland,' a very interest- 
ing selection of folk-lore, superstitions, and beliefs 
many of them familiar enough, but others less 
well known collected in that particular area 
which, judging from place-names, must at one time 
" have been the most exclusively Norse portion of 
Lincolnshire, if not of all England." This contri- 
bution, which is most brightly written, will be of 
keen interest to all folk-lorists. More ambitious is 
Dr. W. Dreyer's 'Features of the. Advance of the 
Study of Danish Archaeology,' which imparts much 
curious information conc^jning the results of recent 
explorations. The third consists of an essay by 
Mrs. Clara Jerrold on ' The Balder' Myth and some 
English Poets.' The Viking Club is doing good 
service, and its work may be commended to the 
attention of those of our readers who are not 
already familiar with it. Particulars may be ob- 
tained of the librarian, A. W. Johnston, 36, Mar- 
garetta Terrace, Chelsea, S.W. 

A Glossary of the. Works of William Shakespeare. 
By the Rev. Alexander Dyce. Revised by Harold 
Littledale, M.A. (Sonnenschein & Co.) 
DYCE'S glossary, forming a volume of his edition of 
Shakespeare, has long been held in high estimation 
by scholars. Since 1874 it has been in some respects 
superseded by the 'Shakespeare-Lexicon' pi Dr. 
Alexander Schmidt, the assistance of which no 
careful student would willingly forego. The 
last-named work -has, however, long been difficult 
of access, and is now, virtually, not to be pur- 
chased. Bartlett's ' Concordance,' to which in his 
preface the reviser draws attention, is an admirably 
serviceable book, but cumbrous in shape, and is, 
after all, a concordance, not a glossary. It is, 
accordingly, a happy idea of Prof. Littledale to 
revise and amplify the glossary of Dyce and facili- 
tate the employment of its pages. Dyce edited " on 
his own hand," and his references are to the volume 
and page of his own excellent edition of Shake- 
speare. In the case of those employing other 
editions the task of research is necessarily diffi- 
cult and laborious. Dr. Littledale's first task has 
been to alter every one of Dyce's references, and 
to incorporate into the text matters of glossarial 
value which had been left in the foot-notes. The 

Siotations haye then been made to conform to the 
lobe text, as is done in the compilations of Schmidt 



[9 S. X. AUG. 16, 1902. 

and Bartlett. The advantage of this is obvious. 
The Globe may not be an ideal text, but it is one of 
the best. Successive editors have arranged the 
line-numbering according to their caprice, and it 
is next to impossible, in the case of various editions, 
to render the best and most established aids avail- 
able without much labour. All readers know, in 
the case of the glossary of Mrs. Cowden Clarke, a 
work of exemplary labour, how, when one had found 
the references desired, the task was but half accom- 
plished, and one had to read through a long scene 
at a time when probably one was working under 
pressure. It is, as the professor points out, neces- 
sary that some agreement as to the division of prose 
lines should be reached. The treatment observed 
in bringing Dyce's work up to date has been reve- 
rent. Compression has been occasionally employed. 
Where additions have been made by the reviser 
they are generally enclosed in brackets. Shake- 
spearian students will not fail to obtain and em- 
ploy this work, even though they possess that of 
Schmidt. It will greatly facilitate their labours, is 
simple and easy of reference, and convenient to 
handle. Much of the information given is ampler 
and more satisfactory than that supplied in 
Schmidt. Consult both, for instance, under ' Circe.' 
As a work of scholarly reference the book, which 
contains near six hundred pages, and appears in a 
handsome shape, with a Roxburghe binding, is 

IT was to be anticipated that the experience of 
war which we have had of late should cause collec- 
tions of battle-verses to become popular. War, 
however that is recent war does not, it would 
seem, stimulate the poetic faculty. Knightly 
stories were composed in the Middle Ages of which 
war, next to love, was the most prominent feature, 
but they related almost solely to fights fought long 
ago, not to feats of arms that had occurred in days 
with which the authors were personally familiar. 
This, too, may be assumed regarding the ' Iliad.' 
and the ballads also if there were any which 
formed its foundation. The ballads of the North 
Country may be quoted as an exception: but in 
nearly every case we are ignorant alike of date and 
authorship. As the writer of ' War and Poetry,' in 
the Edinburgh Review for July, points out, some of 
the Border ballads contain the true Greek battle 
spirit, and we may add that the word-selection is 
often as true as Homer's own. Nothing has had 
deeper issues or moved the spirit of the age more 
keenly than the war between king and Parliament, 
but it has left us no scrap of contemporary verse 
which touches the heart as the ballads do. Milton 
himself preferred to build his greatest poem in 
regions far away from the stress and struggle in 
which he spent his life. Until the days of Sir 
Walter Scott the romance elements of that great 
contest were unappreciated, and when Scott tried 
to celebrate Waterloo "a crowning mercy," as a 
Puritan would have said, for which he felt deeply 
thankful he failed in a way little short of miserable, 
though now and then there occur flashes of light 
which redeem it from the utter obscurity which 
by far the greater part of it merits. The review of 
Lord Avebury's book on ' The Scenery of England ' 
is well worth attention, though we hardly think 
the writer appreciates it as it deserves. It should 
be borne in mind, also, that Lord Avebury was not 
writing a book on the controversies which range 
themselves around certain scientific subjects. He 

was drawing a picture, not a map, of what have been 
the causes of much that we see around us. If he 
assumes some few things as certain which have not 
as yet been demonstrated by proofs so rigid as to 
mark a man as an imbecile who should call them in 
question, we can no more blame him than we should 
the writer of a popular work who assumed the 
Belgfe to have been of this or that prehistoric race, 
although their origin has not yet been decided to 
the satisfaction of some continental and, we believe, 
also a few English scholars. The paper on ' The 
Royal Palaces of London ' is accurate, but not so 
picturesque as such a subject might have been made. 
This is perhaps owing to the width and varying 
character of the things which have to be men- 
tioned and the confined limits of a review. Victor 
Hugo is seldom fairly dealt with by Englishmen. 
He is at the same time too near and too far off to 
be estimated as he deserves. Blame and praise in 
unstinted measure he has had in plenty, but very 
rarely strict justice. The writer in the Edinburgh, 
who is evidently on familiar terms with all h has 
produced, has striven to be fair, and has been in 
a great degree successful. Neither the praise nor 
the blame he metes out is undeserved. On the 
psychological contradictions which force themselves 
upon our attention when we try to harmonize Victor 
Hugo's perplexing character the reviewer does not 
touch, though it is evident that this maze has been 
occupying his thoughts. There are several political 
articles, on which we have no remarks to make. We 
may say, however, that ' The Albanian Question ' 
throws no little light on subjects of which people 
are usually ignorant, and, we fear, for the most part 
are well content to remain so. 

to C0mstr0tt fonts. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

S, H. Will be inserted without charge, as usual. 

CORRIGKNDA. P. 85, col. 1, 1. 24 from bottom, for 
"Ulster" read Usher ; col. 2, 1. 4 from bottom, for 
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Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
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We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9>s.x.Auo.23,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 243. 

NOTES : Charles II. in West Dorset, 141 Portrait of 
Harriett Powell. 145 Russian and Slavonic Jews and the 
'Encyclopedia Britannic*,' 146 Portrait Superstition- 
Crooked Usage, Chelsea, 147. 

QUERIES : Sir C. Aldis, 147 Court or Semi-Court Dress 
Gordons of Rochester Shetland Song Scottish College 
C. Doyle Lacy or De Lacv Fees and Parish Registers- 
Esquires, 148 Wine in Public Conduits English Families 
in Russia Glisson Ancient Confectionery Dryden's 
Brothers Capt. T. Morris Branstill Castle Grattan's 
Portrait " But ah ! Maecenas" "After wearisome toil" 
Burial-places of Peers, 149' The Soul's Errand,' 150. 

REPLIES : 'Aylwin,' 150 Arms on Fireback Cardinal 
Allen "Only too thankful," 151 *- " Utilitarian" - 
Baronets of Nova Scotia "Ganges "Trinity Monday- 
Bishop Sanderson's Descendants, 152 Barbadian Register 
" Autocrat, "in Russian Duchy of Berwick, 153 Price 
of Eggs" Rock-bottom prices " Chocolate, 154 Mourn- 
ing Sunday " Harry Dick hat": "Adelaide waistcoat" 
Honoriflcabilitudinitas, 155 " Keep your hair on" 
Dutch East India Company Napoleon's First Marriage 
Bicycle Bibliography Iron Duke, 156 Rockall Cuck- 
ing Stool English Gladiators, 157 Hebrew Incanta- 
tion, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Merriman's 'Life and Letters of 
Thomas Cromwell' Kitten's 'Charles Dickens' 'Con- 
gregational Historical Society Transactions ' ' Trans- 
actions of the Hampstead Antiquarian and Historical 

Notices to Correspondents. 


WEST DORSET was recently the scene of 
a very interesting ceremony, namely, the un- 
veiling of three memorial tablets affixed to 
certain old houses which had established their 
claim to the honour of having sheltered the 
prince afterwards Charles II. during the 
three eventful days he spent there in his 
hurried, but fruitless endeavour to escape 
to France from the coast of Dorset after his 
decisive defeat at the battle of Worcester on 
3 September, 1651. This ceremony was the 
complement of an earlier one which took 
place on the outskirts of Bridport on 23 Sep- 
tember last, the 250th anniversary of the 
king's visit to that town, and which is re- 
ferred to in detail later. 

There is, it seems to me, special reason 
why these proceedings and the history of 
the movement which led up to them should 
be recorded permanently in the pages of 
' N. & Q.,' for it was in great measure what 
had previously appeared there upon the 
subject, now nearly twenty years ago, that 
led to the carrying out of the present 

At that time there was an interesting dis- 

cussion in ' N. & Q.' (6 th & v. and viii. 
as to what old houses now exist in the coun- 
try that had formed hiding - places for 
Charles II. between the battle of Worcester 
in September, 1651, and the time when the 
king at last effected his escape from Bright- 
helmstone on the 15th of the following October. 
It was then that I put forward the claim of 
the old manor-house at Pilsdon, in West 
Dorset, at that time the property of those 
staunch royalists the Wyndhams, to rank as 
one of those entitled to this honourable dis- 
tinction, basing the claim upon a local tradi- 
tion that I had heard. This claim, however, 
having been challenged by one of your corre- 
spondents, I went more deeply into the ques- 
tion of Charles II.'s wanderings in Dorset, 
and after consulting the principal authorities 
at my disposal I was constrained to admit 
that the claim I had put forward rested upon 
tradition only, and had no historical founda- 
tion. This I did in a somewhat lengthy paper 
which I read before a meeting of the Dorset 
Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club 
upon Pilsdon Pen itself, the highest hill in 
the county of Dorset, in September, 1886, I 
think from which meeting I date my 
acquaintance with Thomas Hardy, the Wessex 
novelist. This papeVwas reproduced in the 
annual volume (viiiO of the society's Pro- 
ceedings for the following year, and also 
reprinted in pamphlet form. In it I traced 
in considerable detail the wanderings of 
Charles from the time he left Trent manor, 
another seat of the Wyndhams, on the borders 
of Dorset and Somerset, on 22 September, till 
he returned there on the 24th, after his abor- 
tive attempt to quit the Dorset coast at Char- 
mouth on the night of the 22nd. 1 mainly 
followed the narrative given by Mr. J. Hughes 
in his 'Boscobel Tracts' (first published in 
1830, a second edition of which appeared in 
1857) from the authorities there cited, taking 
my former contributions in 'N. & Q.' as the 
basis, and confining myself, of course, to 
those incidents which happened on Dorset 
territory alone. 

A very interesting feature of Mr. Hughes's 
book was the description he gave of the 
houses and buildings which had sheltered the 
king as he found them in 1830. To the Dorset 
portion of them I added in my paper a de- 
tailed description of the condition in which I 
found them some fifty years later. 

In 1897 was published Mr. Allan Fea's most 
interesting work, 'The Flight of the King,' 
in which appeared many excellent illustra- 

[* The discussion as to Charles's hiding-places 
ranged from 6 th S. iv. to xi.] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

tions and descriptions of the various houses 
and hiding-places which had sheltered the 
king immediately after the battle of Wor- 
cester, and many other places and articles of 
interest, portraits, &c., connected therewith. 
In fact, it may be said to be the complement 
or an up-to-date edition of Mr. Hughes 's book. 
In this work Mr. Fea refers to my Dorset 
pamphlet. To me the Dorset portion of his 
work was particularly interesting, in that it 
showed one of the houses which I had been 
unable to locate that " lonely house, situated 
about a mile and a half from Oharmouth, 
among the hills to the north," at which Capt. 
Ellesdon (the author of the ' Letter to Lord 
Clarendon ' which appears in the thirteenth 
book of the ' History of the Rebellion ') met 
the fugitive king on his way down from 
Trent into Charmouth "an old thatched 
building known to this day as Elsdon's Farm," 
at Monkton Wyld, an ecclesiastical parish 
carved out of Whitechurch Canonicorum.* 

General public interest having by Mr. 
Fea's volume and by another kindred work, by 
Dr. Osmund Airy, which I have not yet had 
an opportunity of seeing been aroused in 
what the then Bishop of Llandaff (in a letter 
to Mr. Hughes in 1827) termed " by far the 
most romantic piece of English history we 
possess," it was only to be expected that local 
interest in the subject would be quickened. 

And so about a year ago (May, 1901) 
appeared in the Dorset County Chronicle an 
interesting letter from a correspondent sign- 
ing himself " Lee Lane " (the pseudonym 
being taken from the name of a lane about 
half a mile from Bridport, on the Dorchester 
road, down which the king is alleged to have 
turned on his way to Broad Windsor on 
23 September, 1651), calling attention to the 
fact that within a few months would occur 
the 250th anniversary of King Charles's visit 
to the county, and advocating the erection of 
a memorial at the corner of the above lane 
to mark the occasion, a monumental design 
for which was sketched in detail. The pro- 

* How narrowly Mr. Fea's book escaped having 
any illustration or detailed description of this 
" lonely house," and what happy accident it was 
that put its author on the right track to discover it 
on the eve of the publication of his book, is plea- 
santly told by Mr. Fea in a letter to the Dorset 
County Chronicle in July of last year. He says : 
"Mr. Udal told me of his disappointment in not 
being able to locate this solitary house amongst the 
hills. This acted as a stimulant, and I explored 
those beautiful hills minutely over and over again, 
with maps, compass, and ancient records, but to 
no purpose." Alas for the influence of the tropics 
on one's memory ! I have quite forgotten this inci- 
dent, and, still worse, the fact of my ever having 
met Mr. Fea. 

posal for a memorial I myself supported from 
the distant West Indies, and at the same 
time suggested that, in addition to any monu- 
ment at Lee Lane, commemorative tablets 
might be affixed by the Dorset Field Club, as 
the premier antiquarian society in the county, 
to those four houses in Dorset which had 
been indicated in my paper and in Mr. Fea's 
book as having actually sheltered the king. 

For some reason or other, whilst certain 
subscriptions were promised, neither of these 
suggestions was taken up by the Dorset 
Field Club or by any other local responsible 
body ; and eventually '* Lee Lane,"* who had 
offered a generous donation in support of his 
proposal, signified his intention of himself 
erecting, anonymously and at his own 
expense, the proposed memorial at the corner 
of Lee Lane, though in a somewhat less 
elaborate form than he had at first suggested. 

On 23 September last, then, the 250th an- 
niversary of the king's escape, the memorial 
was unveiled. Its design had been well 
carried out by Mr. Milverton, marble mason 
of Bridport, and consisted of a large plinth of 
Portland stone supporting a very tine slab 
of Bothenhampton stone, rising to the 
height of 10ft. from the ground. It stood, 
covered with the Union Jack, under a 
weather-beaten old oak tree at the head of 
the lane, bearing the following inscription : 

King Charles II, 

Escaped Capture through this Lane 
September xxiii., MDCLI. 

When midst your fiercest foes on every side, 

For your escape God did a Lane provide. 

(Thomas Fuller's ' Worthies.') 
Erected September xxiii., MDCCCCI. 

It was unveiled by Mr. James Penderel-Brod- 
hurst, the well-known writer and journalist, 
and a descendant of the Penderels of 
Boscobel, in the presence of a fairly represen- 
tative company. Mr. Broadley was present 
and took a leading part in the ceremony, 
whilst Miss Lane Brown, a descendant of the 
Lanes of Bentley, co. Stafford, placed a crown 
of oak-leaves upon the monument. 

At the conclusion Mr. Lomas, one of the 
Magdalen College, Oxford, glee singers, sang 
Sir Walter Scott's ballad ' Here 's a health to 
King Charles.' Thus was brought to a happy 
issue an interesting historic ceremony, of 

' It subsequently transpired that "Lee Lane'' 
was the pseudonym of Mr. A. M. Broadley, who 
will be remembered as having some years ago been 
the leading counsel for the notorious Arabi the 
Egyptian, and as the author of ' Tunis ' and other 
works, and who had some time previously taken 
up his residence in the neighbouring parish of 
Bradpole, of which his father had for many years 
jeen vicar. 

^s.x.Auo.23,1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


which a very good account appeared in the 
Dorset County Chronicle at the time. 

Mr. Broadley then, apparently undeterred 
by the very lukewarm support that he appears 
to have received locally, proceeded to turn 
his attention and the funds of the somewhat 
slender subscription list towards carrying out 
the suggestions I had previously offered as to 
the four commemorative tablets to be erected 
at Ellesdon Farm, Monkton Wyld, where the 
king stayed a few hours on 22 September, 
1651 ; the old inn at Charmouth, then known 
as the " Queen's Head," but now, and for some 
time past, as the manse for the Nonconformist 
minister at Charmouth, where the king stayed 
the evening and night of the>22nd, waiting 
in vain for the boat which was to convey him 
to France ; the old house in Bridport, then 
called the " George Inn," now a chemist's 
shop, where the royal party had their midday 
meal on the 23rd, and so narrowly escaped 
detection by the local ostler ; and the old 
inn at Broad Windsor, then known also as the 
"George," where the king spent that night, 
the one immediately preceding his return to 
Kent, having successfully evaded his pursuers 
at Bridport by turning down Lee Lane. All 
but the one at Bridport are now happily 

The tablets, which were of marble in a 
frame of Ham Hill stone, the inscription being 
in imperishable letters, were also the work 
of Mr. Milverton's hands. Those at Char- 
mouth and Monkton Wyld were the firsl 
to be erected, and, being only a mile or 
so distant from each other .were unveiled on 
the same day, Easter Monday last. For the 
account of the ceremony I may be allowed to 

refer to one of the local papers the Bridpor 
News. It states : 

"Those who were present at the unveiling of th< 
King Charles II. tablets at Charmouth and Ellesdoi 
Farm on Easter Monday had a most interesting anc 
a very delightful day. It was an ideal spring day 
and nature was budding out in all her vernal fresh 
ness. To [sic] those who have made themselve 
acquainted with the incidents associated with thi 
flight of the king through Dorset, the drive alon, 
the road from Bridport to Charmouth and Ellesdon 
Farm on that quiet sunny morning could hardly 
.have failed to contrast [sic] that happy condition o 
things with the state of anxiety which must hav 
possessed Charles when he and his companions rod 
nastily on the same road to Bridport on th 
23rd Sept., 1651, with those hunting for his blooi 
before and behind him. The royal fugitive coul 
hardly have time or taste under the circumstance 
to admire the charming scenery through whic 
this old coach road passes. The pretty villages o 
Chideock and Charmouth seem to have the famon 
' heights of Dorset ' standing sentinel over ther 
and guarding them from harm, and one would hay 
to travel a long way to find a more delightful pic 

ure than presented by these villages as seen from 
ic hills descending into them. The RevT F. J. 
dorrish very kindly allowed visitors to pass through 
be old manse which he now occupies, and contem- 
late the room which Charles II. spent the night 
i, waiting for Limbry and his boat which never 
ame. From the window of this room an unob- 
tructed view of the beach may be obtained. It 
s a pity that the royal arms which were erected 
n the room have been covered over by builders 
nd paper-hangers. It is at the manse where the 
irst tablet was gracefully unveiled by Mrs. Simms, 
he revered mother of the rector (Rev. Spencer 
Simms). The drive from Charmouth to Ellesdon 
Tarm opens out vistas of a charming country. The 
Vale or Marshwood sweeps along far below the 
oadway on the right, and here and there some of 
he 'jstately homes of England ' may be seen looking 
iut from their wooded surroundings upon the 
Channel, glittering on the left, and the smiling 
/alleys. Ellesdon Farm, occupied by Mrs. Lar- 
jombe, is a delightful old house, an ideal haven of 
est, secluded from th.e public gaze in a little nook 
within a stone's throw 01 the highway. It was here 
the hunted king, barely of age, rested on the after- 
noon of the 22nd Sept.", and the tablet over the 
entrance, unveiled by Miss Simms, will perpetuate 
the fact to future generations, for the old house, 
with its granite cobble floors, is of such a substantial 
character that it will stand the ravages of time for 
a considerable period of time. The day was, in- 
deed, a memorable and an enjoyable one to those 
who took part in the proceedings, but, as Mr. Broad- 
ley suggested in his speech, these commemorations 
will not be complete until a fourth tablet is erected 
at the house now occupies by Mr. James Beach at 
Bridport, where the king rested, the premises being 
an hostelry at that time. ' 

Mr. Broadley, who again took a leading 
part in the proceedings, in an interesting 
address explained to those present the 
occasion for the ceremony, and shortly 
reviewed the circumstances of the king's stay 
at these two places, after which he sub- 
mitted for their inspection a very interesting 
and valuable collection of contemporary pro- 
clamations and broadsides, letters, portraits, 
medals, and medallions, which he had recently 
brought together. 

On the following Friday (4 April) the third 
memorial tablet, at Broad windsor, was un- 
veiled by Mr. Perkins, the Mayor of Taunton. 
The same paper from which I have just quoted 
gives the following account of the proceed- 
ings : 

"The third of the tablets erected in the district 
to commemorate the places of refuge of Charles II. 
during his wanderings in West Dorset when pursued 
by the Roundheads after the battle of Worcester 
was unveiled by the Mayor of Taunton (Mr. 
Perkins) on Friday. Like the others at the Manse, 
Charmouth, and at Ellesdon Farm, the tablet is of 
marble, framed with Ham Hill stone, and inscribed 
in imperishable letters. It is placed in the front 
wall of the cottage occupied by Mr. Charles 
Harrison, to the left of the entrance to the inn 
yard, which was undoubtedly at one time a part 
of the old ' George Inn,' where King Charles stayed 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

on the night of the 23rd September, 1651. The 
inscription on the tablet commemorates this fact, 
and Mr. Milverton, marble mason, of Bridport, who 
has done all the tablets, experienced considerable 
difficulty in placing it in position, owing to the old 
walls being a species of rubble, composed of stones 
and foxmould. Again the day was fortunately fine, 
and a fairly large gathering of spectators was 
present at the ceremony." 

The proceedings were opened by the Rev. 
G. C. Hutchings, vicar of Broad Windsor a 
place which is interesting as having had for 
a prior incumbent the famous Thomas Fuller, 
author of ' The Worthies of England 'after 
which the Mayor of Taunton unveiled the 
tablet by withdrawing the Union Jack which 
covered it. 

At the luncheon at the "George Hotel" 
which followed, Mr. Broad ley, in again stating 
the occasion of the proceedings, referred to 
the local incidents connected with the king's 
visit. In commenting on the connexion of 
Thomas Fuller with Broad Windsor he pro- 
duced, in addition to a fine portrait of the 
author, several of his minor works, which he 
stated to be very rare in particular, a copy 
of his sermon called ' Jacob's Vow,' which he 
preached before King Charles I. at St. Mary's, 
Oxford, on 10 May, 1644, and of which, it 
was asserted, no copy was known in the 
British Museum or the Bodleian Library, nor 
was it known to Mr. Pickering, who com- 
piled the bibliography in Russell's 'Life of 
Thomas Fuller.' At a subsequent adjourn- 
ment to the vicarage Mr. Broadley's fine 
collection of broadsides, portraits, medals, 
<fec., was submitted for inspection. 

I may add that Mr. Broadley in the course 
of his remarks was, as on former occasions, 
most courteous in his references to myself, 
" to whom," he stated, " the credit of having 
first called public attention to the deep 
interest which belongs to the Dorset portion 
of the flight of the king must always be 
attributed." And this recognition was ren- 
dered still more graceful by his having sent 
me, on the 250th anniversary of " Worcester 
Fight," one of two facsimiles which, with 
the consent of the authorities of the Bod- 
leian Library, he had had reproduced at 
his own expense of the famous letter of 
Capt. William Ellesdon to the Earl of 
Clarendon, already alluded to. This letter, 
of fourteen pages, in exceptionally good and 
clear handwriting for the time, is exceed- 
ingly well reproduced by the photographers 
of the Clarendon Press. 

There only now remains the final tablet to 
be erected in Bridport at the premises of Mr. 
Beach, chemist, which premises occupy the 
site, and, indeed, form part of the old "George 

Inn," where Charles's ready wit alone saved 
the whole party from the most imminent 
risk of discovery. May I express a hope 
that it will not be long before this memorial 
is also erected, and that the good work 
already done by the loyal county of Dorset 
in commemoration of the share which it 
had in the preservation of the fugitive king 
may be followed by many other parts of the 
country ? 

I cannot imagine a better way of spending 
one of those excellent "field-days" which 
so many of our county natural history 
and antiquarian societies set apart every 
summer for the pleasure and instruction of 
their members and their friends, than by 
making them the occasion of such cele- 
brations. Our great metropolis, through 
the Society of Arts, has for many years 
past placed such fitting memorials on those 
buildings which have sheltered its illustrious 
dead. In this Coronation year surely the 
country districts should not be backward in 
doing their share. 

The only matter for regret that I have in 
the work already carried out in West Dorset 
is that it should practically have been the 
work of one man. The great thing to be 
desired in these matters is accuracy, both 
historical and topographical, and this cannot 
always be relied upon when the work is 
initiated and carried out by a single man, 
however able and willing he may be. At all 
events, the imprimatur of a public body or a 
learned society is much to be desired in such 
matters, and I am personally very sorry that 
such a competent body as the Dorset Field 
Club, which numbers amongst its executive 
many men of scientific and archaeological 
attainments,* should not have come forward, 
as invited, and have taken up the burden of 
and responsibility for that which has been 
done by private hands. Other promoters 
may not be so fortunate in having the way 
so carefully prepared for them as it has 
been in the case of Dorset. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

* On King Charles's Day (29 May) the news has 
come to me of the death of the president of this 
society, Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, the well known 
naturalist and geologist, and author of many 
works upon Dorset flora and fauna, in his eighty- 
fourth year an old and much revered friend of 
mine who had been its president ever since the 
institution of the society, now nearly thirty 
years ago. To him, and to General Pitt-Rivers, 
who did not long predecease his old friend and 
fellow-worker, must mainly be attributed the high 
position to which of late years the county of Dorset 
has attained in archseological research. 




THE Earldom of Seaforth dates from the 
year 1623, when Colin Mackenzie, who built 
the Castle of Brahan in the county of Ross, 
first bore that title. The fifth earl, however, 
was attainted for his share in the " events " of 
1716, and so lost all his honours and titles ; 
but his grandson, Kenneth Mackenzie, was 
created in 1761 Baron Ardeloe and Viscount 
Fortrose, and in 1771 was advanced to the 
title of Earl of Seaforth. He it was who raised 
the regiment called after him the Seaforth 
Highlanders. As Viscount Fortrose he 
married, in 1765, Caroline, eldest daughter of 
the first Earl of Harrington ; but this lady 
died without male issue in 1767, and was 
buried at Kensington. 

So far we have the peerages and other 
authorities as sources of information, but it 
is generally considered that there was a 
second marriage, of which they take no official 
cognizance, and in the ' Annual Register ' for 
1779 there is an obituary notice as follows : 
"December, 1779, The Right Honourable 
Lady Seaforth," upon which laconic entry one 
peerage queries, in a note, whether this lady 
may not have been a second wife of the Earl 
of Seaforth, on whose death the title became 
extinct. The probability that this was the 
case is considerably strengthened by a 
passage in the earl's will to which none of 
the aforesaid authorities seem to refer. This 
will was executed at Guernsey on 19 
April, 1779, and proved on 4 May, 1785, and 
from it we find that the earl left the personal 
property of which he had the power of dis- 
posing to " Harriett, Countess of Seaforth, 
my wife." The reference to the Somerset 
House Register for this will is " Seaforth 
274, 1785."* The maiden name of the lady 
thus mentioned was Harriett Powell, who 
was a celebrated singer and actress of her 
day, and whose portrait was painted by 
three of the chief portrait painters of the 
period, mezzotints of which portraits are in 
the Print Room of the British Museum, where 
they are recognized as those of Harriett, 
afterwards Countess of Seaforth. No infor. 

* This will, as mentioned in the text, was 
executed at Guernsey, and the reason of this seems 
to have been that after the Seaforth Highlanders, 
commanded by the Earl of Seaforth, had been 
ordered to proceed to the East Indies, events 
occurred which caused these orders to be postponed, 
and the troops were sent for a time -to Guernsey. 
They afterwards returned to Portsmouth, but it 
was not until 1 May, 1781, that they embarked for 
the East. After a most tedious voyage, Lord Sea- 
forth died suddenly, before the vessels arrived at 
St. Helena, and he was probably buried at sea. " 

mation seems to be available just at present 
as to where the original portraits now are, 
but the dates of the mezzotints are as 
follows : that after Catherine Read was pub- 
lished in 1769, that after Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds in 1771, and that after William Peters 
in 1776. 

Of late years, however, another portrait of 
this lady has come under my notice, which, 
so far as can be discovered, has not hitherto 
been described or engraved. There does not 
appear to be any record as to how this portrait 
came into the possession of the present owner, 
but it is curious that there should be another 
painting in the same family, which is known 
to have been executed seventy-five or eighty 
years ago, in which this identical portrait of 
Harriett Powell is depicted as hanging on the 
wall of the room in the same frame as it is 
now in. This frame is a very handsome and 
characteristic one, and dates from the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, and on the 
back of it is an old label with the words, 
"Miss Hariot Powel afterwards Countess of 
Seaforth " (or Seaford), written upon it in a 
somewhat illiterate hand. 

As to the portrait itself, the pose of the 
sitter is effective and artistic ; she is repre- 
sented as looking towards the left, the head 
and bust only being*depicted, the latter of 
which is partially draped in a sort of blue 
fichu. The colour of the hair is a dark brown, 
and the features quite bear out the apprecia- 
tive verdict of her .con temporaries as tnose of 
a sensible and very attractive-looking young 
woman. The face is well built up, the 
treatment of the flesh tints is delicate and 
clear, the eyes are large and lustrous, the 
colour of the cheeks being heightened after 
the attractive custom of the period. The size 
of the canvas, it should be mentioned, is 
twenty by twenty-three inches. 

The next point to be considered is to whom 
this portrait is to be attributed, and I 
cannot do better than offer the opinion of a 
well-known expert who has examined it, and 
who pronounces it to be a partially finished 
painting, hitherto undescribed, by the same 
Catherine Read who painted the other por- 
trait to which I have already referred. He 
looks upon it as a very good specimen of that 
artist's style and quality, and of considerable 
artistic merit as a painting. 

Whatever opinion may be entertained as to 
the second marriage of the Earl of Seaforth 
does not affect, we may venture to believe, 
the identity of this portrait, which must be 
admitted, I think, to be that of the lady 
whose name it bears, whether or no she was 
entitled to the rank and title of " Harriett, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. A. 23, 1002. 

Countess of Seaforth, my wife "though the 
evidence is probably in favour of that desig- 
nation being the proper one. 

W. H. W. P. 


SLAVONIC LANGUAGES. The Slavonic lan- 
guages possessing a remote common basis, it 
follows that there is a certain degree of 
affinity between them, and that a student 
of one often recognizes a familiar word or 
phrase in another. Thus a Russian scholar 
strolling through Prague or Warsaw will 
understand shop signs and street directions, 
if he knows the compounds of Latin letters 
in which Czech* and Polish are written, and 
he may occasionally catch the drift of a con- 
versation. The Czechs told me that they 
could understand Russians, but that Russians 
did not understand them ; and during a 
Russian conversation which I carried on 
with some Russian-speaking Czechs a Czech 
friend who stood by declared, to my surprise, 
that he could understand me, though not 
his fellow-countrymen. Proficiency in one 
Slavonic language does not of itself lead 
to a mastery of the others, as they differ as 
much as German from Dutch and Danish, 
and Italian from Portuguese and Roumanian. 
(Passim, a Swedish gentleman who married 
a Dane and lived in Norway told me that at 
home he and his wife spoke their respective 
languages and the children spoke Norwegian, 
all being mutually intelligible. To what 
extent this is possible I am not prepared 
to say.) 

When in Vienna I spent a pleasant evening 
with Prof. E. V. Jagic, of the University, 
editor of the Archiv fiiT slavische. Philologte, 
whose knowledge of these languages rivals 
that of the celebrated Prof. Miklosic. His 
experience is that Russian students often 
assume that they know all about other 
Slavonic languages without the necessity of 
study. Such assumption is, of course, a 
patent fallacy, and the best practical proof 
is the learned work in Russian, edited by 
Prof. Jagic, on 'A. S. Pushkin in South 
Slavonic Literatures ' (St. Petersburg, Im- 
perial Academy of Sciences Printing Office, 
1901). It appears, however, that education in 
these South Slavonic countries owes some- 
thing to Russian influence. Aprilov, one of 
the founders of modern Bulgarian schools, 
had a Russian training, and the school in- 
struction-books were translated from Russian. 

* Why do we in England use the unintelligible 
Polish form of the word Cech (pronounced Chekh), 
French Tcheque ? 

(I know of two Russian journalists whose 
names suggest a Balkanic origin.) Some 
teachers wished to direct the youthful Bul- 
garian mind to Greek for inspiration, but 
others found a community of religious ideas 
between themselves and theRussians. Russian 
poetry has also had its influence on the Bul- 
garian national poet Vasov. During the 
Napoleonic wars the Slovenes, the most 
western of the Southern Slavs, became ac- 
quainted with the Russians, and recognized 
a Slav language, and their writers acquired 
a knowledge of general European literature 
by means of Russian translations, these being 
multiplied with the spread of newspapers. 
On p. 370 of Prof. Jagic's work the Slovene 
poet Vodnik is quoted : 

" Whoever desires to understand the meaning of 
various Krainski names must know the Moxko- 
i'itar*ki language. The Krainski more nearly ap- 
proaches Moskovitarski than the other Slavonic 
languages. The Moskovitari have preserved many 
words which have been forgotten by us and have 
gone out of use."* 

For critical analyses of these South 
Slavonic translations of Pushkin's master- 
pieces, 'Ruslan and Ludmila," 'Boris Godu- 
nov,' 'Eugene Oniegin, 1 <fec., and the ex- 
posure of verbal misunderstandings into 
which translators have fallen, reference must 
be made to Prof. Jagic's book. 


Brixton Hill. 

more gratifying to a Jew saturated in 
English ideals than the marvellous growth 
and expansion of the scientific pursuits 
which characterize the brilliant band of 
Hebrew litterateurs on the ' Supplement.' 
So far as I know there were only four 
Jewish writers in the ninth edition, one 
of whom alone, Sir Philip Magnus, will dis- 
cuss the subject ' Technical Education ' anew, 
of which he was in all probability the 
pioneer in this country. Prof. Raphael Mel- 
dola, F.R.S., also signalized his connexion 
with that edition in a contribution foreign 
to Jewish questions. To-day there are at 
least thirteen distinguished contributors of 
Jewish extraction, one of whom, Mr. Lucien 
Wolf, has put together an able summary of 
'Anti-Semitism.' Special distinction has been 
conferred upon Mr. M. H. Spielmann, who has 
charge of the department of art, to which 
Dr. Charles Waldstein will add some nota- 

* The names Krainski and Moskovitarski for 
Slovene and Russian are unfamiliar. The extract 
is given in Russian. 

s. x. AUG. 23, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


bilia in archaeology, &c. Mr. Edwin O. Sachs, 
the authority on fire prevention, will write 
on this and cognate topics. Major F.L.Nathan 
and his brother Major Matthew Nathan will 
discourse on military matters. Sir Samuel 
Montagu will take charge of currency and 
bi-metallism ; David Schloss will furnish 
some interesting data on labour questions ; 
Edward Bernstein is engaged on Socialism ; 
Mr. G. C. Levey, who has had a unique 
experience in the management of exhibitions, 
will show the wonders of our Australian 
colonies ; Leopold Hoffer takes chess ; and 
Sidney Lee deals with Shakespeare. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

well-known fact that the Arab dislikes having 
his portrait painted, from the belief that the 
person who thus delineates him can exercise 
upon him his will. I find an interesting 
superstition corresponding to this mentioned 
as existing among the Irish peasantry. The 
incident is related in the ' Reminiscences of 
Frederick Goodall, R.A.,' just published. 
Mr. Goodall states that once, when sketching 
in Galway, he had a conversation with a 
priest on the subject. The immediate cause 
of the colloquy was a drawing by Mr. 
Goodall of a village girl. The reference by 
the artist is as follows : 

" The kindly priest said, ' That girl has asked me 
whether it was a good trade you followed, and my 
answer was, " If you work all your life, you could 
not do what he is doing. It is a gift from God."' 
This completely cured them of the ridiculous fear 
they had cherished, that when they were actually 
being sketched, their names were being put down 
in a book for enlistment." 

W. B. 

[The idea that the painter of a portrait has 
power over the person painted is widespread among 
savages, but the Irish incident related above is 
hardly akin.] 

survival has on a former occasion attracted 
notice in c N. & Q.' Inquiry was made 
regarding the origin of this and other London 
names several years ago (6 th S. ix. 148), and a 
valued correspondent, H. S. G. (the late Mr. 
H. Sydney Grazebrook), replied by saying 
that the term "usage" was equivalent to 
user, or right of way. At that time, according 
to H. S. G., the passage was straight from 
Lower Stewart's Grove to Britten Road, after 
which it made an elbow and ran diagonally 
along the north-west side of Chelsea Work- 
house into Arthur Street, King's Road. This 
description will apply to the passage at the 
present day, if we remember that the 

thoroughfares formerly known as Stewart's 
Grove and Bond Street -have within pecent 
years been renamed Cale Street. The land 
on which the workhouse was built consisted 
of three-quarters of an acre, " situate opposite 
the little houses near the Conduit in the 
King's Road."* The site of the Conduit is 
uncertain, but it is probably indicated by 
Conduit Court, near the present Oakley 
Street, which is marked on Gary's ' Map of 
London,' 1819. 

The Academy for 12 July, in noticing 
Mr. Mitton's 'Chelsea,' recently published 
the series called "The Fascination of 
London," says : 

" The Chelsea street-name which has the most 
picturesque significance and the greatest value for 
a literary mind has escaped Mr. Mitton's notice. 
We refer to Crooked Usage, a narrow lane that 
skirts the Infirmary in Cale Street. Crooked Usage 
takes us back at one bound to days when the plough 
and spade were in possession of Chelsea. The 
straight strips of ground between the various 
holdings of land were known as usages, and to the 
circumstance that one of these cartways or usages 
was crooked we pwe the name which so curiously 
reminds us how London came from nature." 

It will be seen that this explanation differs 
somewhat from that given by H. S. G., and 
it would be interesting to have corroborative 
evidence on either side. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

'County Families' (1864) it is stated that 
Sir Charles was created a knight in 1821. I 
can find no mention of such creation in any 
other work to which I have access ; but I have 
a private note to the effect that he was 
created an Irish Knight Bachelor. Townsend, 
in his 'Calendar of Knights' (1828), gives a 
list of such Irish knights, which list he 
received, from Sir William Betham, Ulster, 
and James Rock, Dublin Herald, but the 
name of Aldis does not appear therein. Did 
Sir Charles neglect to pay his fees, and thus 
escape notification in the Gazette ; or was he 
the other of those two persons one of whom 
was dead in 1828 who surreptitiously 
obtained the honour from his Majesty, and 
who were alluded to in a royal order dated 

* Vestry Minutes, quoted by Faulkner, ' History 
of Chelsea, 3 1829, ii. 25. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

4 May, 1821, mentioned by Townsend in his 
preface (pp. vi-vii) ? GEORGE C. PEACHEY. 

With reference to the reply about the Wind- 
sor uniform (9 th S. ix. 292), I should like to 
know what is meant by Court dress for 
gentlemen, and its difference from ordinary 
evening dress, as well as the difference between 
Court dress and semi-Court dress. Is any 
one who has received a royal command to a 
dinner or ball at Windsor or Buckingham 
Palace with the mention on the card " Court 
dress" or the like allowed to appear in 
ordinary evening dress ? E. A. 


[Court dress was changed in the mid- Victorian 
period from an eighteenth-century to a modern 
uniform, different for " full dress " and " Levee 
dress." " Full dress " is worn for balls and State 
concerts, with knee breeches, and white silk 
stockings (black for clergy and lawyers) ; also, now, 
for "Courts." Royal dinner parties, unless "full 
dress" or "Levee dress" were specified, have 
hitherto required "frock dress," the nature of 
which was explained at 9 th S. ix. 292, and, as there 
stated, it is rumoured that a new Buckingham 
Palace dinner dress is to be adopted.] 

GORDONS OF ROCHESTER. Can anybody tell 
me the origin of this family 1 George 
Gordon was Mayor of Rochester in 1 740 and 
died in 1760. I believe the family is still 
represented. J. M. BULLOCH. 

SHETLAND SONG. The following quota- 
tion has come into my hands without 
a reference. Can any reader of ' N. <fe Q.' 
supply it ? 

Gude new'r even, gude new'r night, 

St. Mary's men are we ; 
We 've come here to crave our right 
Before our Leddie. 

Versions of it given by Gorrie and Chambers 
are known to me already. N. W. THOMAS. 

SCOTTISH COLLEGE. I should be much 
obliged if any correspondent would inform 
me if there is, or ever was, in Rome a Scottish 
College, founded by Pope Clement VIII. (Aldo- 
brandini), and if that college used a book- 
plate with a figure of St. Andrew in an oval, 
&c., with the Pope's arms, and the motto 
" Clemen ti sidere rovit." 


[Clement founded the Scotch College in 1600.] 

CHARLES DOYLE was at Westminster School 
in 1792, and is described in the list of Minor 
Candidates for that year as the son of William 
Doyle, of Dublin. 1 should be glad to obtain 
further particulars of him. G. F. 11. B. 

LACY OR DE LACY FAMILY. The castle of 
Segewold on the Aa, in Livland (Russia), was 
given by the Empress Anna, in the year 1737, 
to General Field-Marshal Count Lacy, since 
which time the property has been in the hands 
of the families of Lacy, Browne, and Borch. 
The present owner is Prince Krapotkin. Is 
this Lacy one of the same family as the De 
Lacies who were formerly powerful in Lan- 
cashire ? If so, I should be grateful for in- 
formation as to the date of first settlement 
in Russia. FRED. G. ACKERLEY. 

British Vice-Consulate, Libau, Russia. 


I should be glad to know whether a clergy- 
man's legal search fees (one shilling for the 
first year and sixpence for each succeeding 
year) cover all three registers baptisms, 
marriages, and burials or whether he is 
entitled to charge separately on this basis for 
each register searched. Most clergymen 
assume, I believe, that the latter is the case, 
but Mr. Walter Rye (who ought to know) dis- 
tinctly states the contraiy. Can any reader 
of 'N. A Q.' settle the matter authoritatively 
by giving a reference to the Act of Parliament 
by which these fees were fixed giving, if 
possible, the words of the Act 1 I should also 
like to know whether, if one sends a clergy- 
man his legal fee for a search extending over 
a definite period, one is entitled to demand 
that the search be made and the results sent, 
or whether the making of the search is simply 
an act of grace on the part of the clergyman, 
who may, if he likes, return the fee and 
decline to make the search. Again, does the 
search fee include (uncertified) copies of 
entries found ; or can the clergyman say, " 
have searched the registers for the period 
asked for, and have found three entries," 
declining to give particulars unless legal fees 
for certified copies are sent 1 ? The whole 
matter is looked upon in such different ways 
by different people that an authoritative 
statement on the subject would, I am sure, 
be of great interest to many besides myself. 
Moorside, Far Headingley, Leeds. 

[See l Kt S. iv., v., vii. ; 4 th S. iii.] 

ESQUIRES. "Barristers rank as esquires." 
This phrase occurs in a learned article in the 
'Ency. Brit.' What are the status, dignity, 
and property qualification in law and in social 
usage to-day 1 The matter is not so clearly 
defined as is desirable. The nice practice of 
tacking " Esq." to the names of one's butcher 
or tailor has not improved matters in regard 
to fixity or certitude of definition. What is 
the legal basis for the nebulous title 1 When 

9>s.x.AuG.23,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I was a lad my head master used to tell us 
that the possession of an income of 300. per 
annum entitled its holder to the dignity of 
esquire at law. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

[See 1 st S. iii. 242, &c. Consult also Blackstone's 
' Commentaries.'] 

streets were richly adorned with tapestry, 
the conduits flowing with the richest wines" 
(Gumble's ' Life of Monk ') on the return of 
the king. Elsewhere we read of this flow of 
wine. How was it managed 1 Are there any 
illustrations of it 1 ? When did the custom 
cease 1 R. S. 

LAND. Information is desired of date of 
settlement of the following families : Loewis 
of Menar, Balfour of Balfour, Von Holtey. 
The last two are baronial families of Kur- 
land. Are there any English representatives 
at the present day of the Von Holtey family ? 
Loewis of Menar is evidently Welsh, but 
where or what is Menar ? 


British Vice-Consulate, Libau, Russia. 

GLISSON. The famous Dr. Francis Glisson, 
President of the Royal College of Physicians 
in the reign of Charles II., had, with five 
other brothers, Paul, Israel, and James. I 
should like to know what became of them. 
Israel, of Holborn, gentleman, bachelor, 
cet. forty, 1647, had licence to marry Rose 
Cole, spinster. A Mr. Glisson, of Yeovil, 
executed at Sherborne in Dorset, was one of 
the victims of Judge Jeffreys, 1685. 


who lived in Milk Street, City, and gave a 
divorce to the millionaire Jew, David 
of Oxford, in 1242, speaks of a species of 
confectionery eaten in his days, called " tur- 
nures." Is there any record extant referring 
to this luxury ? M. D. DAVIS. 

DRYDEN'S BROTHERS. Wanted, any infor- 
mation with reference to James Dryden and 
Henry Dryden, brothers of the poet. Henry 
Dryden is said to have died in Jamaica, 
leaving a son Richard living, 1708. James 
Dryden, " widower, aged thirty-two," in 1680 
married, secondly, Mary Dunch (Bishop of 
London's Registry). P. M. 

the account in the 'D.N.B.' (xxxix. 92) of 
Capt. Thomas Morris there is a small error, 
due to the fact that Mr. Kirby (' Winchester 
Scholars,' p. 244) confused this Wykehamist 

with a namesake of Jesus College, Oxford, 
who came from Ruthin, co. Denbigh, in 
February, 1748/9, and took the degree of 
B.A. in 1753 (see Dr. Foster's 'Alumni 
Oxonienses ') Capt. Thomas Morris was 
never either a graduate or an undergraduate 
of Oxford University. He left Winchester 
College in 1747, and then, after spending 
some months in London, 

" he obtained a pair of colours by purchase in what 
might at that period be termed the family regiment 
[the 17th Foot], at the age of sixteen, and he joined 
it in Ireland, on its return from Minorca, in the 
year 1748."' Public Characters of 1806,' p. 326. 

I should be grateful for information (which 
the 'D.N.B.' does not give) as to the date 
and place of the captain's death or burial. 

H. C. 

BRANSTILL CASTLE. Can any reader tell 
me in what parish of Herefordshire Branstill 
Castle was situated ?. I have an excellent 
engraving (Buck, 1731) of this castle. The 
inscription states it was at the foot of the 
west side of Malvern Hills, and that Thomas 
Rede, Esq., was its then proprietor. Does any 
trace of it remain 1 W. H. QUARRELL. 

[Bartholomew's ' Gazetteer' gives BransiV Castle, 
near Ledbury.] 

GRATTAN'S PORTRAIT. Can you or any 
reader guide me to* the best portrait of 
Grattan, the Irish patriot? AN EDITOR. 

[See Chaloner Smith's ' British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits,' ii. 556, and vol. iv., additions and correc- 
tions (to p. 632). See also ' D.N.B.,' vol. xxii. p. 424, 
under ' Grattan, Henry.'] 

But ah ! Maecenas is yclad in claye 
And great Augustus long ygoe is dead, 
And all the worthies liggen wrapt in lead 
That matter made for poets or to playe. 

Who is the author of the above? It forms 
the heading to chap. xii. of ' Marius the 
Epicurean,' by Walter Pater. M. EASON. 

author of the following lines ? 

After wearisome toil and much sorrow 

How quietly sleep they at last ! 
Neither dreading nor fearing tho morrow, 

Nor vainly bemoaning the past. 


BURIAL-PLACES OF PEERS. I shall be much 
obliged if any reader of 'N. & Q.' will inform 
me where any of the under-mentioned peers 
are buried : 

Edward Montagu, Earl Beaulieu, who is 
said to have died on 26 November, 1802, and 
to have been buried on 2 December, 1802, in 
the family vault at Beaulieu, Bucks. 

George Darner, Earl of Dorchester, who is 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

said to have died on 6 March, 1808, at Dor- 
chester House. Park Lane. 

Alexander Hood, Viscount Bridport, who 
is said to have died on 3 May, 1814, at Bath, 
and to have been buried atButleigh, Glaston- 

Henry Stawell Bilson Legge, Lord Stawell, 
who is said to have died on 25 August, 1820, 
at Grosvenor Place. 

Alleyne Fitzherbert, Lord St. Helens, who 
is said to have died on 10 February, 1839, at 
Grafton Street, Bond Street. 

John Hely Hutchinson, Lord Hutchinson, 
who is said to have died on 29 June, 1832, at 

Earl Beaulieu and Viscount Bridport are 
not buried at the places assigned. 


'THE SOUL'S ERRAND.' This quaint old 
poem, beginning 

Go, soul, the body's guest, 

is generally, I believe, attributed to Sir Walter 
Raleigh. But I find it in my copy of Syl- 
vester's ' Du Bartas' (Loud., 1633): it appears 
as the last of the ' Epigrams ' in the penulti- 
mate section of the book, which bears the 
title ' Elegies, Epistles, and Epitaphs, written 
by Joshua Sylvester.' Can any one explain 
this ? According to dates given in books of 
reference Raleigh and Sylvester were con- 
temporaries, both dying in the same year. 


(9 th S. ix. 369, 450 ; x. 16, 89.) 

As one of the few surviving friends of 
"Eden Warwick," mentioned at p. 90, the 
author of ' Notes on Noses,' I am able to give 
your correspondent MR. HAKE the informa- 
tion he requires. 

The real name of " Eden Warwick " was 
George Jabet, a solicitor of Birmingham, in 
the literary life of which city he took a 
prominent part until his death, when scarcely 
past middle age, in 1873. 

' Notes on Noses ' had its inception in a 
paper communicated to a small literary 
society which, more than fifty years ago, met 
at Handsworth, near Birmingham, and of 
which I was a very junior member. The 
paper was afterwards expanded into a book 
published by Bentley in 1848, under the 
title of 'Nasology.' The name was un- 
attractive, and the book had a small circula- 
tion until Bentley in 1859 brought it out in 

a cheaper form, and under the more taking 
title of ' Notes on Noses,' when it became 
more widely read and appreciated. The 
author complained to me, I remember, that 
Bentley had done this without asking his 
approval, but I think he was nevertheless 
pleased at the increased popularity of his 
little work. 

He was also the author, under the same 
assumed name, of a charming book that 
turns up frequently in the booksellers' cata- 
logues, entitled 'The Poets' Pleasaunce; or, 
Garden of all Sorts of Pleasant Flowers 
which our Pleasant Poets have in Past Time 
for Pastime Planted.' This book was beauti- 
fully illustrated by Noel Humphreys, and 
was brought out by Longmans in 1847. The 
author has there collected, under the heading 
of the different flowers, the references thereto 
by the English poets, with whose works, 
particularly those of Spenser and Wordsworth, 
he had an extraordinary familiarity, giving 
appropriate selections from their writings, 
and each page having illustrated margins 
descriptive of the flower under treatment. 
I shall be glad if my mention of this 
delightful book should lead to its being more 
sought after and read. 

Persistent ill health was, no doubt, the 
principal cause which prevented the author 
from giving to the world the fruits of his 
wide researches in other departments of 
learning. Ethnology, for instance, with the 
distinctive characteristics of races, was a 
favourite study of his, and he was an 
accomplished botanist, but beyond some 
magazine articles these two works alone 
exist to keep his name in remembrance. He 
was a most original thinker and a man of 
the widest reading ; and retiring compara- 
tively early in life from professional practice, 
he was actively engaged in promoting all 
literary and educational movements. 

He was the first secretary, and in a way the 
founder, of the Birmingham Debating Society, 
which, when united with the more local 
Edgbaston Society, became, under the title 
of the Birmingham and Edgbaston Debating 
Society, the famous training ground in which 
Mr. Chamberlain and the other able men of 
my generation, who have made Birmingham 
what it has become during the last fifty years, 
first tried their strength as debaters. 

He is, too, regarded as the second founder 
of the Birmingham Old Library, the most 
ancient literary institution in the city, 
founded by Dr. Priestley more than a century 
ago, and his portrait hangs in the central 
room of the new handsome building which 
has lately taken the place of the one in the 

9* s. x. A. 23, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


interests of which he worked for many years 
with such zeal and success. 

Lastly, he was a very dear friend, whose 
memory I, in common with a rapidly diminish- 
ing number of Birmingham men, still cherish 
and respect. C. T. SAUNDERS. 

Goethe has much to say about Lavater, 
with whom he worked, in the 'Dichtung und 
Wahrheit.' The following remarks, noted 
by that faithful and diligent diarist J. P. 
Eckermann, on 17 February, 1829, are interest- 
ing as criticism : 

" Viel iiber den Grosskophta gesprochen. ' Lava- 
ter,' sagte Goethe, ' glaubte an Uagliostro und dessen 
Wunder. Als man ihn als einen Betriiger entlarot 
hatte, behauptete Lavater, die* sei ein anderer 
Cagliostro, der Wunderthiiter Oagliostro sei eine 
heilige Person." 

This is not like poor disillusioned Tom 
Pinch, who mournfully concluded "there 
never had been a Pecksniff." When Ecker- 
mann inquired whether Lavater had a bent 
(Tendenz) for nature, the poet replied : 

"Durchaus nicht, seine Richtung ging bloss auf 
das Sittliche, Religiose. Was in Lavaters ' Phy- 
siognomik' iiber Tierschadel vorkommt, ist von 

Brixton Hill. 

[Reply also from C. W. S.] 

ARMS ON FIREBACK (9 th S. x. 29). The 
Sussex iron-masters had three favourite sets 
of devices for these chimney-backs, namely, 
royal or other armorial bearings, mytho- 
logical subjects, and Scriptural stories, so 
that those described by COLONEL doubtless 
come under the first head of armorial bear- 
ings. To judge from their frequent resem- 
blance, so far as the objects depicted are con- 
cerned, to the signboard, the designs on the 
fireback were probably often co-existent with 
those on the house-sign. The " Rope and 
Anchor," or the " Anchor and Cable," as it 
was also sometimes called, was a very common 
sign, being generally represented with a 
piece of cable turned round the stem In 
the scarce print of Fish Street Hill and the 
Monument, in which the signs are distinctly 
affixed to the houses, the "Anchor and 
Cable " is the fourth house from the Monu- 
ment, towards Eastcheap. An early leaden 
token in the Beaufoy Collection bears Gothic 
characters on its obverse side, and four fleur- 
de-lis pointing inwards on the reverse. As 
to the three swords, would they not be the 
Essex county arms, namely, three seaxes or 
swords or scythes ? In Lower Thames Street, 
opposite Billingsgate Market, is a tavern 
with the sign of the "Cock," immediately 

within the doorway of which may be seen a 
large, much oxidized plate of Sussex iron, 
probably an old fireback, which was dug up 
on the site of the present tavern in 1888. It 
appears to have been through the Great Fire 
of London, but is not so much damaged as to 
render the devices upon it unrecognizable. 
The plate is in design a cartouche, and bears 
a lion rampant, the cartouche being sur- 
mounted by a crest consisting of the Tudor 
rose dexter, and the cock sinister, accosted, 
all in low relief, with the initials W. M., 
and date 1586, just legible. The landlord 
(this was about 1890) had a tradition that 
the tavern was formerly known by the sign 
of the " Rose and Cock," which would lead 
one to suppose that the blurred relief, doubt- 
less caused by fire, discernible at the dexter 
angle of the plate is that of the " Rose " in 
association with the " Cock " (cf. ' The Dis- 
appearance of a Celebrated Banking Firm,' 
ante, p. 114). Perhaps another fireback was 
the old cast-iron sign which used to distin- 
guish the "Iron Warehouse" of Messrs.- 
Crowley in Upper Thames Street. It repre- 
sented the sign of the " Doublet," and bore 
the date 1720 and the initials T. C. beneath. 
But if I remember aright it has long dis- 
appeared. J. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL. 

CARDINAL ALLEN (9 th S. x. 107). A pedigree 
and full account of the Allen family will be 
found in the ' History of Poulton-le-Fylde ' 
(Chetham Society, vol. viii. new series). 


In 1842 the Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge commenced a ' Biographi- 
cal Dictionary,' which ceased to appear after 
the completion of the letter A. In the first 
volume there is a long account of his life and 
writings. I may also refer your corre- 
spondent to ' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. ii ; , iii. ; 5J S. vi. 
6 th S. vii., for much valuable information and 
references to authorities. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"ONLY TOO THANKFUL" (9 th S. ix. 288, 
370, 457 ; x. 13). It is not safe to assume 
that any response to a question of DR. 
MURRAY'S can add to his exhaustive stock of 
present information ; but as he has himself 
given warrant to outsiders by his question as 
to "only too," may I say that I have always 
regarded it as equivalent to the French 
"il n'est que trop vrai," or phrases of that 
kind? The "too" in that case would mean 
" more than it ought to be," or " more than is 
desirable," or "more than would be supposed," 
&c. ; and the " only," " nothing else is true of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

it," or "there is no other truth about it." 
To exemplify in English : when I say I am 
"only top thankful," I mean "I have no 
other feeling than one of greater thankfulness 
than is quite dignified" or "than is really 
called for." The "only" in such a phrase 
strikes me as equivalent to the vulgar 
phrase " I am not going to do anything else," 
when it means simply " that is exactly what 
I am going to do" i.e., "I have no intention 
or feeling contrary to the doing of it." The 
story is familiar of the girl who was asked 
if she intended to wear her engagement ring 
in public, and replied, '' I ain't going to wear 
anything else." So when we say, " I am 
only too grateful," we mean, not, as the terms 
would imply, that we are nothing else but too 
grateful, but that there is no other feeling 
of that sort in the mind except a gratitude 
beyond what might reasonably be looked 

Hartford, Conn. 

" UTILITARIAN " (9 th S. vii. 425 ; ix. 197). 
An example of this word, illustrating the 
dictionary definition " of or pertaining to 
utility," occurs in the article on Tennyson's 
'Poems, chiefly Lyrical,' in the Westminster 
Review of 1830. Having stated that the epic 
form belongs irretrievably to the literary 
past, the writer continues : 

" A large portion always was prose in fact, and 
necessarily so ; but -literary superstition kept up 
the old forms after everybody felt them intolerably 
wearisome and soporific, though few dared to be so 
heretical as to say so, until the utilitarian spirit 
showed itself even in poetical criticism, and then 
the dull farce ended." 

This is somewhat earlier than Father Prout, 
whose use of " utilitarian " and " utilita- 
rianism " was noted at the second of the 
above references. It need hardly be added 
that the employment of the word by these 
two writers does not necessarily invalidate 
the assumption of Mill, a generation later, 
when he writes (in note to ' Utilitarianism, 
chap, ii.) : " The author of this essay has 
reason for believing himself to be the first 
person who brought the word 'utilitarian 
into use." Greater precision of statement on 
Mill's part would have been helpful towards 
a clear understanding of his position. 


77). The appendix to 'Encyclopaedia Heral 
dica," by William Berry, fifteen years register 
ing clerk to the College of Anns, London 
contains the names of the " Baronets of Scot 
land, or Nova Scotia Baronets, not Peers.' 
See i. 243-53. During 1867 a volume was 
published entitled 'Royal Letters, Charters 

,nd Tracts relating to the Colonisation of 
Sew Scotland, and the Institution of the 
Order of Knights Baronets of Nova Scotia,' 
ivhich may be of assistance to your corre- 


71, Brecknock Road. 

"GANGES" (6 th S. viii. 354). At the above 

reference I find " Ganges " mentioned as " a 

diaphanous fabric " having its origin in the 

ast. The word does not appear in the 

N.E.D.' or ' Draper's Dictionary.' I shall 

'eel obliged for an account of this material. 


Langton House, Charlton Kings. 

TRINITY MONDAY (6 th S. xii. 167, 234, 523 ; 7 th 
S. i. 38 ; 9 th S. x. 51). Trinity College, Oxford, 
was founded in 1554 by Sir Thomas Pope, Knt., 
and the founder directs that "the scholars 
should be chosen from his manors ; but if no 
such candidates propeny qualified appear 
on the day of election, Trinity Monday, then 
they shall be supplied from any county in 
England." This shows it to have been a 
usual appellation in the sixteenth century. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ix. 448, 511). I have to thank both the REV. 
W. D. SWEETING and H. C. for their kind 
replies to my query relating to the descend- 
ants of Bishop Sanderson ; I had, however, 
already seen Bridges and Whalley's ; North- 
amptonshire' and the Northamptonshire 
Notes and Queries, and had consulted the 
references contained in the latter. 

I have gone into the matter very carefully, 
and have come to the conclusion that Mrs. 
Pare was a great-granddaughter of Anthony 
Sanderson, of Serlby Hall, who married Jane 
Mellish, and who oh. 1687/8. In this case 
Mrs. Pare would be sixth in descent from 
Dr. Anthony Topham, Dean of Lincoln, and 
not fifth in descent from Robert Sanderson, 
Bishop of Lincoln. The daughter of Dr. 
Topham married Robert Sanderson, who 
would be grandson of William Sanderson, 
who was brother of the bishop. 

Whether I am correct in this surmise I 
cannot say, but if the issue and descendants 
of Anthony Sanderson and Jane Mellish 
could be ascertained, we should then know 
how far this suggestion stands true. 

The pedigree of the Sandersons of Serlby 
Hall is given in Raine's 'History of Blyth,' 
and the marriage of Sanderson and Mellish 
is duly noted ; but their issue, if any, is not 
recorded. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

9*s.x.AuG.23,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


BARBADIAN REGISTER (9 th S. x. 28). The 
state of the Barbadoes records was reported 
by the Colonial Secretary at Barbadoes, for 
which see 1 N. & Q.,' 7 th S. xii. 173. They 
appear to be in a very dilapidated condition. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"AUTOCRAT " IN RUSSIAN (9 th S. x. 6, 55). 
As an illustration of this expression, and of 
a sovereign crowning himself, let rne quote 
the following passage, with the hope that it 
may not trespass too much on the space of 
' N. & Q.' It is from the first volume of the 
' History of Napoleon,' by George Moir 
Bussey, which was published in 1840, and 
contains many excellent vignXtte wood en 
gravings after Horace Vernet : 

" The coronation [i.e., of Napoleon] took place on 
the 26th of May [1805] in the cathedral of Milan, 
which, next to St. Peter's at Rome, is the most 
magnificent ecclesiastical edifice in Italy, and 
which, after remaining unfinished for two or three 
centuries, had been completed by Napoleon. The 
diadem used on the occasion was the celebrated 
iron crown of the ancient kings of Lombardy, 
which had rested, undisturbed for ages, in the 
church of Monza, and which, as is generally known, 
is a circlet of gold and gems, covering an iron ring, 
formed of a nail said to have been used at the 
Crucifixion, and to have been taken from the true 
cross by its discoverer, the Empress Helena, 
mother of Constantino. The Cardinal Caprara, 
Archbishop of Milan, officiated, and Napoleon, at 
this, as at his Imperial inauguration, took the 
crown from the hands of the priest, and placed it 
on his own head, at the same time repeating the 
haughty motto which had been used by its former 
owners, Dio me V ha data, giuti a chi fa (occhera 
(' God hath given it to me, woe to him that touches 
it'), an expression which, translated into French, 
became the legend of the Order of the Iron Crown, 
which was instituted immediately afterwards to 
commemorate the event, and which, in formation, 
design, and object, was similar to the more cele- 
brated Legion of Honour." 

A small vignette, signed H. V., represents 
Napoleon placing on his head the iron crown, 
whilst the Archbishop of Milan stands by 
his side, wearing his mitre and cope, and 
having his right hand raised in the act of 
benediction. At his coronation in Notre 
Dame in the preceding year Napoleon first 
received the crown at the hands of Pope 
Pius VII., and placed it on his own head and 
then on the head of Josephine. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE DUCHY OF BERWICK (9 th S. viii. 439, 
534 ; ix. 130, 258, 295, 433). The last reference 
seemingly indicates that Nest became the 
mistress of Stephen, Constable of Cardigan, 
during or after the year 1136, and also a 
mistress of Heury I. about the same time. 

This could hardly have been so, for both 
Stephen and Nest are ' said to have" died 
during that year, and are stated to have had 

"besides several daughters one son," and 

it is probable that the date of death is correct 
in one case at least. Henry I. also died in 
the November of the previous year. Appa- 
rently Debrett is about correct in stating 
that Nest's husband, Gerald of Windsor, died 
in 1118. This would leave sufficient time for 

the birth of "several daughters [and] one 

son " to Nest and Stephen before one or both 
of them died in 1136. 

Robert le Fitz le Roy, Earl of Gloucester, 
died in 1146-7, and, considering the turmoil 
of the times and the constant fighting he 
was engaged in, it is probable that he was 
rather less than more tnan forty-seven year? 
of age at the time of his death. All the 
Gloucester family" died young. Henry I. 
succeeded to the throne in 1100, and so it 
seems likely that Robert was born in Eng- 
land, and not in France. In any case, Henry 
also had been often in England before his 
succession, and could well have known Nest 
before then. It is stated by some authorities 
that Nest married Gerald of Windsor imme- 
diately after the birth of Robert of Gloucester. 
If Robert was born not later than 1100, which 
is very probable (as fe fought his first fight 
at Brenneville in 1118), Nest would probably 
have married Gerald of Windsor in that year. 
We are fairly certain that she remained 
Gerald's wife for more than fifteen years. 
If Gerald died in 1118 she would probably 
have been his wife for seventeen or eighteen 
years. At the time of her marriage and the 
birth of Robert of Gloucester she may have 
been seventeen years of age, and, if so, would 
have been born in 1083. When Gerald died 
she would be thirty-five years of age, and, 
with her reputed great charm and beauty, 
she might well have attracted the atten- 
tion of Stephen, Constable of Cardigan, at 
that age, and have become the mother of 

his "several 'daughters [and] one son" 

by the time she was forty. In 1136, the date 
of her reported death, she would thus have 
been fifty-three. 

It is, of course, possible that Nest was not 
the mother of Robert, and at this distance of 
time it is not possible to prove the point for 
certain one way or the other. The one or 
two modern historians who give Robert 
another maternal ancestry do not produce 
any very conclusive evidence in favour of 
their point of view. Considering how power- 
ful the descendants of Robert of Gloucester 
and of Stephen of Cardigan were at the time 
Giraldus Cambrensis compiled his account of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. rs* s. x. A. 23, 1902. 

his grandmother's (Nest's) family, there are 
many conceivable reasons which may have 
led him to pause before speaking of the Earl 
of Gloucester as an illegitimate son of 
Henry I. or of Nest. Otherwise, as the earl, 
even if not a son, was certainly a kind of 
stepson of Nest, would he not have mentioned 
this latter relationship in his so-called exact 
account of his grandmother and her con- 
nexions 1 

For many years there has been controversy 
as to Robert's maternal ancestry. Some have 
stated that Henry was the son of Nest rather 
than Robert. Sandford, Collins, Debrett, and 
others support the claims of the latter, and 
Betham, in his genealogical tables, makes both 
Robert and Henry the sons of Nest. At the 
last reference it is stated that this Henry 
was killed in 1157 in Anglesey, but it is said 
elsewhere that he was killed there in 1197, 
which, if correct, puts out of court the state- 
ment that he was Nest's son. 

It has been variously said that Nest's father 
was Jestyn, Rees ap Gryffy ths, Reese ap Theo- 
dore, and Rhys ap Tewdwr. The last named 
would appear to have been most probably 
Nest's father, as stated by MR. BAYLEY, and 
not Jestyn, as mentioned by me, at the last 
reference. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

PRICE OF EGGS (9 th S. ix. 147, 277, 412). 
"As good a bargain as an egg is for a penny" 
has other significance in the twentieth cen- 
tury than that which it bore in the sixteenth. 
Last winter so-called fresh eggs were selling 
at a shop in York at five a shilling. As they 
used to say in Lincolnshire, " eggs is eggs " 
nowadays. The judicious Johnson, in his 
'Journey to the Western Islands,' has a 
passage that is pertinent : 

" When Lesley two hundred years ago related so 
punctiliously that a hundred hen eggs new laid sold 
in the islands for a penny, he supposed that no 
inference would possibly follow but that eggs were 
in great abundance. Posterity has since grown 
wiser, and, having learned that nominal and 
real value may differ, they now tell no such stories, 
lest the foreigner should happen to collect not that 
eggs are many, but that pence are few." 

I think it is likely that the eggs of old 
were much smaller than those we now get 
from hens of high degree. A generation ago, 
I remember being astonished at the minute- 
ness of the eggs served up at Alexandria. 
A man heard with amusement and surprise a 
lady asking there for half a dozen eggs with 
her matutinal coffee, but when he saw what 
was brought in execution of the order, he 
felt that her demand was not so very unjusti- 
fiable. There is such noise in Oriental 

poultry yards during the hours one would 
fain devote to sleep that one is apt to be 
sarcastic at the breakfast-table at the array 
of undersized eggs. ST. SWITHIN. 

" ROCK -BOTTOM PRICES" (9 th S x. 26). 
Common in large commercial undertakings = 
prices at the irreducible minimum. " Other 
freight wars, covering much less territory 
than the present, have gone to rock bottom 
before any attempt has been made to restore 
rates. American Newspaper." Quoted in 
'A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon, and Cant,' 
compiled and edited by Albert Barrere 
(Ballantyne Press, 1890). H. C. WILKINS. 

19, Gloucester Street, Coventry. 

I have before me a circular of a Notting 
Hill chemist who uses the phrase " bed-rock 
prices." Bed-rock is tbj solid rock under- 
lying the looser materials of the earth's sur- 
face. Both locutions refer to the idea of 
lowness, and so cheapness. I always under- 
stood that these were American phrases ; but 
upon referring to Dr. Funk's ' Standard Dic- 
tionary 'an excellent American lexicon I 
find no reference to these terms. 



CHOCOLATE (9 th S. viii. 160, 201, 488 ; ix. 53, 
213, 488). Walter Churchman's patent for 
preparing chocolate, mentioned at the last 
reference, bears date 24 January, 1730, and 
is numbered 514 in the series of patent speci- 
fications printed by the Commissioners of 
Patents. Churchman was also the inventor of a 
pump or machine for raising water, which he 
patented on 21 March, 1733, No. 539. Per- 
haps one of your Bristol correspondents can 
say whether anything is known locally of 
Churchman, who is simply described as 
"citizen of Bristol." Is he to be regarded 
as the founder of an industry for which that 
city has since been made famous by the Fry 
family ? On 7 May, 1795, Joseph Storrs Fry, 
"of the city of Bristol, chocolate maker," 
obtained a patent (No. 2,048) for " roasting 
cocoa nuts. As a further contribution to 
the subject I may cite a patent for making 
chocolate granted to James Workman, "of 
the city of London, chocolate maker," on 
10 February, 1725, No. 474. R. B. P. 

If MR. PRIDEAUX will consult ' Cocoa, All 
About It,' by Historicus (Sampson Low & 
Co., 1896), he will find a mass of additional 
historical information re chocolate, also a 
reference to a work by Joseph Acosta in 1604, 
in which mention is made of the use of 
chocolate. J. P. S, 

Automobile Club, Paris, 

9'* s. x. AUO 23, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MOURNING SUNDAY (9 th S. ix. 366, 390, 497 ; 
x. 72). On the Sunday next after a funeral 
it is customary in this village for the family 
and bearers to attend either church or chapel, 
and for the minister who officiated at the 
interment to "improve the occasion." At 
church the bearers assemble in the porch, 
and then all proceed to a pew where they 
can sit together. The family either occupy 
their own pew or, in the case of non-church- 
goers, are provided with convenient seats. 
Without exception they all stand at the 
usual customary parts of the service. I may 
say I have only on very rare occasions seen 
mourners stand during the Psalm at the 
burial service. 

Until very recently it was the rule for 
male mourners to wear long trailing crape 
hatbands. After the funeral the tails were 
pinned up on to the hat and remained so 
until after the next Sunday. The bearers 
were also provided with similar bands, but 
in this case they were of black silk. These 
silk bands were in most instances sold back 
again to the local undertaker at a much 
lower price than they were charged to the 
bereaved family. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

Thirty years ago it was general in this dis- 
trict (North Westmorland) for the mourners 
to attend church in a body the Sunday after 
a funeral, all wearing the gloves, hatbands, 
and scarves which had been presented to them, 
whether relatives or not. The mourners and 
their immediate friends sat together during 
the service, and remained in their places till 
the rest of the congregation had left. 

A similar custom also prevailed at wed- 
dings : the bride and bridegroom, attended 
by those who had accompanied them to 
church for the wedding ceremony, and wear- 
ing the nuptial finery and white gloves, 
always given by the bride, came to church 
together on the following Sunday and sat in 
the same pew so far as possible. The customs 
are now almost obsolete. M. E. N. 

Additional examples of this custom from 
Oxfordshire, Kent, Surrey, East Dorset, and 
Guernsey, were given in letters to the 
St. James's Gazette of 15 and 16 April. There 
is no special reason, therefore, for supposing 
it to be of Scandinavian origin. I give the 
letters below : 

The custom is a comparatively common one 

in the villages of England. I have come across it 
many times in Oxfordshire, Kent, and Surrey, and 
1 have every reason to suppose it obtains elsewhere. 
Ihe "extraordinary part is in my experience the 
usual part. The mourners never take any parti- 
cipation in the service, but remain seated through- 

out. They usually display pocket-handkerchiefs, 
and affect (some of the company at any'-rate) to 
weep. The men usually wore black hat-scarves of 
considerable length, but these are not now seen. 
It would be interesting to know why the writer of 
the paragraph thinks the custom is a " Scan- 
dinavian relic." I am afraid I do not know the 
connexion between the Isle of Man and Scan- 

Precisely the same custom exists in Guernsey, 
wherein the country parishes " taking mourning,'* 
as it is called, is always observed the Sunday after 
a funeral. The members of the family and all the 
relations, as in the Isle of Man, go in procession to 
the church and sit in the front pews, and they 
neither kneel nor stand nor take any part in the 
service, walking back again in procession after the 
service. As regards the origin being Scandinavian, 
it is possible this is the case, as Norsemen settled 
in Normandy (hence the name), and the Channel 
Islands, being part of the Duchy of Normandy, 
have of course inherited all the old Norman 
customs. S. H. C. 

SIE, In West Dorset the custom of which you 
speak in your Friday's- issue is followed, or at least 
was a few years ago. For twenty-two years I was 
rector of a parish in that county, and the mourners 
attended service the Sunday after the funeral, and 
remained seated the whole time, holding hand- 
kerchiefs to their eyes, and apparently quite un- 
conscious as to what was going on. As they all .sat 
together in the best part of the church the effect 
was very strange. JOHN B. M. CAMM. 

* f J. P. LEWIS. 

[We have ourselves witnessed and taken part in 
similar proceedings in the West Riding.] 

COAT " (9 th S. x. 48). Adelaide was a colour 
in vogue in the earlier part of the nineteenth 
century, obviously named after Queen Ade- 
laide, so that the date of its currency may 
be easily inferred; The tint was a purple or 
mauve, not unlike what we know as prune 
or plum colour. E. RIMBAULT DIBDIN. 

HONORIFICABILITUDINITAS (9 th . S. ix. 243, 371, 

494 ; x. 52). -The use of honorificabilitudinita- 
tibus in ' The Complaynt of Scotland,' before 
either Shakespeare or Bacon was born, dis- 
poses of the'suggestion that it was inserted 
as an anagram in ' Love's Labour 's Lost.' 
Your two contributors MR. C. CRAWFORD 
and MR. R. HAINES in following Mr. Sidney 
Lee in his argument that the parallelisms in 
Shakespeare and Bacon are " ph rages in ordi- 
nary use by all writers of the day " may be 
able to inform me of the use of a certain 
word by any other Elizabethan or Jacobean 
writer except Shakespeare and Bacon. The 
word I refer to is " dexteriously." It is used 
for the first time in 'Twelfth Night '(1601) 
when the Clown addresses Olivia, " Dexteri- 
ously, good Madona," and for the second 
time in 'The Advancement of Learning' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

(1605), where we find the phrase, " He cannot 
form a man so dexteriously." It seems rather 
odd that till Naunton used the word in 1635, 
the only two writers who had included it 
in their vocabulary were Shakespeare and 

[This joint use of the word "dexteriously" has, 
we fancy, been recently noted in our columns.] 

" KEEP YOUR HAIR ON " (9 th S. ix. 184, 335 ; 
x. 33). A propos of MR. MARCH ANT'S allusion 
to the word "shirty" 'as a slang expression 
for loss of temper, 1 overheard in the streets, 
on the very day of your last issue, a similar 
slang word. Two " vulgar boys," but by no 
means " little vulgar boys," were talking, and 
one of them said, " He fairly got my rag 
out," his rag being presumably his shirt. 
Probably the expression "to have (or get) 
one's shirt out " has arisen, says Dr. Lentz- 
ner in his ' Diet, of Australian Slang,' from 
the shirt working out between the breeches 
and waistcoat during a struggle. In Surrey 
"shirty" means short-tempered, irritable. 
As regards " rag " meaning " shirt," a soldier's 
slang for the monthly inspection of kit when 
all the necessaries, shirts, socks, and under- 
clothing, are displayed is " rag-fair." With 
regard to "swot" in the sense in which it is 
used among students, the word is a very 
ancient form of "sweat," and is employed as 
an army term for mathematics, probably in 
allusion to the hard work of an examination. 
It is said to have originated in the broad 
Scotch pronunciation by Dr. Wallace, one 
of the professors at the Royal Military Col- 
lege, Sandhurst, and to have afterwards 
been fashionable at the universities. It is 
not necessary, however, to go to Scotland for 
this pronunciation of the word, for "swat" 
is still in use in Staffordshire, and in C. H. 
Poole's ' Staffordshire Glossary ' Chaucer's 
' Rime of Sir Thopas ' is quoted : 

His fair stede in his pricking 

So swatte. 

Again, in Percy's ' Reliques,' i. 25 : 
They swopede together whille 
that they swotte. 

The sweating sickness was called the " swatt ' 

(see Arckceologia, xxxviii. 107). 


In ' Epistolse Ho-Elianse ' (eleventh edition, 
p. 476) it is stated that, aforetime in France, 
"II a perdu ses cheveux " meant "he has losi 
his honour." 

" For in the first Race of Kings there was a Law 
called La loy de la Cheveleure, whereby it was 
lawful for the Nobless only to wear long Hair, anc 
if any of them had committed some foul and ignoble 
Act, they used to be condemned to have their long 
Hair to be cut off as a Mark of Ignominy." 

The modern meaning of the phrase "keep 
your hair on" is, however, probably that 
attached to it by your correspondents. 


This expression has been common in Shrop- 
shire for at least twenty-five years, and 
probably much longer. "Don't get your 
shirt out" was a frequent injunction when I 
was at school. Like MR. MARCHANT'S friend, 
we employed the verb to swot. Boys who 
worked hard for examinations were dubbed 
" swots," a term of contemptuous reproach. 

[We supposed "getting the shirt out" meant 
taking off the coat for the purpose of fighting and 
so displaying the shirt.] 

(9 th S. ix. 9, 118, 272, 312, 411). I gave the 
Dutch title of this company correctly at 
the second reference. In MR. S. M. MILNE'S 
version "Oest" should be Oost, and "In- 
disches," Indische. J. P. LEWIS. 


347, 371 ; x. 72). MR. PAGE will find a very 
interesting account in Mr. F. A. Ober's 
'Josephine, Empress of the French,' pub- 
lished by Unwin, September, 1901. 



304, 490, 530 ; ix. 36, 117, 171, 231, 397, 490). 
In the early sixties a native of this village 
named Facer, a bricklayer by trade, made for 
himself a sort of carriage, in which he sat and 
propelled himself along by means of some 
mechanism which he worked with his hands. 
In recent years I have seen in the City of 
London a cripple using a tricycle which he 
urged forward in a similar manner. The 
present generation of children, to whom a 
rushing motor car is a familiar sight, can 
have no conception of the rapture which 
Facer and his velocipede enkindled in our 
breasts as we eagerly watched for his advent 
on his return from work. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

WELLINGTON (9 th S. ix. 466; x. 11, 73). The 
following information anent the origin of the 
nickname Iron Duke is derived from my 
.copy of ' The Words of Wellington,' p. 179, 
published in 1869 by Sampson Low & Co. 
in their charming "Bayard Series of Choice 
Companionable Books ": 

" Great misapprehension prevails, at home and 
abroad, concerning the origin of this sobriquet. The 
fact is it arose out of the building of an iron steam- 

9"s.x.Aca23,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


boat which plied between Liverpool and Dublin, 
and which its owners called the Duke of Wellington. 
The term Iron Duke was first applied t9 the vessel, 
and by-and-bye [sic], rather in jest than in earnest, it 
was transferred to the Duke himself. It had na 
reference^ whatever, certainly at the outset, to any 
peculiarities or assumed peculiarities in the Duke's 

The italics are mine. 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

ROCKALL (9 th S. x. 69). A scientific expedi- 
tion, in charge of Mr. W. S. Green, M.A., 
F.R.G.S., H.M. Inspector of Fisheries, visited 
Rockall in June, 1896. An official account of 
it will be found in the Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxi. part iii., 1897. 
No doubt this will give ASTARTE all the 
information she requires. Mr. R. Lloyd Prae- 
ger, one of the editors of the Irish Natu- 
ralist, published his diary of the cruise in that 
journal (Dec., 1897, pp. 309-23). The expedi- 
tion, though making several attempts, failed 
to effect a landing on Rockall. It appears 
from the Irish Naturalist of the same year 
(p. 48) that Capt. Hoskyns had landed on 
the rock in 1863. ALEYN LYELL READE. 

Park Corner, Blundellsands. 

Probably the latest account is that in Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxi. 
part iii. (1896-1901), ' Notes on Rockall Island 
and Bank, with Reports upon its Geology, 
Ornithology, Ac.' C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence. 

See Geographical Journal, 1898, index, 
p. 685, and p. 48, vol. xi. R. B. BURNABY. 
33, Carlton Crescent, Southampton. 

(9 th S. x. 48). Numerous queries and replies 
thereto, containing a fund of information on 
the above subject, have appeared from time 
to time in, and will be found scattered 
throughout, ' N. & Q.,' which valuable work, 
as years roll on, developes into a really mar- 
vellous commonplace book, or invaluable 
book of reference on almost every branch of 
antiquarian interest or literary research, and 
I would refer O. O. H. to vol. ix. of the 
Eighth Series, where on pp. 56-57 a learned 
contributor, writing on 7 Jan., 1896, took the 
pains to set out the different series and 
volumes of the work in which trustworthy 
information on this subject is contained, and 
referred readers interested in it to eight 
other works touching the same subject, and 
further mentioned nine places in which 
ducking stools were then (and probably still 
are) preserved. I add a complete list of 
references to the subject : 1 st S. vii. 260 ; via. 

315 ; ix. 232 ; xii. 36 ; 2 nd S. i. 490 ; ii. 38, 98, 
295 ; 3 rd S. xi. 172 ; 4 th S. iii. 526, 611 ; iv. 61, 
144, 295 ; 5 th S. xi. 88, 399, 456 ; xii. 176 ; 6 th 
S. vii. 28, 335 ; viii. 79 ; 7 th S. viii. 286 ; 8 th 
S. viii. 349 ; ix. 56.* G. GREEN SMITH. 

ENGLISH GLADIATORS (9 th S. ix. 407, 453). 
Sword and Buckler Court, on the south side 
of Ludgate Hill, seems to have escaped men- 
tion by writers on London topography, in- 
cluding Stow, Cunningham, and Wheatley, 
yet it frequently occurs in mid- eighteenth- 
century advertisements, and is described as 
" over against the Crown Tavern on Ludgate 
Hill." The "Crown Tavern" is probably 
identical with the present " Daniel Lambert," 
and was a famous resort. J. Huggenson 
was a publisher in Sword and Buckler Court. 
The character of his literature may be gauged 
by such advertisements as the following 
from the Whitehall Evening Post, 4 Dec., 
1756 : 

"This Day is published (Price Six Pence) Modern 
Quality. An Epistle to Miss M r a W , on her 
late acquir'd Honour. From a Lady of real 

Mark by what wretched Steps their Glory grows, 

From Dirt and Sea-weed, as proud Venice rose. 


There is a token e1*tant of another " Sword 
and Buckler" in, Sheere Lane, Temple Bar 
(Beaufoy Tokens, No. 996). The sign was 
set up probably by haberdashers, for Stow 
says that " every haberdasher then sold 
bucklers," i.e., in Elizabeth's time. With 
regard to my inference that these contests 
were a survival of the joust and tournament, 
Steele, in Spectator, No. 436, discovered that 
a principal in one of these combats which he 
witnessed had a blue ribbon tied round his 
sword-arm. This ornament he "conceived 
to be the Remain of that Custom of wearing 
a Mistress's Favour on such occasions of old." 
It is unnecessary to give more than the re- 
ference, but in a later Spectator, No. 449, 
Steele gives a humorous account of how these 
battles were previously arranged by the par- 
ticipants, derived from what he actually 
overheard from two would-be candidates for 
gladiatorial honours. Their prearranged cha- 
racter, however, made them none the less at 
times really desperate encounters, since in 
their excitement the combatants did not 
always preserve their temper. 


In 'The Virginians,' chap, xxxvii., "In 
which various matches are fought," Harry 
Warrington is a spectator of " a trial of skill 

* The last, written by MB. EVERABD HOME 
COLEMAN, summarizes the pith of all the others. 



s. x. AUG. 23, 1902. 

.between the great champions Sutton and 
Figg," and Thackeray in a foot-note indicates 
the source of his description, " the pleasant 
poem in the sixth volume of Dodsley's Col- 
lection " (' Extempore Verses upon a Trial 
of Skill between the Two Great Masters of 
Defence, Messieurs Figg and Sutton,' by Dr. 
Byrom, pp. 286-9 in the edition of 1758). 
Fogg's life is given in the ' D.N.B.' There is 
an interesting account of a combat of this 
.kind bv. \ajiother foreigner, the well-known 
Zacharias"Conrad von Uffenbach, who visited 
London in the reign of Queen Anne. I have 
not my copy of his ' Reisen ' at hand, so I am 
unable to add fche exact reference. 

The University, Adelaide, S. Australia. 

HEBREW INCANTATION (9 th S. x. 29, 78). 
The books used by Faust to conjure with 
were ;not the Hebrew Psalter and New 
Testament. In the ' Ballad of Faustua ' 
(Roxburghe Collection) Faust says : 

Then did I shun the Holy Bible book, 
Nor on God's word would ever after look, 
But studied accursed Conjuration, 
Which was the cause of my utter Damnation. 

Goethe falls back on Nostradamus, the con- 
temporary of Faust. Did Michel de Notre- 
. dame elaborate formulas for raising demons ? 
I do not think so. In Bonneschky's version 
of the puppet : play the invocation is dis- 
tinctly pagan. In the formula used by 
Marlowe, Faust, after futile invocations, has 
recourse to Christian ceremonies with 
success : 

"Quod tumeraris ? per Jehovam, Gehennam, et 
consecratam aquam quam nunc spargo, signumque 
crucis quod nunc facio, et per vota nostra, ipse 
nunc surgat nobis dicatus Mephistopbilis ! " 


I should like to draw attention to Layard's 
' Nineveh and Babylon ' (Murray, 1853), p. 509, 
&c., to the bowls, &c., discovered by him. 

R. B. B. 


Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell. By Roger 
Bigelow Merriman, A.M.Harv., B.Litt.Oxon. 
2 vols. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
So far as regards the whitewashing of the character 
of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, which con- 
stitutes a T^'~ ^ of his self-imposed task, Mr. 
Merriman n._ Nof th but moderate success. Rising 
from the perusal of his interesting and valuable 
volumes, \ve still regard Cromwell as a "selfish 
political adventurer, the subservient instrument of 

a wicked master, bent only on his own gain." We 
should be disposed to regard him as the time damnee 
of Henry VIII., did that truculent and bloodthirsty 
tyrant need any prompting to evil beyond his own 
cruel and rapacious nature. His statesmanship 
Cromwell inherited from Wolsey, and his so-styled 
patriotism means no more than his care to furnish 
such excuse for private spoliation as would give a 
veneer of honesty to proceedings always selfish and 
generally fraudulent. What excuse is to be found 
for him is supplied in the character of Court 
life during the period in which he was in power. 
To say tflat this was a self-seeking age is little. 
What age is not self-seeking? The times, how- 
ever, both at home and abroad, were wanton 
and corrupt in no ordinary degree, and the three 
great monarchs of the time Henry, Francis I., and 
the Emperor Charles were destitute of elementary 
knowledge of honour or morality, and were engaged 
in games of bluff, in which the most unscrupulous 
player was generally the best. 

A second effort of our author is happier. He 
is abundantly able to prove that when the 
highest theological issues attended on the action 
of Cromwell, these were but " incidents of his 
administration, not ends in themselves." To the 
untrustworthy assertions of Foxe it is due that 
Cromwell has been regarded as a pillar of the 
Reformation. His place as a thinker is among the 
sidelights of the Reformation. The exact nature 
of his theological convictions is known to no one, 
himself included, and the words in which he repro- 
bated or condemned heresy were spoken cynically 
and according " to the trick." 

Nothing is settled concerning the origin of Crom- 
well, a matter of the least possible significance. 
Whether the Thomas Smyth and Thomas Cromwell 
of the records are the same man is still left 
in dispute, such evidence as Mr. Merriman 
advances tending towards the disproof of a 
theory that has met with pretty general 
acceptance. What is known establishes that 
Cromwell was a mau of obscure birth and of 
disorderly youth. The most creditable fact in con- 
nexion with his early life is his treatment of 
Frescobaldi, the Florentine merchant, whose claims 
on his gratitude for past service met with ample 
recognition. This fact, if such it be, depends upon 
the testimony of Bandello, the Italian novelist, on 
the trustworthiness of which some doubt is cast. 
Cromwell's direct control over English affairs 
stretches over a decade. Comprising as it does 
the divorce of Queen Catherine, the murder of Anne 
Boleyn, the disgrace and death of Wolsey, the 
execution of Moore and Fisher, the sack of the 
monasteries, the Pilgrimage of Grace, the rupture 
between England and Rome, the Catholic reaction, 
the tentative alliance with Cleves, and the disgrace 
and decapitation of Cromwell, the period 1530-40 
is one of the most eventful in English history. Crom- 
well's rise to power followed his promise to Henry to 
make him the richest monarch in Europe. It was 
maintained until the monarch found that he could, 
with no diminution of income, do without his 
minister, and the minister, accustomed to smile 
after being " beknaved " and " knocked about the 
pate" by his royal master, ventured on indepen- 
dent and unsuccessful action. He ought to have 
known the impatience of contradiction on the part 
of the king, which one time brought Catherine Parr 
herself within sight of the block. The story may 
be read in Foxe. 

9 tb S. X. AUG. 23, 1902.] 



It is impossible within reasonable space to sum- 
marize the correspondence. Those who wish to 
study Cromwell at his worst should read his letters 
to the Princess Mary and to Fisher. In these he 
was doubtless the mouthpiece of the king. He 
contrives, however, to show a good deal of innate 
vulgarity. His astuteness is best exhibited in his 
diplomatic correspondence with Wyatt and others. 
For the first time, so far as we recall, the letters he 
wrote on the eve of execution, with their indiscreet 
and indecent revelations of intimacies between 
Henry and Anne of Cleves, are printed in their 
.ntegrity. They are curious, as proving Henry's 
aversion from the proposed match. Cromwell's 
letters to Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, 
Deputy of Calais, are in the main judicious. The 
entire correspondence, consisting of Cromwell's own 
letters, no replies being given, lowers him in our 
estimate. As historical document* the letters are 
important, and their publication is necessarily a 
boon to the historian. Among Cromwell's injunc- 
tions to the clergy, the most important are that 
they shall set up in every church an English Bible, 
to which the public has every facility of access, and 
keep registers of christenings, weddings, and 
burials. These orders bear date, of course, 5 Sept., 
1538. The book is an important contribution to 
historical knowledge. 

Charles Dickens: his Life, Writings, and Per- 
sonality. By Frederic G. Kitton. (T. C. & E. C. 

MR. KITTON, whose ' Charles Dickens by Pen and 
Pencil ' and ' Dickens and his Illustrators ' have 
\von deserved recognition, has now given us what 
may well be the accepted life of the novelist. 
Those who seek to know the man as he presented 
himself to his chosen intimates will always turn 
to what, at the time of its appearance, was 
ungraciously, if not altogether inaccurately, de- 
scribed as Dickens's 'Life of Forster.' What may 
be called domestic sketches from those who knew 
him best have their value, and the biographies and 
recollections of his associates and friends abound 
with interesting matter concerning him. At 
the time when our knowledge of London begins, 
Dickens was living at Gadshill or lecturing in 
America or in the country. This accounts for the 
fact that we never came under his personal spell. 
No great reader was he, and the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
do not seem to have known him as a contributor. 
To us, accordingly, he has always appealed as a 
writer rather than as an individual. Until the 
time, which cannot now be far distant, arrives 
when a calm and unprejudiced view can be taken 
of Dickeus's place in and influence upon literature, 
Mr. Kitten's book will suffice. Materials are 
wholly lacking for a biography such as Boswell's 
'Life of Johnson' or Lockhart's 'Life of Scott.' 
Forster's life is, of course, the great source of 
information, and so much of the correspondence 
of Dickens as is preserved is also of high value. 
When he retreated to Gadshill Dickens made a 
holocaust of his correspondence, a proceeding 
regrettable in some respects, but almost coiidon- 
able when we think how vulgar and indecent is 
public curiosity concerning the private lives of 
celebrities. There is in Mr. Kitten's book a com- 
mendable absence of padding. We might, indeed, 
have been glad of a little more information, did Mr. 
Kitton or another possess it, concerning Dickens's 
associates in the establishment of Household Words 

or the partners in his vari9us theatrical entertain- 
ments. Only the more distinguished among the 
latter find mention. It is now, perhaps, too late to 
obtain full particulars, but descendants of Dickens's 
associates are alive, and interesting information 
might be gleaned from them. It is painfully 
apparent in Mr. Kitton's book that the large sums 
given to Dickens for his readings not only arrested 
the flow of his invention, but were in part respon- 
sible for his premature demise. Nothing is more 
natural or more pardonable in a man with a large 
family than to seize upon the chance of making a 
secure and considerable fortune. The labour thus 
involved seems, however, to have proved too much 
for him. Thus in the end the actor, which during 
his career seems always to have contended with 
the writer, may almost be held to have won a 
calamitous victory. At p. 80 are quoted some lines 
sent to Maclise by Dickens : 

My foot is in the house, 

My bath is on the sea ; 
And before I take [? a] souse, 

Here 's a "single line to thee. 

These are, of course, a parody of Byron's lines to 
Thomas Moore, beginnfng : 

My boat is on the shore, 
And my bark is on the sea; 

But before I go, Tom Moore, 
Here 's a double health to thee ! 

We have read Mr. Kitton's book with sustained 
interest, and willingly accord it a place on our 
crowded shelves. 

Congregational Hintorfcal Society Transactions. 

No. 1, April, No. 2, December, 1901 ; No. 3, July, 

1902. (Memorial Hall.) 

HAVING regard to the important position occupied 
by the Congregationalisms among the Free Churches, 
it is a matter for surprise that until the spring of 
1899 no systematic effort had been made in the 
way of research into the origin and history of Con- 
gregationalism. The Society originated in a sug- 
gestion made by the Rev. C. Silvester Home to the 
Rev. G. Currie Martin, who lost no time in its forma- 
tion. Work was started at once with a will, and 
a circular issued to all churches founded prior to 
1750, asking for information as to original records. 
The result has been highly satisfactory, and in 
several cases existing histories have been presented. 
These first three numbers contain much matter of 
general interest, and if the Society fulfils its expecta- 
tions the Transactions should afford useful help to 
the future hisorian. The first article is on the 
' Non-Parochial Registers in Yorkshire,' by the Rev. 
Bryan Dale. It contains an amusing extract from 
the diary of Oliver Hey wood (1678) in reference to 
the Act of Parliament for burying in woollen. The 
entry had to be made in the parisn register that the 
enactment had been fulfilled: "A Quaker named 
Abraham Hodgson, near Halifax, buried a daughter 
in linen, gave 50s. to the poor, according to the Act, 
and' then went to Justice Farrar, informed him of 
it, and claimed 50.s. for himself as the informer." 

Until the passing of Lord Hardwicke's Act in 
1753, by whicn all marriages except those of Jews 
and Quakers were made illegal unless solemnized 
in a church or chapel where banns had been usually 
published, the marriage ceremony was occasionally 
performed in a Nonconformist meeting-house, either 
because the parish clergyman refused to perform it 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. 23, 1002. 

or from personal preference. Mr. Dale quotes the 
following from the Report of the Commission on 
Registers other than Parochial (1838) : " Some of the 
earlier registers of the Independents and Baptists 
had their origin during the troubles which occurred 
in the reign of Charles I. But the registers of this 
early date are rare." Mr. Dale states that " so far 
as Yorkshire is concerned they are indeed rare. 
Without taking into account those of the Society 
of Friends, there is only one which properly 
belongs to this period viz., the Topcliffe register." 
"A register of the Society of Friends at Malton 
bears the date of 1621, which was three years before 
George Fox was born." It is strange to remember 
that it was not until July 1st, 1837, when Lord 
John Russell's Bills were passed, that there was any 
uniform register of births, deaths, and marriages. 
In 1840 non-parochial registers were admitted as 
evidence in Courts of Justice. These had been 
deposited at Somerset House, with two exceptions : 
those of the Jews, who had refused to part with 
their registers (these had been kept with great 
care since they had been permittee to settle in 
England by Oliver Cromwell), and those of the 
Roman Catholics, Cardinal Wiseman having 
declined on their behalf. 

The second paper, ' Dr. Watts's Church Book,' is 
by the Rev. T. G. Crippen. The Rev. C. Silvester 
Horne contributes ' From a Diary of the Gurney 
Family,' and another paper by Mr. Crippen is a 
valuable contribution to ' Early Nonconformist 
Bibliography.' These are contained in Nos 2 and 3. 
This, we take it, is to be as far as possible a com- 
plete Nonconformist bibliography, embracing Non- 
conformists generally. The learned Dr. Angus com- 
menced some few years ago a bibliography of Baptist 
authors. This has been completed from 1527 to 1800, 
but he has not been able to complete it on account 
of his ill health. Dr. Angus possesses fifteen hundred 
of the books he mentions. 

We regret that space forbids us to do more than 
refer to Nos. 2 and 3. These contain, among other 
papers, two on 'John Bunyanand Thomas Marsom,' 
the first by Dr. John Brown, and the second by 
Mr. W. H. Gurney Salter ; ' The Puritans in Devon,' 
by Mr. Edward Windeatt ; ' Devonshire and the 
Indulgences of 1672,' also by Mr. Windeatt ; and 
' The Trendall Papers,' by the Rev. T. G. Crippen, 
with some new facts relating to Archbishop Laud. 

In accordance with a recommendation of the 
British Association, the size of the publication 
has been reduced since its first number, so as to be 
in uniformity with the publications of other learned 
societies. We have one suggestion to make, and 
that is that a contributor should have but one paper 
in a number. While fully Recognizing the value of 
the contents, we hold that it would increase the 
interest in the Society to have as many contributors 
to its Transactions as possible. The Congregational 
Historical Society has commenced well. It has for 
its officers Dr. McClure as President, for its secre- 
taries the Rev. G. Currie Martin and the Rev. T. G. 
Crippen, and among its members are to be found 
many well-known Nonconformist names. It should 
have a long career of useful work before it. 

Transactions of the Hampstead Antiquarian and 

Historical Society. (Hampstead, Mayle.) 
THIS volume, which is issued by order of the Coun- 
cil of the Society, and edited by the honorary secre- 
tary, Mr. Charles J. Munich, F.R.Hist.S., gives 
a full and trustworthy account of the proceedings 

during the year 1900. These include some outdoor, 
some indoor meetings, which were, no doubt, 
enjoyable, and in course of which the members 
were shown over Caen Wood by the Earl of Mans- 
field, and Charlton House by Sir Spencer Maryon 
Wilson and Lady Wilson. Many papers of interest 
were read before the Society during the session. 
Whether the work now issued is a continuation of 
the ' Hampstead Annual ' (see 9 th S. v. 100) we are 
unable to say. 

WE have received the following humorous pro- 
test : 

In an advertisement that I have just received 
of Mr. F. Boase's ' Modern English Biography ' we 
are told that " special care has been taken about 
the dates of birth and death. Church registers, 
the books of the Registrar-General at Somerset 
House, printed sources, and private individuals 
have contributed to secure the utmost accuracy on 
these points." In the obituary notice of myself in 
this work it is stated that I held my fellowship 
until my death in the year 1883. 1 am not writing 
to dispute the fact, but I do think that I have some 
cause of complaint of the neglect to assign the date. 
It was not necessary to go to Somerset House. A 
postcard to the College would at once have obtained 
the month and year. Mr. Boase seems not to have 
seen the ' Cambridge Calendar ' of the last eighteen 
years, nor to have looked up the obituaries of Fellows 
of the Royal Society or of that of Antiquaries. I 
may add that a few minutes spent over the British 
Museum Catalogue would have enabled him to 
enlarge his notice by a list of five or six posthumous 
works. J. VENN. 

Caius College, Cambridge. 

to C0mspxmJrntiss. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

Eut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

HERBERT SOUTHAM. The substitution by us of 
July 26 for June 26 is duly noted, ante, p. 140. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

x. AUG. so, lure.] 




CONTENTS. No. 244. 

NOTES: The British Academy ' Morte Arthure' and 
the War of Brittany, 161 Dr. John Bond, 165 Corona- 
tion Advertisement of 1685 " Barrator " " Concert ": 
"Dance," 166 "Chesnut," 167. 

QUERIES : Coleridge Bibliography Title of Book Wanted, 
167 Cavaliers and Roundheads in Carmarthen " In 
matters of commerce" C. J. Mathews Whitsun Far- 
thingsLion and Unicorn Bell Inscription Visiting 
Cards in Italy Cornish Motto, 168 Signs American 
Knee-breeches Weight or Token " Barbitonsor" "Wig- 
wands " : " Fat-halves " Chorley's Poems ' The Vicar 
and Moses,' 169 Nana Sahib, 170. 

REPLIES : ' Woodstock,' 170 "Only too thankful" Dis- 
appearing Chartists Pam Mrs. Jane Barker, 171 Lady 
Elizabeth Percy The Iron Duke Stamp Collecting, 172 
Family Crests De Laci Family " Mallet " or " Mullet" 
Capt. Morris's Wife, 173 English Parsimony Malt and 
Hops, 174 Almond Tree. 175 Monastic Sheep-Farming 
Prince of Wales's Theatre Cries of Animals Greek 
My thology Waterloo Ballroom, 176 Watson of Barras- 
bridge " Beatific vision" Arms of Continental Cities- 
Celebrated Banking Firm Flint : Ferrey Frost of 1683-4 
Boudicca, 177 Eighteenth-Century Indexes Spiera's 
Despair, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Supplement to ' Encyclopedia 
Britannica' Clarke's 'Bermondsey ''Cardiff Records' 
Button's ' Lesson of Evolution." 

Notices to Correspondents. 


ON the 14th of January the London Gazette 
announced that the petition presented to the 
King for the incorporation of the British 
Academy for the Promotion of Historical, 
Philosophical, and Philological Studies had 
been referred to a committee of the Privy 
Council. It is now announced that His 
Majesty has been pleased to accede to 
the petition and to grant to the British 
Academy a Royal Charter. The Charter 
states that the Academy aims at the promo- 
tion of the study of moral and political 
sciences, including history, philosophy, law, 
politics and economics, archseology, and philo- 
logy. Of the original fifty-one petitioners, 
who, according to the draft charter, were to 
be the first Fellows of the Academy and to 
elect a president and council from amon, 
their own number, three have died Lor 
Acton, Mr. S. R. Gardiner, and the Rev. A. B. 
Davidson. Lord Rosebery has been added 
to the list, and the following forty-nine now 
become the first Fellows of the British 
Academy : 

Sir William Anson. 
Mr. Arthur Balfour. 
Mr. James Bryce. 
Prof. J. B. Bury. 
Prof. S. H. Butcher. 

Prof. F. W. Maitland. 

Prof. Alfred Marshall. 

Sir Henry Churchill 

Rev. J. E. B. Mayor. 

Prof. Ingrarn Bywater. Dr. D. B. Monro. 
Dr. Edward Caird. Mr. John Morley. 

Prof. E. B. Cowell. Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 

Rev. William Cunning- Dr. H. F. Pelham. 

ham, D.D. Sir Frederick Pollock. 

Prof. Rhys Davids. Prof. W. M. Ramsay. 

Prof. Albert Dicey. Lord Reay. 

Viscount Dillon. Dr. John Khys. 

Rev. Canon S. R. Driver, The Earl of Rosebery. 

D.D. Rev. George Salmon, D.D. 

Prof. Robinson Ellis. Rev. Canon William 
Mr. Arthur John Evans. Sanday, D.D. 
Principal Fairbairn, Ox- Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

ford. SirLeslieStephen,K.C.B. 

Rev. Robert Flint, D.D. Mr. Whitley Stokes. 
Mr. J. G. Frazer. Rev. H. B. Swete, D.D. 

Mr. Israel Gollancz. Sir Edward Maunde 

Mr. Thomas Hodgkin. Thompson, K.C.B. 

Mr. S. H. Hodgson. Rev. H. F. Tozer. 

Prof. T. E. Holland. Prof. Robert Yelverton 
Sir Courtenay Ilbert. " Tyrrell. 
Sir Richard Jebb. Dr. A. W. Ward. 

Mr. W. E. H. Lecky. Prof. James Ward. 

Readers of 'N. & Q.' will recognize that 
the names of some of the most distinguished 
in the above list are those of frequent con- 
tributors to its columns. In the absence of 
other accommodation the British Museum 
may possibly find aVroom for the delibera- 
tions of the new Academy. A. N. Q. 


BY degrees those processes which began 
with the detection of a description of the 
battle of Crecy in the alliterative ' Morte 
Arthure ' have led to conclusions no less cir- 
cumstantially vouched, involving a series of 
other historical equations. No doubt the 
method of the poet was singular ; it may be 
questioned whether it has in early literature 
any complete parallel. Yet it is perfectly 
intelligible, and will assuredly (unless I extra- 
ordinarily misunderstand historical evidence 
such as has been my familiar study for twenty 
years) establish itself by the sneer weight 
and clearness of its own authority as the 
acknowledged basis of the poet's composition, 
and necessarily the similar basis of all future 
historical criticism. Let rne briefly glance, 
by way of summary, at what has already 
been worked out in detail elsewhere. In my 
book 'Huchown of the Awle Ryale,' reviewed 
with extreme cordiality of sympathy not long 
ago in ' N. & Q.' (9 th S. ix. 458), the proofs 
were advanced for the proposition that the 
poet who was translating Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's account of the expedition of King 



. x. AUG. 30, 1902. 

Arthur against Lucius Iberius deliberately 
set aside Geoffrey's version of the battle, and 
substituted a description showing manifest 
and absolute indications that the prototype 
followed was the battle of Crecy. This point, 
affirmed in chap. ix. of my book, was so 
overwhelmingly certain that later study has 
enabled me, in an article appearing in the 
August Antiquary, to supplement it by cita- 
tion of numerous further passages on the 
same lines, including what is virtually a 
literal description of the site of Crecy by 
the forest of that name on the tidal river 
Somme : 

Faste to a foreste over a fell watyr 
That fillez fro the falow see fyfty myle large. 
' Morte Arthure,' 11. 1401-2. 

A second poetic equation arose from the 
discovery, also set forth in chap. ix. of my 
book, that the powerful rendering of a sea 
fight between the fleet of Arthur on the one 
hand and that of the allies of Mordred on the 
other (described in ' Morte Arthure,' 11. 3600- 
3705) an episode not existing in Geoffrey of 
Monmouth's narrative at all was founded 
upon, and derived its most thrilling incidents 
from, the great victory gained over the 
Spaniards off Winchelsea by Edward III. in 
1350. Inadvertently the poet himself clinched 
the proof of his source, for although the 
fleet of Mordred was repeatedly represented 
as consisting of Danes, yet at the final stage 
of the battle, when the crews were tragically 
spoken of as hurling themselves overboard, 
the alliterative bard forgot himself moment- 
arily, and wrote that the 

Spanyolis spedily sprentyde over burdez. 

'M. A., '1.3700. 

"Spanyolis" had no business in Mordred's 
galleys, and the slip betrayed that the poet 
had sought his inspiration in a battle at sea 
wherein, truly enough, the "Spanyolis" did 
leap overboard rather than yield or face the 
English steel when their decks were carried 
by storm. 

A third curiously systematic and exact 
adaptation of history for romance ends was 
the subtle interweaving into the traditional 
story of the betrayer Mordred of the actual 
story of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, 
paramour of the dowager queen Isabella. The 
Parliamentary articles on which Mortimer 
was put to death in 1330 are practically 
rendered in the complaint preferred by 
Oradok against Mordred in ' Morte Arthure,' 
11. 3523-56. Nor is this all; there is a 
cryptic allusion to a Friday, which by its 
context identifies the terrible night when 
Edward III. seized Mortimer with his 
alleged mistress the queen. For express 

parallels and proofs reference may again be 
made to the Antiquary for August. 

Now to be set in its historical light is the 
sense of a series of references (not all con- 
secutive, yet plain enough notwithstanding), 
to a countess who is a duchess and to a duke 
who is her enemy. This countess-duchess is 
rescued by Arthur, and the duke is taken 
prisoner. Geoffrey of Monmouth has neither 
countess, nor duchess, nor rescue, nor duke : 
the episode is, like .Crecy and Winchelsea, 
an intrusion. My intention is to submit 
evidences that the episode owes its entire 
suggestion to the Anglo-French war in 
Brittany, that the countess - duchess was 
Jeanne de Montfort, and that the duke was 
Charles of Blois. 

Where the object of the adapter of history 
as a romance motive is not to present his 
matter in the manner of the historical 
chanson de geste, but to bring in his material, 
as it were, sideways into the theme, so that 
those who know will understand, and those 
who do not know will go on with the story, 
it is natural to expect considerable freedom 
in the treatment. Our alliterative poet was 
following the main outline prescribed for 
him by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He never 
deviated very far from the ground plan so 
defined. But here and there he fitted to the 
stage scenery of Arthur the historical pro- 
perties of Edward III. No one would expect 
to find this accomplished with any strict 
regard to chronology ; one would look, as a 
matter of course, for inconsistencies and for 
poetic licence ; so we shall find enough of 
these when we examine the use to which 
the poet turned the episode of the Duchess of 
Brittany. The earliest -intimations of the 
presence of this source are a little indefinite 
and contradictory, but a comparison of 'Morte 
Arthure' with Geoffrey's text early reveals 
certain peculiar suppressions and additions. 
Some of these appear in the treatment of 
the baron of Brittany, amongst them fall- 
ing to be reckoned the fact of his imprison- 
ment : 

Sir Howell that es in herde bandez. 

'M. A.,'l. 1180. 

Of more concern for present objects is the 
process of modification adopted towards the 
victim of the giant of St. Michael's Mount. 
In Geoffrey she is the niece of Hoel of Brittany. 
In our poem she is the Duchess of Brittany, 
she is captured " beside Reynes," she is the 
cousin of Arthur's wife, and there is no 
mention of her relation to Hoel. The giant, 
it will be noticed from the message addressed 
to King Arthur, has done great havoc in 
Cotentin : 

vs.x.Aoo.30,1902,] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the contree of Constantyne no kynde has he 

Withowttyn kydd castells enclosid wyth walles. 

The duchez of Bretayne todaye has he takyn 
Beside Reynes as scho rade witk hire ryche 

Scho was flour of all Fraunce or of fyfe rewmes 
And one of the fayreste that fourmede was evere, 
The gentilleste jo well ajuggede with lordes 
Fro Geen unto Geron by Jhesu of heyen ! 
Scho was thy wyfes cosyn, knowe it if the lykez, 
Comen of the rycheste that rengnez in erthe. 

' M. A.,' 11. 84S-9, 852-3, 860-5. 

That these are poetical allusions to the war 
of Brittany is inferred because of the pointed 
intrusions upon the base-narrative of Geoffrey. 
Brittany was overrun by Charles of Blois, 
supported by the French king ; in 1342 he 
was besieging its chief fortresses ; the duchess 
was Jeanne de Montfort, wife of Jean de 
Montfort, who had done homage to Ed- 
ward III. for Brittany, and whose cause 
Edward had espoused ; Ilennes was the 
capital of Brittany, and Montfort itself, the 
name-giving seat of the ducal family, was, 
as may be seen from modern maps, quite 
close to Ilennes. As regards the picture of 
the qualities of the duchess, it is enough to 
recall the words of Jehan le Bel, given wider 
vogue by Froissart, declaring that she had 
the heart of a lion("avoit cuer de lyon "), 
and was a woman of grand courage ('Jehan 
le Bel,' ed. Polain, i. 248). 

One element only of the description re- 
mains unnoticed. Geoffrey calls her Helen, 
never dubs her duchess, and mentions no 
kinship to Arthur ; our poet suppresses the 
Christian name, and styles herduchess and the 
cousin of Arthur's wife. Historically, Jeanne 
de Flandre, wife of Jean de Montfort, Cornte 
de Montfort and Duke of Brittany, was a 
daughter of Count Louis I. of Flanders. 
Pedigrees are troublesome things, and I do 
not profess them; but this is certain that 
whether Jeanne de Montfort was or was not 
a cousin of Queen Philippa of Hainault, she 
was styled in 1344 by Edward III. " dilecta 
consanguinea nostra Ducissa Britannie " 
(Rymer's 'Foxiera,' 10 July, 1344). Perhaps 
the combination of these things will suffice 
to let me start to other elements of my argu- 
ment with an initial acceptance of pro- 
bability and reason for my case. If Pyrrho 
is not yet dead, peradventure he will favour 
me with his rival method of explaining why 
the poet chose to vary in these particular 

Particulars, both positive and negative, from 
is original. 

We leave the episode of the giant behind 
us ; the poet deals with it much in the manner 

of Geoffrey's story. We pass beyond the 
victorious march of Arthur to the scene of 
battle with the emperor ; we see the Romans 
vanquished, and then we reach the episode 
of Metz, which is entirely unexplained by 
anything in Geoffrey. Mrs. Banks has very 
correctly said, in her notes to ' Morte Arthure,' 
1. 2396, that from the beginning of the Metz 
episode "to the landing in Britain the poet 
departs entirely from the chronicles." Re- 
course to Jeanne de Montfort will, however, 
give us very considerable help towards the 
solution of the problem of poetic source. 
First note of all struck in describing the 
events that culminate at Metz is a dispute 
over the succession to a lordship or dukedom. 
Arthur declares that he will arbitrate and 
judge, and dispose of "that ducherye" at 
his will, settling accounts at the same time 
very sternly with a rebellious duke : 

That es Lorayne the leje I kepe noghte to layne, 
The lordchipe es lovely as ledes me telles. 
I will that ducherye devyse and dele as me lykes 
And seyn dresse with the duke if destyny suffre : 
The renke rebell has bene unto my rownde table 
Redy aye with Romaynes and ryotte my landes. 
We sail rekken full rathe, if reson so happen, 
Who has ryghte to that rente by ryche Gode of 
heven! 'M. A.,' 11. 2398-405. 

Processes of explanation are usually the 
sounder the simpler,fhey are; ReadJLorayne 
as a poetic equivalent of Brittany (the 
successsion to which was left debatable on 
the death of Duke Jean III. in 1341), and 
the interpretation is historically perfect. It 
gives us the disputed dukedom claimed by 
Jean de Montfort, uncle of Duke Jean III., and 
by Charles of Blois, husband of theduke's niece. 
Montfort is the vassal and the ally, and is 
under the wing of Edward III., who supported 
his claim to the duchy. Charles of Blois has 
the duchy awarded to him by the "Romaynes," 
in the person of Philip de Valois, King of 
France. Fate was on the side of the Mont- 
fort claim backed by the Round Table of 
Edward III., who, indeed, "dressed with the 
[rival] duke "'to very effective purpose. The 
story is told in all the French histories ; but 
perhaps a single reference may be made to 
the historical poem 'C'est le Libvre du 
Bon Jehan, Due de Bretaigne,' edited as an 
afterpiece to Cuvelier's ' Chronique de 
Bertrand du Guesclin,' by E. Charriere, in 

In the poem of ' Morte Arthure,' after many 
adventures intervening, the advance of Arthur 
and his knights toward Metz accomplishes its 
aim. There has been battle with varying 
fortune. On the one hand the duke has been 
taken (3023) ; on Arthur's side, as a messenger 
tells him, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. x. AUG. so, 1902. 

All thy chevallrous men faire are eschewede, 
Bot a childe Chasteleynne myschance es befallen. 

JV1 /*) 

A siege train is in position round the walls 
of Metz, churches and chapels are being 
knocked down by the attack, a great assault 
is being led by King Arthur. Then comes a 
most peculiar situation a countess-duchess, 
from the crenelles of the castle, implores 
Arthur to send her succour. Undeniably 
there is some confusion here. One labours to 
understand what the duchess was doing there ; 
but the substantial outcome is that Arthur, 
telling her that the duke is "in daungere," 
takes her under his protection, and in the 
end provides for the dowry of the duchess 
and her children. It is best to quote the 

Thane the duchez hire dyghte with damesels ryche, 
The cowntas of Crasyn, with hir clere maydyns, 
Knelis down in the kyrnellestharethekynghovede. 

We beseke 3ow, sir, as soveraynge and lorde 
That 3e safe us todaye for sake of joure Criste ! 
Send us some socoure and saughte with the pople 
Or the cet6 be sodaynly with assawte wonnen. 

Sail no mysse do }ow, ma dame, that to me lenges : 
I gif 3ow chartire of pese and 3oure cheefe maydens, 
The childire, and the chaste men, the chevalrous 

knyghtez : 

The duke es in daungere, dredes it bott littyll : 
He sail idene (?) the full wele, dout 3ow noghte elles. 
4 M. A.,' 11. 3044-6, 3050-3, 3057-61. 

Meanwhile the rebel duke has fared ill : 

The duke to Dovere es dyghte and all his dere 

To duelle in dawngere and dole the dayes of hys 

lyve. 'M. A., '11. 3066-7. 

The victorious Arthur makes disposal of 
the conquered territory at will, appointing 
captains and constables, and assigning lands 
to divers lords as well as 

A dowere for the duchez and hir dere ohildire. 

4 M. A.,' 1.3088. 

Of all which the parable is surprisingly 
complete. Shift the scene from Metz to 
Hennebont in Brittany, and again the details 
of history almost to a fraction fall into line 
with the romance. The annals of 1340 to 
1345 have much to tell concerning the battles 
and sieges in which the dauntless Countess 
of Montfort, who was Duchess of Brittany, 
played a part as strenuous as it was 
picturesque. Decisive tokens in the argu- 
ment of identification of the lady who in 
lines 3044 and 3045 is called first " the 
duchess " and then " the Countess of Crasyn " 
are not only that Jeanne de Montfort was 
both Countess of Montfort and Duchess of 
Brittany, but that Crasyn seems to be a 
form of Carhaix, the name of a place adjacent 

to Hennebont, and also one of the duchess's 
possessions, appearing in Jehan le Bel's 
narrative of the period as Craaiz, a centre of 
the military operations (Jehan le Bel, i. 306, 
309). That annalist describes (i. 287-317) her 
gallant defence of Hennebont in 1342, when 
besieged by Charles of Blois, telling how she 
watched from a window of the castle (" par 
une^des fenetres du chastel ") for the coming 
of English succour. Sir Walter Manny led 
the relieving force, which raised the siege. 
The duchy was held as a fief from Edward III., 
who was truly enough " sovereign and lord " 
(see 1. 3050). It was to procure Edward's 
support in the plea for the dukedom that 
Montfort did him homage. Edward very 
earnestly supported the duchess's cause. He 
had made her husband Earl of Richmond in 
return for his homage and fealty. The appeal 
for help which the poet makes her utter from 
the battlements of Metz not only echoes the 
history of the siege of Hennebont, but figura- 
tively indicates the actual supplication ad- 
dressed to Edward by her on her visit to 
England (Jehan le Bel, ii. 6-13). Her two 
children are reported to have gone with 
her to England. Montfort himself became 
a prisoner of the French king, the fact no 
doubt alluded to in 1. 1180, abo^e quoted, 
referring to the hard bonds of Sir Howell. 
But alongside of these cumulative factors of 
identification must specially be noticed the fact 
that the duchess's enemy, the rival duke, is 
"takyn'Xl- 3023), and as the sequel of captivity 
is " in daungere " (1. 3060), that is, under the 
power of Arthur. More express is the state- 
ment that he and his knights have been sent 
to Dover as prisoners (11. 3066-7). Actually the 
rival duke Charles of Blois was captured at 
Roche Dorrien in 1347 and sent prisoner to 
England. Probably he went vid Calais, as 
Froissart says. Along with him were many 
of his knights. He remained long a prisoner, 
although not quite for all the days of his 
life : 

L'en mena Charles en Angleterre 

Comme prisonnier de droicte guerre, 

Et mains autres de sa partie 

Furent menez, n'en doubte mie. 

' Libvre du Bon Jehan,' 11. 445-8. 
It only remains to say that there was much 
fighting round Hennebont, and that in course 
of it the capture of the " chastelain de Guin- 
gant " was one of the casualties of the vic- 
torious side (Jehan le Bel, i. 287, 314). He 
may be reckoned as the " child chasteleynne " 
whose mischance is mentioned in 1. 3028. He 
was " ung vaillant homme qu'on clamoit le 
chastelain de Guingant," and had been with 
the duchess during the siege. There are left 
for acuter students of heraldry and history 

9">s.x.AuG.3o,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


than I can pretend to be several problem,, 
relative to the episodes dealt with between 
lines 2390 and 3090, including specially the 
personalities and exploits of Sir Florent anc 
Sir Priamus, and the determination of the 
bearer of the arms described in lines 2521-4 : 
He bare gessenande in golde thre grayhondes of sable, 
With chapes a cheynes of chalke whyte sylver, 
A charebocle in the cheefe chawngande of hewes, 
And a cheefe anterous ; chalange who lykes. 

The adventure described in 11. 2464-77, where 
the drawbridge falls, suggests, however in- 
distinctly, the risky encounter of Edward III. 
with Geoffrey de Charnai near Calais in 1349, 
but the elements recognizable, scarcely estab- 
lish the identification. All tuat is claimed 
so far is that so many and so pointedly appli- 
cable to Jeanne de Montfort and Charles of 
Blois are the allusions of which historical 
interpretations are given above, that they 
not only exclude the possibility of accidental 
coincidence, but can be accounted for on no 
other basis than mine. And if doubt re- 
mained it would be enough to urge that 
where Crecy is, and Wiuchelsea, and the 
arraignment of Mortimer, there can be no 
difficulty whatever in welcoming Jeanne de 
Montfort as a heroic figure in a neroic poem 
written not without a distinct political pur- 
pose of glorification of her "cousin" King 
Edward III. and his Table Round. Oppor- 
tunely we may call to mind that this valiant 
countess had her feats celebrated in song of 
her own time. Jehan le Bel (ii. 11, 18) falls 
foul of one of these works, " ung livre rime 
que ung jongleur a fait," which was too 
imaginative to serve as a safe guide to history. 
Jeanne de Montfort, indeed, has, both in our 
island and in France, been an inspiration of 
history, of art, and of romance. 



UNDER the heading 'Bond, John, LL.D. 
(1612-1676), Puritan Divine,' in the 'D.N.B.,' 
v. 340, two distinct persons are confused 

1. John Bond, LL.D., Master of Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. 

2. John Bond, Puritan divine, Master of 
the Savoy Hospital. 

This is a time-honoured confusion, coun- 
tenanced by Wood's ' Athenae Oxon.,' ii. 115-18 
(Bliss), by Ward's ' Lives of Gresham Pro- 
fessors ' (1740), p. 247, and by Hutchins's 
Hist, of Dorset,' i. 603 (ed. 1861). The 
' D N.B.' followed these authorities. But the 
House of Commons' ' Journals ' show that a 
mistake has been made. 

" John Bond, LL.D.," 'sat in the Long Par- 
liament, as a member for Weymouth and 
Melcombe Regis borough (' Return of Mem 
bers,' i. 488), being elected under the writ 
issued upon the order made by the House 
on 25 Sept., 1645 ('Journals,' iv. 286). On 

26 March, 1646, the House resolved (ibid., 489), 
"That this House doth approve of the election 

of John Bond, Doctor of the Civil Law, a member 
of this House, to be Master of Trinity Hall in the 
University of Cambridge." 

"Dr. John Bond," the member, was on the 
" Committee of Lords and Commons to ad- 
judge and determine scandalous offences," 
appointed by an ordinance, dated 5 June, 
1646, for the settling "of the Presbyteriall 
Government in the Church of England " 
(printed London, 1646); see ' Journals,' iv. 562. 
He was, presumably, the "Dr. John Bond 
who was recorder of Weymouth, his Parlia- 
mentary constituency, in Sept., 1646 (Hist. 
MSS. Com., Rep. V., App., pp 587-8 ; see 
also Hutchins's ' Dorset,' ii. 440). 

John Bond, the Puritan divine, preached 
before the House of Commons at church on 

27 March, 1644 ; 22 Aug., 1645 ; 19 July and 
7 Sept., 1648; 11 July and 5 Nov., 1649; 
26 July, 1650; and 26 Aug., 1651. On each 
occasion the House ordered one or two 
members* to give thanks from the House to 
"Mr. Bond" for his sermon, and usually 
requested that the sermon should be printed 
('Journals,' iii. 439; iv. 252; v. 640; vi. 10, 
261, 318, 447 ; vii. 6). The preacher evidently 
was not a member of the House, and he seems 
to be distinguished in the 'Journals' from 
John Bond, LL.D., by his plainer title of 
" Mr." In one place ('Journals,' v. 633) he is 
styled "Mr. Bond, Master of the Savoye." 
As to the appointment of "Mr. Bond" to 
the Savoy for his life in December, 1645, see 
'Journals,' iv. 167, 372, 385, 389. 

While he was Master of the Savoy the 
preacher made a lease, "in trust for his 
wife," of the .manors of Dengie, Essex, and 

arstang, Lancashire, which belonged to the 
nospital. In 1660 Parliament apparently 
refused to confirm this lease, and " Mr. Bond " 
was referred to as " the late pretended Master 
of the Savoy" (Hist. MSS. Com., Rep. VII., 
App., p. 131). No marriage by " John Bond, 
LL.D.," is mentioned in the pedigree of Bond 
'ri Hutchins's 'Dorset,' i. 603. 

According to that pedigree, "John Bond, 
LL.D.," died in 1676. Possibly "the late 
Dretended Master of the Savoy" was dead 
n 1660. At any rate, it is clear that before 

The "Mr. Bond" who was sometimes ordered 
M give the thanks was, presumably, Dennis Bond, 
M.P. for Dorchester (' D.N.J3.,' v. 337). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. A, so, 1002. 

that year he had been succeeded at the Savoy 
by William Hooke, Oliver Cromwell's chap- 
lain. By 12 Car. II., c. 31, s. 11, Parliament 
refused to confirm "William Hooke "in the 
mastership of the hospital a fact which 
settles the doubt whether Hooke was at any 
time Master there, which is raised in Hooke's 
life in the 'D.N.B.,' xxvii. 279. See also 
Noble's 'House of Cromwell,' i. 342, third 

From the " Epistle Dedicatory " before one 
of his sermons (' Occasus Occidentalis.' printed 
London, 1645) it appears that the preacher 
was born at Chard, in Somerset. See the 
foot-note to the ' Athense,' ii. 115. This refer- 
ence to Chard suggests that the preacher 
was educated, not at Cambridge, as has been 
generally supposed, but at Oxford, being the 
member of Wadham College thus described 
in Gardiner's 'Registers' of that College, 
i. 115: 

"John Bond. M[atriculated] 12 Oct. 1632. 
(Somerset, fil. Johannis Bond de Chard, pleb. jet. 
20.) C. M. [Caution Money] received 20 June 1632, 
restored 28 April 1637. B.A. 3 July 1633. B.C.L. 
11 Dec. 1634. Mr. Bond vacated the Study towards 
the College in the South Crest 12 Jan. 1636." 

The preacher probably never rose above 
the degree of B.C.L. (see 'Cat. Lib. Imp. 
Bibl. Bodleianse,' i. 295, 1843); and the 
idea that he was of Cambridge probably 
sprang from his being confused with the 
Master of Trinity Hall. I suppose that 
the latter was identical with the John 
Bond, LL.D., who in 1645 was fellow 
of St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, and 
also with the John Bond, LL.D., who in 
1649 became Professor of Law at Gresham 
College, London. I have not, however, con- 
sulted the records of these colleges, by which 
this supposition can perhaps be tested ; 
and we can hardly make two John Bonds 
grow where one grew before without fore- 
seeing the possibility of a third springing up. 

On 20 Jan., 1650/1, a John Bonde joined 
the Inner Temple. He is described in the 
Admission Book as "Doctor juris civilis, 
filius et heres appareris Denis Bonde, de 
Dorchester, armigeri." The 'Calendar of 
Inner Temple Records,' ii. 298, states that on 
4 Feb., 1650/1, "John Bond, D.C.L., a master 
of the Court of Chancery and member of this 
society," was made " an associate to the 
bench." He had been admitted Master in 
Chancery on 22 May, 1650, and he was suc- 
ceeded in this office by Arthur Barnardiston 
on 3 May, 1655 (Hardy's 'Catalogue of Lord 
Chancellors,' 93). The memorandum of his 
admission to this mastership, which is en- 
rolled at the Record Office (Petty Bag, 

Officers' Admissions, No. 2, entry 33), styles 
him " Johannes Bond, Juris Civilis Doctor." 

The authorities I have mentioned present 
their composite personage as the eldest son 
of the Dennis Bond, of Dorchester, who in 
February, 1648/9, became member of the 
Council of State (see ' D.N.B.,' v. 337). Pre- 
sumably this Dennis Bond was father of the 
Master in Chancery, an j that mastership and 
the mastership of Trinity Hall may have been 
served by the same John Bond. The point 
appears to need further light. But it seems 
clear that the Master of Trinity Hall and 
the Master of the Savoy were distinct 
persons. H. C. 

enclose the following curious advertisement, 
copied from the London Gazette of 30 April, 
1685, which may be worth recording, as it 
refers to the coronation of James II. : 

" Lost at their Majesties Coronation the Button 
off His Majesties Scepter, set about with 24 small 
Diamonds, three rubies and three Emeralds ; a 
Pendant Pearl from His Majesties Crown, about 
9 Carats or 30 Common Grains, and about 16 Great 
Links of a Gold Chain. Whoever gives Notice 
thereof to the officers of His Majesties Jewel House 
shall be well rewarded." 


" BARRATOR." The 'N.E.D.' gives various 
forms of this word in the sense, among others, 
of "one who vexatiously raises, or incites to 
litigation." The following is another form 
of the same word : 

"And let y e Judge know from us that wee ex- 
pect he maintaine the gravity, integrity & autho- 
rity of his Office : and that he doth not bring a 
disrepute on the Court of Bombay by lightness, 
paritiality [sic], self-seeking, or countenancing 
common Barristers in w ch sort of vermine they 
say Bombay is very unhappy." Letter of Ger. 
Aungier and others of the Council of Surat, dated 
8 February, 1675/6, in ' Selections from Letters of 
Bombay Secretariat,' ed. G. W. Forrest (Bombay, 
1887), vol. i. p. 81. 


" CONCERT " : " DANCE." The ultimate 
etymology of "concert," the Fr. concert, It. 
concerto, does not appear to have been clearly 
made out by the lexicographers. Dr. Murray 
in 'H.E.D.' has an interesting note on the 
verb. He mentions three conjectures : (1) that 
the It. concerto is derived from the verb 
concertare, to agree or tune together, and that 
the Italian is identical with the Lat. concer- 
tare, to contend, dispute ; (2) that the It. 
concertare is identical with a Lat. *consertare, 
a derivative of conserere, to join or fit together; 
and (3) that It. concerto, concertare, were 
perversions of conserto, consertare, under the 
influence of concento. With regard to con-,i9oa.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


jecture (1) it has always seemed to me to be 
an extremely difficult matter to connect the 
idea of agreement, harmony, concert, with 
that of dispute, strife, contention. I think 
that conjecture (2) is correct, and that the It. 
concert-are points to an original *consertnre. 
I think also that I shall be able to show that 
it is unnecessary to adopt conjecture (3) that 
the change from consertare to concertare was 
due to the influence of concento. 

The question whether in the Romanic 
languages an nc (i.e., an nts) may represent 
an original ns has within the last few years 
engaged the attention of many philologists, 
and such a development appears to have 
been fully established. The point is treated 
with much learning and acumen by Mr. 
J. D. M. Ford in his interesting article on 
'The Old Spanish Sibilants' in the Harvard 
University Studies and Notes, vol. vii. p. 68 
(1900). Mr. Ford refers us to the following 
authorities on the subject : Schuchardt 
in Romania, iii. 285 ; P. Meyer in Romania, 
vii. 107 ; Revue des Langues Romanes, 
v. 333 ; Meyer-Liibke, i. 500. This sound- 
change seems to have been very common in 
Old Spanish, hence in the ' Cid ' " San 
^alvador " for San Salvador; " 9errar " for Lat. 
serrare, due to the compound "encerrar" for 
Lat. inserrare. Hence may be explained the 
c in M.E. cendal, a word common to Provencal, 
Old French, and Spanish, from a phrase in 
sendalo, Low Lat. sendalum being connected 
with Greek o-ivSwi/ (Indian muslin). 

From the above it may be seen that there 
is nothing to be said on phonetic grounds 
against the identification of a Romanic 
dan7M,re(E. dance) with an Old German danson. 
But the identification seems to me to be on 
other grounds very doubtful. The widely 
spread German nations had various words 
for this delightful art, but amongst them the 
word danson does not appear. The Goths in 
Mcesia used laikan, laiks (Luke xv. 25), the 
English frician (Matt. xi. 17), tumbian (Matt, 
xiv. 6), and plegian (Lindisfarne). In the 
'Heliand' the word is spilon (German spielen). 
The Germans and English also borrowed from 
the Latin saltare the forms salzon (Tatian) 
and saltian (Luke vii. 32), and the Goths 
borrowed from the Slavs plinsjan (Matt. xi. 
17). It seems extremely improbable that, a 
popular word for the saltatory art already 
existing in Latin, a word should have been 
borrowed by the Romanic nations from the 
Germans, and that that word should not have 
been one of the above-cited words, words 
in common use, but a rare word like danson, 
which did not mean to dance, but to stretch 
(cp. Ger. dehneri). COMESTOR OXONIENSIS. 

" CHESNUT." Although the spelling-" ches- 
nut " is common enough at the present time 
in the descriptive terms used regarding 
horses, it is not accepted as a correct literary 
form. The ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' marks 
it as archaic. Still, if we are to accept Mr. 
W. M. llossetti's readings, Shelley appears to 
have used this spelling of the word. In 
' Rosalind and Helen,' e.g , the opening speech 
of Helen recalls "our land," 

Whose wilds and floods, 
Barren and dark although they be, 

Were dearer than these chesnut woods. 

A little later the same speaker says : 

In the dell of yon dark chesnut wood 
Is a stone seat, a solitude 
Less like our own. 

In theminutice of style Shelley was notoriously 
careless, but, as "chesnut" was a form which 
he simply continued, his usage should, per- 
haps, rescue it yet awhile from the company 
of effete archaisms. Etymologically, of course, 
the spelling is indefensible. 


[The 'H.E.D.' has some interesting information 
on chesnut : " Chtxten - nut was soon reduced to 
chestenut, chestnut, and chesnut ; the last was the 
predominant form (8'2 per cent, of instances ex- 
amined) from 1570 to c. 1820, and is used in all 
the editions of Bailey^ chestnut was adopted by 
Johnson, and prevails ih current use."] 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

for immediate (private) publication an ex- 
haustive bibliography of Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge, and intend to include a list of the 
volumes enriched by his marginalia. Some 
of these books are now accessible in the 
British Museum, but a large number were 
scattered in the sale of the libraries of Lamb, 
Southey, Prof. J. H. Green, and others. As 
I desire to indicate the present whereabouts 
of all volumes annotated by S. T. Coleridge, 
may I ask the courtesy of a brief note in an 
early number of ' N. & Q.' calling the atten- 
tion of your readers to my search ? I shall be 
grateful for any information concerning these 
marginalia or other interesting Coleridgeana. 

Central High School, Philadelphia. 

short stories, eight or ten years ago, was one 
called 'An Old Woman of the Sea,' describing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. so, 1902. 

the match-making designs in her own favour 
of a lady no longer young, and how the 
quarry escaped by leaving her on board a 
friend's yacht and steaming away in his 
own. What was the title of the book ? 

T. S. B. 

any record of the Cavalier and Roundhead 
families of Carmarthen and Glamorgan ? The 
Shewens and the Mansels both took part in 
the Civil War. Is it recorded on which side 
these families fought 1 T. M.-S. 


THE DUTCH." As an old subscriber to 
' N. & Q.,' may I ask you to obtain for 
me a correct reference to the source of the 
frequently quoted words : 
In matters of commerce the fault of the Dutch 
Is asking too little and taking too much ? 

I have searched the poetry of the anti-Jaco- 
bins, but cannot find it there, and strangely, 
although the quotation is well known, there 
is no mention of it in any of the dictionaries 
of quotations. E. ERSKINE SCOTT. 

[At 4 th S. i. 438 the full correspondence between 
Canning and Sir Charles Bagot, in which the verses 
were first given very interesting it is is printed. 
See also 4" S. i. 267, 302, 427.] 

CHARLES J. MATHEWS. I am anxious to 
ascertain the dates of his appearances 
between 1837 and 1845 at the Olympic, 
Covent Garden, Drury Lane, and Haymar- 
ket theatres, in the following pieces : ' Deaf 
Lover,' ' Bold Stroke for a Wife, ' Lying made 
Easy,' ' Day Well Spent,' ' Duel,' ' Wolf and 
the Lamb,' ' Perfection,' ' Too Late for Din- 
ner,' 'Free and Easy,' Millamour in 'Know 
Your Own Mind,' and ' Three and the Deuce.' 
Will correspondents of ' N. & Q.' kindly help 
me? R. WALTERS. 

WHITSUN FARTHINGS. In a churchwardens' 
book at Upton Snodsbury, Worcester, occur 
the following entries : 

s. d. 

1797, June 12th. Wisson farthings ... 10 

1798, June 12th. Pd. for Wisson farthings 6 

1799, Pd. for Wisson farthings 10 

The payment would thus seem to have varied 
in amount. What was the basis of it 1 Was 
it invariably made to the cathedral 1 

Stoulton Vicarage. 

FOR THE CROWN." What are the origin and 
signification (if any) of this well - known 
rime ? There was, indeed, once upon a time 
a battle fought at Flodden Field ; but it is 

many a long day since that chaste but super- 
cilious beast, the unicorn, has permitted him- 
self to be chased round the town by a mere 
English lion (or leopard). A. R. BAYLEY. 

BELL INSCRIPTION. I should like to com- 
mend to the notice of your correspondents 
the inscription on the tenor bell at Bitterley, 
Salop, which runs as follows : 




" To Jesus the Lord and St. Anne by the 
ordinance of Alice Sturye, whom God absolve 
by His great mercy." GAVNT is for GRAVNT, 
i.e., grand. The bell belongs to a class familiar 
to campanists, the stops between the words 
being heads of Edward III. and Philippa. 
Thus we are precluded from attributing it 
to a date earlier than 1330. But I believe 
Norman - French monumental inscriptions 
were only in use from 1290 to 1320 or there- 
abouts ; and, on the other hand, it is pro- 
bable that the founder of this bell was not 
the original owner of these stamps. There 
seems to be some difficulty in tracing the name 
of Alice Sturye or Stury, but a recent corre- 
spondent of the Shrewsbury Chronicle states 
that there were two Alice Sturys in the early 
part of the fourteenth century : one the wife 
of Sir William Stury, Knt., about 1318 ; the 
other, of SodylJt, wife of Richard Stury, 
1332. The Herald and Genealogist mentions 
an Alice Stury, of Lapford, Devon, said to 
be the daughter of Sir John Blount, Knt., 
who was living in 1413 (vol. vi. p. 14). This 
lady, if her connexion with Salop could be 
traced, would suit best with the probable 
date of the bell. I should be most grateful 
if any of your readers could throw more light 
on the subject. H. B. WALTERS. 


" The visiting cards in Italy are commonly orna- 
mented with emblems and monuments : I received 
cards at Verona on which was an engraving of the 
amphitheatre ; the Venetians have on theirs the 
bridge of the Rialto, the front of St. Mark, the 

columns of the Piazzetta, &c." "Historical 

Travels in Italy by M. Valery. translated by 

C. E. Clifton Paris, Baudry's European Library, 

1852," p. 145, note 2, bk. vi. ch. ii. 
Is this custom entirely obsolete ? The date 
of Valery's travelling and living in Italy 
appears, according to the preface, to have 
been about 1825 to 1835. 


long ago as September, 1851, the question 
was asked (1 st S. iv. 174), "Can you tell me 
when the Cornish motto ' One and all ' was 

9 th S. X. AUG. 30, 1902.] 



adopted, and why ? " To this no answer was 
given, and I believe similar queries have 
since remained unanswered. May I repeat 
it now 1 DUNHEVED. 

SIGNS. Will any reader kindly inform me 
as to the origin of the following signs : " Bas- 
sett's Pole," " Blankmakers' Arms," " Bull and 
Spectacles," "Gate Hangs Well," "Logger- 
heads," " Posada." F. J. WROTTESLEY. 

[For "Gate Hangs Well" see 6 th S. ii. 164, 259, 
335, 438, 524.] 

on this tremendous question the Daily News 
of Monday seems to assume that Mr. Choate 
did not wear breeches at the v Abbey. Those 
who saw him walk up the nave to his place 
say he did, and we believe that as a fact 
the representatives of the United States 
Embassy, like Washington, wore "frock 
dress." Why not ? A. K. B. 

WEIGHT OR TOKEN. I have in my posses- 
sion a small metal disc, apparently of brass, 
somewhat less in size than a farthing, but 
thicker. The obverse reads, " George III. 
10 s 5 d "; the reverse, "2 Dwt. 16 Gr. 1772." 
The lettering is raised, and there is an 
irregular border, suggesting a rope pattern. 
Between the 2 and the 16 is punctured what 
looks like an official stamp, such as is used 
at Goldsmiths' Hall to mark plate. The 
figure therein is extremely small, and might 
be a covered cup or jug with handle and 
spout, or it might be a lion rampant with 
upturned tail. The disc is in a perfectly 
sharp and clear condition, and I should be 
much obliged for any information as to the 
source of its issue and use. WM. NORMAN. 

"BARBITONSOR." I have in my possession 
an old parchment deed bearing date 25 Nov., 
1719. The deed is in Latin, and is an appoint- 
ment of one William Skinner to an office of 
some kind in connexion with Ely Cathedral. 
After the usual salutation, "Omnibus Christi 
Fidelibus," Robert Mosse, Professor of Theo- 
logy and Dean of Ely Cathedral, appoints (as 
follows) : 

" Dedisse, concess'e et per prcesentes confirmasse 
(Julielmo Skinner servient nostro officium Barbi- 
tonsoris Eccl'ise nostrse Elien' praedicta et ipsum 
Barbitonsorem nostrum Elien' facimus, constituimus 
et ordinamus per prsesentes." 

The deed goes on to relate that the appoint- 
ment was for life, and that an annual stipend 
of 61. was to be paid to the appointee for his 
services, but I am at present in the dark 
as to what those services were. No Latin 
dictionary I have come across up to now 
gives the term " Barbitonsor," and the 
opinions of my friends are divided as- to 

whether William Skinner was a barber or 
something to do with the orchestra" of the 
cathedral, the latter theory being based on 
the Latin word "barbiton,"a harp or lute. 
Enlightenment would be very gratefully 
received. ERNEST E. HILLS. 

[" Barbitonsor passim occurrit apud Scriptores 
inferioris aeui. Vide si vis Lobinellum Hist. Bri tan. 
to. 2, p. 560," &c. ' Ducange et Carpentarii Glos- 
sarium,' i. 579, s.v.] 

" WIG- WANDS": "FAT-HALVES."! should 
be greatly obliged by any one telling me the 
derivation of the word ivig -wands (or wag- 
loands). I find it used by country maids 
from Wiltshire and the Welsh border for the 
grass usually called totter-grass or quaker 

A maid from Hertfordshire always called 
the fruit of the wild rose fat-halves. I 
should also like to know the meaning of 
this word. LIESE M. SHERRING. 

CHORLEY'S POEMS. Has there been any 
collected publication of the poems of Henry 
Fothergill Chorley 1 W. G. NORRIS. 


' THE VICAR AND MOSES.' Will some reader 
of ' N. & Q.' supply the missing line or lines 
of the following song ? 
At the sign of " The Horse " old Spin-text,-of course, 

Each night took his pipe and his pot, 
With a jorum of nappy, quite pleasant and happy, 

Thus sat this convivial sot, 

Singing down derry, down derry down. 

The night it was dark when in came the clerk, 

With reverence due, and submission, 
First stroked his cravat, and twirled round his hat, 

And bowing proclaimed his petition, 
Singing down derry. 

I 've come, sir," says he, " to beg, do you see, 

Of your reverence worship and glory, 
To inter a poor baby with as much speed as may be, 

And I'll walk with the lantern before ye," 
Singing down derry. 

Bring Moses some beer, and me some, do you 

hear ? 

I hate to be called from my liquor. 
Uome, Moses, the King, it 's a scandalous thing 
Such a subject should be but a vicar," 
Singing down derry. 

" Oh laws, sir, the corpse it does stay ! " 
" Thou fool, hold thy peace, since miracles cease 
A corpse, Moses, can't run away." 
Singing down derry. 

When they come to the grave, the clerk hummed a 


While the surplice was wrapp'd round the priest, 
And so droll was the figure of Moses and vicar, 
That the parish still laugh at the jest, 
Singing down derry. 

From the wording of the song, and the habits 
attributed to the vicar, it seems probable 



[9 th S. X. AUG. 30, 1902. 

that it dates from the eighteenth century. 
Does any one now know what class of writers 
evolved and set to music verses of this 
calibre ? So many of the old-fashioned songs, 
which seem to have been composed when 
George III. was king, or earlier, are descrip- 
tive of country life, that they can scarcely 
have been made for what would now be 
called a music-hall audience, familiar only 
with the customs of a large town. Were 
they intended to be sung at fairs and markets 
by strolling musicians, and sold as broad- 
sides ? 

Mr. Howlett, of Kirton-in-Lindsey, who 
used to hear ' The Vicar and Moses ' sung in 
his youth, also remembers an old man singing 
a song which began : 

Come, Davy, I '11 tell you a secret, 
If you '11 keep it snug in your breast : 

I would not for old Eldon city 
It came to the ears of the rest 

and concluded with : 

I went to Tom in the Long Ings, 
For to hear his cracks and his jokes, 

And there stood an old woman telling fortunes, 
So I must be like other folks. 

With some chalk and a pair of old bellows, 
Two letters she wrote in my way : 

S stands for Sally all the world over, 
And nothing but G stands for Gray. 
The metre of this love-ditty seems to have 
suffered change, and " old Eldon city " 
appears to be a corruption, but the descrip- 
tion of fortune-telling with " chalk and a pair 
of old bellows " makes it of value to the folk- 
lore collector. M. P. 

(.The missing stanzas are too numerous for quota- 
ti9n in our pages. You will find the entire song, 
with some not very significant alterations, in ' The 
Universal Songster,' vol. i. p. 353 (G. Routledge & 
bons, n.d.), with Cruikshank's illustrations. The 
book can doubtless be seen at the British Museum. 
Such songs were, as a rule, sung by comedians in 
the plays of the late eighteenth century.] 

Is anything authentic known of the ultimate 
fate of Nana Sahib after his flight, with his 
brother Bala Rao, into Nepaul in the early 
months of 1859 1 I have seen it stated that 
he became a wanderer on the face of the 
earth, and is known to have so died. A few 
years ago I remember to have seen in one of 
the illustrated monthly magazines what pur- 
ported to be a narrative of his being seen 
an old and worn-out man and, I fancy, of 
his dying in the presence of the writer ; but 
my impression is that this was merely a 
fictitious sketch, and that the recognized 
writers on the Indian Mutiny state that he 
entirely disappeared after being hunted across 
the frontier, W B H 


(9 th S. x. 65.) 

THE difficulties which perplex DEVON IKNSIS, 
and which lead him to attribute to the author 
of ' Woodstock ' " an extraordinary mistake " 
in reference to the age of Sir Henry Lee, 
and forgetfulness in reference to Roger Wild- 
rake's communication to Markham Everard of 
Cromwell's verbal conditions, will, I think, 
disappear on a careful study of the novel. 

It is not accurate to say that Sir Henry 
"is represented throughout the novel as an 
old man," for Scott's initial description of 
him (Edin. ed., vol. xxxix. p. 2) is: "The 
man was elderly, yet seemed bent more by 
sorrow and infirmity than by the weight of 
years." It is true he had a long white beard 
(ibid., p. 27), and is in many places referred to 
as " the old man," and once at least as " old 
Henry Lee " ; but the earlier description 
must, in fairness to the author, be taken as 
qualifying all such phrases. 

Sir Henry's own account of himself as one 
that was " a mere child " at the time of 
Shakspeare's death (1616) would not in the 
circumstances be an inapt description of a 
boy of ten, or even twelve. This would, in 
the year 1652, when the novel commences, 
make him forty-six or forty-eight, an age at 
which he might well have had a long white 
beard. Being, in addition, "bent by sorrow 
and infirmity," the general description of 
"old" can hardly be said to suggest any 
violent inconsistency, and is certainly no 
"extraordinary mistake." The "withered 
hand and shrivelled cheek " which Bevis used 
to lick, " the long beard bleached like the 
thistle down," and the general infirmity 
which had come upon the knight at the time 
of the king's progress to London, as men- 
tioned in the concluding chapter, are all of 
a later date, a time when Sir Henry might 
have been fifty-two or fifty-four ; and these 
apparent indications of age may, one and all, 
be attributed to the intense and wearing 
anxiety to which he had in the interval been 

The second difficulty that connected with 
Roger Wild rake's suppression from Everard 
of Cromwell's verbal conditions is altogether 
imaginary. Wild rake's statement in the scene 
where he attempts the assassination of the 
general, that " Everard knew not a word of 
the rascally conditions," is no untruth, for 
when Everard endeavoured to take the packet 
from his hands on his return from the inter- 
view with Cromwell at Windsor, Wildrake's 

9* s. x. AUG. an, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


own words show (vol. xxxix. ch. ix., ut supra) 
that he was guilty of suppression, and that 
for reasons which are rather creditable than 
otherwise to his fidelity and sense of honour : 
"Forgive me, Mark ; if thou knew eat the purpose 
with which this deed is granted if thou knewest 
what it is not my purpose to tell thee what man- 
ner of hopes are founded on thy accepting it, I 
have that opinion of thee, Mark Everard, that thou 
would'st as soon take a redhot horseshoe from the 
anvil with thy bare hand, as receive into it this slip 
of paper." 

But this is not all. Later on we have 
Cromwell's words, addressed to his officer 
Pearson (vol. xl. ch. xix.) : " Wretch ! thou 
hast not touched Markham Everard, in whom 
there was no guilt, for he was deceived by 
him who passed between us." 

It is, perhaps, interesting to mention 
reverting to the topic of Sir Henry Lee's 
age that one other at least has taken the 
same view as DEVONIENSIS, namely, the 
painter W. Boxall, whose representation of 
the knight in the plate prefixed to vol. xxxix. 
of the Edin. ed. of 1832 is entirely in accord 
with your correspondent's notion of his 
appearance. A more accurate delineation 
of the ranger of Woodstock is, I think, 
however, to be found in the succeeding 
volume, where J. Inskipp portrays him 
exactly as Scott has described him in the 
second chapter of the novel an "elderly," 
but not an old man. EDWARD SULLIVAN. 

Reform Club, S.W. 

" ONLY TOO THANKFUL" (9 th S. ix. 288, 370, 
457 ; x. 13, 151). The phrase " You are only 
too lucky " will be found at the end of scene i. 
in Bishop Heber's serio-comic romance 'Blue- 
Beard ' (London, Murray, 1841). Hume, in 
his essay 'Of Qualities immediately agree- 
able to Ourselves," says : 

"In a kind way of blame, we say, a person is 
too good ; when he exceeds his part in society, and 
carries his attention for others beyond the proper 



251, 391, 496 ; x. 34). Few persons outside the 
Vatican personally announce themselves to 
be infallible, but when it comes to owning to 
a mistake there is usually reluctance to do it, 
as though it damaged some secret sense of 
infallibility still existing in the mind. I 
make no pretension of the kind, and have no 
hesitation in admitting that I did confuse 
MR. F. ADAMS with MR. W. E. ApAMS. How, 
I cannot now tell, as I have mislaid MR. F. 
ADAMS'S communication. MR. JOHN GRIGOR 
thinks that my unsuccessful reference to 

MR. W. E. ADAMS invalidates my dictum that 
" the correction of error is the establishment 
of truth." Instead of correcting an error I 
made one. But it is still true that he who 
does correct an error contributes to the 
establishment of truth. MR. GRIGOR must 
think so himself, or he would not have 
taken the trouble he has to correct (good- 
naturedly) the mistake of amalgamating two 
Adamses who do not assimilate. Major 
Cartwright held " that the errors of a jury 
ought to be respected." Ought not corre- 
spondents of ' N. <fe Q.' to respect errors 
made in the search for truth 1 

Eastern Lodge, Brighton. 

PAM=KNAVE OF CLUBS (9 th S. x. 66).- 
"Lanterloo," the original name of loo or lu, 
is said to come from the French word 
lanturehi (nonsense, fudge), the refrain of 
a famous vaiideville of the time of Car- 
dinal Richelieu. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

MRS. JANE BARKER, NOVELIST (9 th S. x. 87). 
I have for many years been endeavouring 
to find out particulars of this lady, but have 
been unable to procure any information 
except that which is to be gathered from her 
publications. I have the advertisement of an 
early work by her : 

U A Christian Pilgrimage, or a Companion for 
the Holy Season or Lent written originally in 
French by Mons. De Fenelon, Archbishop of 
Cambray made English by Mrs. Jane Barker, of 
Wilsthorp. near Stamford, in Lincolnshire 1717." 

It may be noticed that the address to the 
reader in 4 A Patch-work Screen,' 1723, is 
signed "Jane Barker," and dated from 
Richmond, Candlemas Day, 1722/23. 

The second edition (1719) of Mrs. Barker's 
entertaining novels contains, in vol. i., 
'Exilius,' a dedication to the Countess of 
Exeter (Elizabeth Brownlow, wife of the 
sixth earl), in which Mrs. Barker writes : 

"Was it not Burleigh House, with its Park, &c., 
that formed in me the first idea of my Scipio's 
Country Retreat ? Most sure it was, for when I 
composed my Romance I knew nothing farther 
from home than Burleigh and Worthorp.'' 

These two seats of the Exeter family are 
about seven miles from Wilsthorp. 


The same information was sought for 
through the columns of ' N. & Q.' as long 
ago as September, 1852 (1 st S. vi.), but no 
reply has appeared. 


71, Brecknock Road, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. so, 1002. 

LADY ELIZABETH PERCY (9 th S. x. 69). My 
friend the late Rev. J. W. Kaye, LL.D., for 
many years rector of Derrybrusk, once 
mentioned this lady's name to me whilst 
staying as his guest at Derrybrusk Rectory. 
We were examining some of the ancient 
gravestones in the old Derrybrusk church- 
yard at the time, and, if my memory serves 
me rightly, Dr. Kaye pointed one out as the 
supposed mark of the burial-place of the 
lady in question. If DR. MAXWELL w'ill 
communicate with Sir Charles King, Bart, 
(with whom I had some conversation at the 
time, and who takes a great interest in local 
antiquities), he will, 1 think, obtain every 
information. Derrybrusk is only the name 
of a parish. The rectory and ruins of the old 
church are situated some five miles from 
Enniskillen ; there is no village, and the new 
church is about two miles distant from the 



LINGTON (9 th S. ix. 466; x. 11, 73, 156). SIR 
HERBERT MAXWELL is frank ; I will be equally 
so. If no evidence can be produced to sup- 
port his theory that the sobriquet conferred 
on Wellington came to him in a roundabout 
way some years after his death, neither can 
I produce direct evidence to support my state- 
ment most deliberately made that Wel- 
lington during his lifetime was popularly 
spoken of as " The Iron Duke." The point is 
interesting, and to no one more so than to the 
brilliant author who has written so good a 
' Life ' of the great duke. In pursuit of evi- 
dence I recently consulted an old Berkshire 
magistrate, now in his ninety-second year, in 
full possession of an acute memory, who 
often met the Duke of Wellington out hunt- 
ing. He assures me that Wellington at that 
time was popularly known as "The Iron 
Duke." I also consulted the son of one of 
the duke's most intimate friends. In his 
father's house he frequently met Wellington. 
I give the reply in his own written words : 

" I can safely say that never in my young days, 
nor when I had arrived at maturity, did I hear the 
name of the Duke of Wellington converted into 

Iron I) uke. Of course I have often seen that 
sobriquet in print probably in Punch, or some 
fx? n l ^ a ; pei Y T fchou g h t your explanation in 

N. & Q. about the battleship Iron Duke was 
quite satisfactory." 

Here, then, is evidence not absolutely con- 
flicting, and yet not sufficiently precise to 
establish the point one way or another. The 
crux of the matter lies in the date when 
according to SIR HERBERT MAXWELL, an iron 
steamship was launched in the Mersey, 

christened "The Duke of Wellington," and 
nicknamed for short " The Iron Duke." Until 
we know that date we cannot proceed much 
further. Meanwhile, through the courtesy 
of a friend, I am enabled to give at least two 
instances of the playful humour of Mr. Punch. 
In vol. ii. p. 88 (issued in 1842) we find the 
hero of Waterloo spoken of as " the wrought- 
iron Duke." In vol. xviii. p. 30 (issued in 1850) 
Wellington is alluded to as " the iron Duke." 
These facts would seem to support my con- 
tention that the duke's appropriate sobriquet 
was, in a naval sense, prior to the Iron Age. 
I think it will be founa upon further investi- 
gation that my original statement was abso- 
lutely correct. RICHARD EDGCUMBE. 
Edgbarrow, Crowthorne, Berks. 

In 1844 one of the Dublin mail steamers 
was called "Thelron Duke" (600 tons burthen), 
and on 10 September of that year she ran 
into the brig Parana (see Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 14 September, 1844, p. 163). A 
quarter of an hour with Lloyd's List would 
show when the name " Iron Duke :> first ap- 
peared in the mercantile marine. A loco- 
motive called "The Iron Duke" was built at 
the Great Western Railway locomotive works 
at Swindon in 1847 (see Stretton's ' Develop- 
ment of the Locomotive,' p 96). Under the 
word ' Duke ' in the ' Oxford English Dic- 
tionary' I find a quotation, dated 1850, in 
which the phrase " Iron Duke," as applied to 
the Duke of Wellington, occurs. R, B. P. 

FORTY YEARS AGO (9 th S. x. 81). No refer- 
ence is made in this note to the Stamn 
Collector's Magazine, a publication which 
enjoyed a considerable circulation from its 
first issue in February, 1863, till its discon- 
tinuance in 1874. It was published in London 
by E. Maryborough & Co. and in Bath by 
Stafford Smith. The heading of each monthly 
issue consisted of a facsimile of the Mul- 
ready envelope, and numerous illustrations 
of postage stamps and post-marks were used 
in the text. Its early success was largely 
due to Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., who wrote 
much for the magazine, and, if I remember 
rightly, edited it. I. CHALKLEY GOULD. 

Stamp collecting must have been common 
at Eton in 1860 and 1861, for I can well 
recollect at Easter, 1862, a late cousin of 
mine who was then at Mr. Vidal's house show- 
ing me his very large collection, and starting 
my own with some duplicates, some of which 
I still possess. In an old edition of the Boy's 
Own Book (1865?) stamp collecting is said 
to have been introduced in 1856, and Messrs. 

9*s.x.Ac G .3o,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Stanley Gibbons & Co. claim to date from 
that year as a firm, which was originally, I 
believe, started at Plymouth. Your corre- 
spondent in his list of rarities does not 
mention the Paris envelopes of 1653, only 
two of which are known to exist. What 
does he mean by his 1 cent British Guiana 
of 185G, and what was its type 1 There are 

1 cents of 1851 and 1853 (ship in shield and 
ship in oval respectively), but I have always 
understood that the rare British Guianas 
were " value in a circle " of 1^50. In Moens's 
' Album,' ninth edition, no 1 cent is given in 
1856, when the values issued were 4 cents 
magenta and 4 cents ultramarine (ship in 
oblong rectangle). He does not mention the 
1856 Natal (embossed crown and inscrip- 
tions) on glazed paper. I saw a Id. yellow of 
this issue at Maritzburg in 1889, in the col- 
lection of a nephew of the Natal Postmaster- 
General of 1856, and was told it was supposed 
to be unique. The rarest set of stamps is the 
Afghanistan of 1878, a complete set of which 
has sold for 30Ctf. The United States local 
" Brattleboro " (Vermont) of 1845 was ad- 
vertised some years ago in London by Mr. 
Palmer as the rarest stamp in the world. 
One copy only was said to be known. There 
was also shown about 1894 in a stamp 
dealer's in Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C., an 
Argentine stamp of the face value of 31,400 
(blue), issued for use on one day only as a 
memorial of the centenary of Columbus, 
14 October, 1892. A London stamp dealer 
early in 1900 offered the Natal Govern- 
ment 150,000^. down if they would make a 
special issue of postage and revenue stamps 
under certain conditions in aid of their 
refugees, but the offer was declined. H. 

FAMILY CRESTS (9 th S. x. 109). Consult 
' Introduction to Heraldry,' by Hugh Clark, 
thirteenth edition, London, 1840 ; ' The Book 
of Family Crests, comprising nearly every 
Family properly blazoned and explained,' 

2 vols., London, 1840 ; and Boutell's 'English 
Heraldry,' 1889. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

STEPHEN (9 th S. x. 21). In my article on the 
'Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire' I 
adopted the received pedigree of this family 
in Dugdale's 'Baronage' (vol. i. p. 96) on 
duly considering his authority for it namely, 
the " Fundatorum Progenies " in the chroni- 
cles of Llanthony Abbey ('Mon. Angl.,' vol. ii. 
p. 69). These memoranda distinctly assert 
that Hugh de Laci died without issue and 
his heritage descended to his two sisters, 

Ermeline, who died s.p., and Emma, married 

to (sic), and had Gilbert de Laci, &c. 

What documents or writings the fourteenth- 
century chronicler of the abbey had before 
him we cannot tell now, nor why he should 
have stated that Hugh the founder died s.p., 
when we now learn there existed charters, or 
copies of them, of a daughter named Sibyl 
and her husband. 

MR. BADDELEY has made an interesting dis- 
covery, which now explains how it was certain 
manors became detached from the De Laci 
barony. But why Pain fitz John did not 
get the whole with his wife has still to be 
round out. Perhaps Henry I. had some 
political reason for preferring a sister's son 
to the daughter. - It is no use speculating 
without any grounds. Gilbert might have 
been a brother of Sibyl, as MR. BADDELEY 
suggests, or he might have been a son of 
Hugh's elder and banished brother restored 
after his uncle's death. For the ancestry of 
Pain fitz John see 9 th S. vii. 124. 


Westminster. e 

" MALLET " OR " MULLET " (9 th S. ix. 486 ; 
x. 93). C. C. B., in his reply, quotes 
Falstaff s phrase, " thick as Tewkesbury 
mustard," and asks, " Why Tewkesbury ? " 
In Shakespeare's time and long after Tewkes- 
bury was famous for its mustard. Fuller 
says: ''Mustard, the best in England (to 
take no larger compasse), is made at Tewkes- 
bury. It is very wholesome for the clearing 
of the head, moderately taken ; and I believe 
very few have ever surfeited thereof," &c. 


CAPT. MORRIS'S WIFE (9 th S. x. 67, 117). 
In addition to the note you append to MR. 
J. L. BOLTON'S query about Capt. Morris's 
wife, it may be added that, according to the 
Gentleman's Magazine of 1812, the year of 
her death, " her ladyship was one of the 
finest women of the age, and of great under- 
standing and accomplishments. Her life 
was full of interest. Horace Walpole has a 
great deal to say about her ladyship, who 
was Anne Hussey Delaval, born 2 December, 
1737. Sister of a family who were noted for 
their beauty, wit, and accomplishments, but 
who were also known as the gay Delavals, she 
was scarcely twenty-two when she married 
the Hon. Sir William Stanhope, K.B., who 
was aged fifty-seven. The month after the 
marriage Horace Walpole writes : " I have 
seen the new Lady Stanhope ; I assure you 
her face will introduce no plebeian charms 
into the faces of the Stanhopes." The Stan- 
hope family were, however, in dismay ; for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. x. A, so, 1902. 

should there have been a family with the 
alliance of the elderly knight and the young 
wife, the earldom would have gone to Sir 
William's child, and not to the godson of the 
famous Earl of Chesterfield, whom he had 
adopted as his protege" on his own son's 
death. Love did not run smooth between 
the pair. Walpole writes to Sir H. Mann, 
1 Sept., 1763, scarce four years after the 
marriage : 

" We sent you Sir William Stanhope and my 
lady a fond couple ; you have returned them to us 
very different. When they came to Blackheath he 
got out of the chariot to go to his brother Lord 
Chesterfield's, made her a low bow, and said : 
' Madam, I hope I shall never see your face again.' 
She replied: : Sir, I will take all the pains I can 
you never shall.' He lays no gallantry to her 

Shortly after, 27 Sept., 1763, Lord Chester- 
field writes to Arthur Stanhope : " He [i.e., 
his son Philip] has nothing to fear, for my 
brother and his wife are parted, never to 
meet again." Sir William Stanhope lived 
nine years apart from his wife, but her lady- 
ship found solace in books, painting, and 
music, and in her impersonation of ''The Fair 
Penitent' in the frequent dramatic perform- 
ances her brothers and sisters gave in their 
private theatre at Westminster and Seaton 
Delaval, and on the historic occasion of 
their engaging Drury Lane Theatre, when 
the House of Commons adjourned three 
hours earlier to enable the members to 
attend the performance, wherein the Duke of 
York and Lady Stanhope were the chief 
actors. Garriok, in a letter to Lord Delaval, 
wrote concerning her acting: "A fixed 
attention to the business of the scene, which 
Lady Stanhope has to the greatest perfec- 
tion, is the sine qua non of acting." If as her 
first husband she married a man thirty-five 
years older, her second husband, Capt. Charles 
Morris, was some eight years younger than 
herself, and survived her for twenty-six 
years. Portraits of her are at Seaton Delaval 
and Doddington. Sir Joshua Reynolds also 
painted her likeness, which is now in the 
possession of her sister's family, the Earl oi 
Mexborough. It was included in the Rey- 
nolds Exhibition of 1883-4, and has been more 
than once engraved. JOHN ROBINSON. 

Delaval House, Sunderland. 

vi. 206 ; vii. 418). Some Spaniards assure 
me that there is in Spain a race of dogs 
called perros de cuatro q/os, and that my firsl 
interpretation of the phrase in the novel o1 
B. Perez Galdos was the right one. It i; 
well known that parsimonia is used in Gas 
tilian in the sense of circumspection. How 

;ame it about that perro, the Castilian for 
log, is a common dog-name in Wales 1 Is it 
lue to the importers of Cardiff, Barry, and 
Swansea, who see so many Spanish sailors ? 
Doctor W. I. Knapp proposes patrius (amis) 
as the etymon of perro i e , native dog, dog 
of the fatherland and explains its forma- 
tion, with the exclusion of the dental d or t t 
as due to the previous introduction of the 
personal name Pedro, from Petro or Petrum. 
Galgo, the name of the Spanish greyhound, 
comes from Gallicus, i.e., French dog. Alonso 
de Ercilla in his ' Araucana ' (canto iii.) speaks 
of " los ligeros lebreles irlandeses generosos." 
It would seem then that Spaniards in former 
times were accustomed to distinguish their 
imported from their national breeds of hounds 
with some care. E. S. DODGSON. 

150, 215, 296, 454; viii. 26, 72, 171, 247). The 
distich mentioned at 9 th S. viii. 26 is thus 
given in Dr. Pegge's 'Anonymiana,' pub- 
lished in 1809, p. 221 : 

Turkeys, Carps, Hops, Pickarel, and Bere, 

Came into England all in a yere. 

This applies to the time of Henry VIII. But 
as the compiler had iust quoted from "Wyn- 
ken de Worde, in his book of Kerving, printed 
in 1508," the expression "Splat that Pyke," 
he asks how it is that the pike or pickarel is 
here mentioned. Perhaps some one, evidently 
aware of the voracious nature of both, has 
substituted " pickarel " for " heresy," and so 
been guilty of an anachronism, for it is un- 
doubtedly true that the fish has been an 
inhabitant of our waters from time imme- 
morial. With the carp the case is different. 
Izaak Walton, in the ninth chapter of his 
immortal book, says it 

" was not at first bred, nor hath been long in 
England, but is now naturalized. It is said they 
were brought hither by one Mr. Mascal, a gentle- 
man that then lived at Plumstead in Sussex. 

Further on he adds : 

" And doubtless there was a time, about a hundred 
or a few more years ago, when there were no carps 
in England, as may seem to be affirmed by Sir 
Richard Baker, in whose ' Chronicle' you may find 
these verses : 

Hops and turkeys, carps and beer, 
Came into England all in a year." 

In the second volume of 'Omniana; or, 
Horse Otiosiores,' 1812, p. 37, the writer, after 
quoting the lines as given by Walton, says : 

"A different reading of this old distich adds 
reformation to the list of imports, and thereby 
fixes the date to Henry VIII.'s time." 

But if we take Baker as the original author, 
it follows that both " pickarel " and " heresy " 
are pure interpolations. 

9* s.x. A, so, 1W2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the same work there is an excellent 
article on ale and beer, of which I give a 
summary. The former was the ancient 
drink of the country. Turner, in his ' History 
of the Anglo-Saxons,' quotes a grant of Offa, 
in which clear ale is mentioned and distin- 
guished from mild ale and Welsh ale. In 
'The Laws of Hywel Dda' two liquors are 
named, bragaivd and cwrw, the latter being 
of only half the value of the former. Bragawd, 
or bragget, was a very different liquor from 
ale, being made of the wort of ale and 
mead fermented together, while ctvnv was 
good, clear, substantial ale, but perhaps it 
was not fined. That art may nave been 
introduced by the Saxons, and this would 
explain the difference indicated in Offa's 
grant. Ale, therefore, before the hop was 
used in brewing in Henry VIII.'s time, would 
seem to have been made with malt alone, 
and was consequently a different liquor from 
beer, the name and making of which we owe 
to Germany. Though our ale was celebrated 
by Skelton and Bishop Still, it was by no 
means relished by Erasmus, as we learn 
from Fuller's ' History of Cambridge," where 
he says : 

" Erasmus, when he resided at Queens' College 
in that university, often complained of the College 
ale as raw, small, and windy : Ceryisia hujus loci 
mihi nullo niodo placet : whereby it appears, 1st. 
Ale in that age was the constant beverage of all 
colleges, before the innovation of beer (the child of 
hops) was brought into England. 2nd. Queens' 
College cerrinia was not m cerem, but ceres ritiata. 
In my time, when I was a member of that House, 
scholars continued Erasmus his complaint ; while 
the Brewers, having, it seemed, prescription on their 
side for long time, little amended it." 

A better state of things would seem to have 
prevailed at the sister university, for Kpbert 
Burton mention'* beer, and, though no drinker 
of it, he speaks in praise of it as follows : 

" But let them say as they list, to such as are 
accustomed unto it, ' 'tis a most wholesome (so 
Polydor Virgil calleth it) and a pleasant drink,' it 
is more subtile and better, for the hop that rarefies 
it hath an especial virtue against melancholy, as 
our herbalists confess, Fuchsius approves, Lib. 2. 
sec. 2. instit. cap. 11. and many others." 


[It is not to the point, but seekers after amusement 
should read, if they have not read, Barham's mock 
erudition in 'Ingoldsby' on the subject of the dis- 
tich quoted above. The comment is on " When 
the hurly burly 's done."] 

(9 th S. x. 68). DR. SYKES suggests that the 
tree which in Eccles. xii. 5 is- % used when 
blossoming as a simile for old age is not, as 
rendered in our versions, the almond tree, but 
some other, perhaps one called the numah- 

tree, referred to by Kipling in a different 

The Hebrew word in Ecclesiastes is shaked 
Oi*>Kp, and there seems no doubt that it signi- 
fies 'the almond or almond-tree. It is used 
also in Gen. xliii. 11, Num. xvii. 8, and Jer. 
i. 11 ; and to describe the shape of the bowls 
in Exodus (xxv. 33, 34, and xxxvii. 19, 20). 
The meaning, however, of the word trans- 
lated " flourish " or "blossom," has been con- 
tested . Gesenius prefers to render it " spurn " 
or "reject," and in this he is followed by 
Benisch, the idea being that old people rejected 
the hard almond from want of teeth. But, 
as is pointed out by Dr. Post in Hastings's 
' Dictionary of the Bible,' the imagery of 
failing teeth is alluded to in verse 3, and is 
not likely to be repeated here. There is no 
good reason for objecting to the usual expla- 
nationthe comparison of the snowy locks of 
an old man to an almond-tree in blossom, the 
general appearance of which at a distance 
is that of a top of snowy white. The late 
Thomas Tyler, in hjs 'Introduction to Eccle- 
siastes ' (second edifton, 1899, p. 164), remarks 
that "the almond-tree blossometh this seems 
by far the most probable rendering." 

The above usual word for almond in Hebrew 
is from a root signifying to watch or hasten, 
and doubtless comes from its early flowering, 
a sort of harbinger of spring ; but there is 
another word for itluz (the same as in 
Arabic), which is found in Gen. xxx. 37, where 
the A.V. erroneously renders " hazel," and this 
was the former name of the town of Bethel, 
as is mentioned in Judges i. 23, and transferred 
to one afterwards built in the land of the 
Hittites (i. 26). W. T. LYNN. 


Reuss, in his German translation of the Old 
Testament, renders the word "almond-tree." 
He thinks that the sentence which refers to 
this tree is quite unintelligible, and that the 
word may have had a meaning which has 
now become unknown. Sos. 

As the Revisers retained " almond-tree " as 
the rendering of shaked, perhaps we may 
have confidence in the correctness of the 
translation. Dr. W. M. Thompson, who had 
thirty years' experience of Syria and Palestine, 
does not question the propriety of the figure. 
He says ('The Land and the Book,' p. 319) : 

"In that affecting picture of the rapid and in- 
evitable approach or old age drawn by the royal 
preacher, it is said that ' the almond-tree shall 
flourish ' or blossom. The point of the figure is 
doubtless the fact that the white blossoms com- 
pletely cover the whole tree, without any mixture 
of green leaves, for these do not appear until some 
time after. It is the expressive type of old age, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. x. AUG. so, 1902. 

whose hair is white as wool unrelieved with any 
other colour." 

'The Concise Dictionary of the Bible,' edited 
by the late Dr. Wm. Smith, says of Amygdalus 
communis that "the flowers are pink." 


Has your correspondent misread " Inhokes " 
for Intakes, strips of land taken in (probably 
illegally) originally from the waste ? I know 
of such in Cheshire, where a small sum per 
annum is paid to the lord of the manor as an 
acknowledgment. W. R. M. T. 

THEATRE (9 th S.x. 64). In 1803 this was known 
as the " Dilettanti Theatre," and became 
the "Ancient Music Concert-room," where 
in the winter of 1802 "a number of amateurs 
of the haut-ton formed a subscription society 
for the performance, by themselves only, and 
not by any persons paid, of small pieces, 
French and English." These concluded with 
a picnic supper, with catches, glees, songs, 
&c., whence the Picnic Society, for which 
"Pickwick Society," as in MR HIBGAME'S note, 
is evidently a misprint. Although the noble 
and honourable performers were said to have 
been occasionally deficient in the mechanical 
business of the stage, their performances 
were extremely respectable (see ' The Picture 
of London ' for 1803). Cunningham, in his 
'London,' says that this concert room was sub- 
sequently converted into a theatre, under the 
names of the " Tottenham Street," " Regency," 
"Royal West London," and "Queen's Theatre." 
It was the first house in London in which 
French plays were acted. Samuel Palmer, in 
his ' History of St. Pancras,' says that no 
other house of entertainment has ever passed 
under so many aliases, but that at all times 
and under all its aliases it deserved what it 
has ever maintained, a reputable character. 
Besides being known as " Pasquali's," the 
"King's Concert Room," "Hyde's Concert 
Room," the "Theatre of Variety," the "Fitz- 
roy or Queen's Theatre," and the " Regency," 
as indicated by MR. HIBGAME, it was in 
1808 named the "Amphitheatre," when the 
celebrated Master Saunders instituted an 
equestrian performance. Afterwards it was 
taken by different managers, and known as 
the " Tottenham Street Theatre," and in 1823, 
when French plays were performed, it was 
the "West London Theatre." After this it 
assumed the name of the " New Royal West 
London Theatre." In 1835 it became the 
" Queen's Theatre " under the management of 
Mrs, Nesbitt. It has also been known as the 
" Royalty," and was in 1870 called the " Prince 

of Wales's Royal Theatre," his present Majesty 
baving been at times, when Prince of Wales, 
present at its performances. See, further, 
S. Palmer's 'History of St. Pancras,' 1870, 

pp. 238-40. J. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL. 

It is interesting to note that this property, 
announced as the "Old" Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, is again to let, but presumably not 
as a place of entertainment. The portico 
and walls are covered to a height of six feet 
and more with bills and posters, in defiance 
of the usual threat of prosecution ; the 
windows are broken, and the whole place is 
in a state of utter decay ; in fact, the only 
"improvement" the transfer of ownership 
seems to have effected is the placing of a 
new padlock on the stage door. Supple- 
menting MR. HIBGAME'S note, I would point 
out that its name when Miss Marie Wilton 
first arranged to come into possession was 
"The Queen's Theatre." The last occasion 
it was opened to the public was as a Salva- 
tion Army " Citadel." Its only conceivable 
use in the future is as a warehouse or factory. 

CRIES OF ANIMALS (9 th S. x. 86). A much 
longer list of the cries of animals and birds is 
to be found in Burmann's ' Antholog. Veter. 
Latinor. Epigramm. et Poe'mat.,' lib. v. 
cxliii., in the poem commonly called the 
'Philomela,' and the learned editor has 
added some others, apparently of post-classical 
times. These were found in a Leyden MS. 
It would be interesting to know which of 
these Latin words have survived in romance. 
The old French words would be found in 
some of the Bestiaires in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, but more might be found surviving 
in dialects. H. A. STRONG. 

University College, Liverpool. 

x. 48). There has long been a need for an 
exhaustive work on the above, and for some 
time past I have been actively engaged in 
its preparation. In addition to the works 
by Lempriere and Smith, may I draw the 
attention of L. K. to a book by the Rev. 
Fowle entitled 'Gods and Heroes of Anti- 
quity'? CHAS. F. FORSHAW, LL.D. 


[We do not envy our correspondent his task, for 
no dictionary can be competent which does not 
take count of German researches, in themselves 
immense. The German dictionary was taken in by 
our grandfathers, and is still unfinished.] 

Many of the residents of Brussels are of the 
opinion that the famous ball was held in the 

x. AUO. so, 1902.] NOTES AND . QUERIES. 


house in the Kue Royale nearest to the 
former Porte de Schaerbeek, and about 
fifteen minutes' walk from the Rue des 
Cendres, mentioned in the query. The late 
Dowager Lady de Ros and Lady Louisa 
Tighe were nineteen and eleven years of age 
respectively when present at their mother's 
ball, and it might well be that in their later 
years they somewhat confused the events of 
their extreme youth. They were but two of 
the many present, and houses in Brussels are, 
and no doubt were then, curiously alike. 
Should not the opinion of the present-day 
descendants of the then residents of Brussels 
be of some weight ? RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

TYNE (9 th S. ix. 388). I forwarded MR. H. 
REGINALD LEIGHTON'S queries respecting 
Lieut. Charles Mitford Watson to the Ceylon 
papers, with the following disappointing 
result, extracted from the Times of Ceylon of 
12 June : 

" Regarding the information wanted by a corre- 
spondent about the burial-place of Lieut. Charles 
Mitford Watson, who is said to have died in Ceylon 
on 17 June, 1824, we have made inquiries, and 
ascertain that there is no record at the Military 
Headquarters of the death of such an officer on 
such a date. A careful perusal of the files contain- 
ing such information between the years 1822 and 
1828 discloses no record of the death." 

J. P. L. 

" THE BEATIFIC VISION " (9 th S. ix. 509 ; x. 
95). It seems natural to refer the use of 
these words to Acts xxvi. 19, where St. Paul 
says to Agrippa : ov/c eyej/o/x^i/ aTrei^s rfj 
ovpai/ty oTTTatriq. : " I was not disobedient unto 
the heavenly vision" (A.V.) Are this noun 
and adjective to be found in earlier combina- 
tion in the New Testament? HIPPOCLIDES. 

414, 472 : x. 59). A large number of coats of 
arms of kingdoms, duchies, cities, &c., appear 
in "Atlas Minor sive Geographia Com- 
pendiosa, qua Orbis Terrarum per paucas 
attamen novissimas tabulas ostenditur. 
Amstelodami ex officina Nicolai Visscher." 
No date. The date is somewhere in the 
second half of the seventeenth century. There 
were, I think, several editions. The British 
Museum gives 1690 (?) as the date of one of its 
copies. Besides the coats of arms accompany- 
ing most of the maps there are, in my copy 
at least, two sheets mainly devoted to coats of 
arms and the like. The mapof Switzerland, &c., 
has in the margin no fewer that thirty-three. 
In my copy almost every one is in colours or 
in gold and colours, in brilliant condition. 
One of the sheets gives, in miniature, inter 

alia, seventeen badges of orders of knight- 
hood. The maps and illustrated title-page 
are also coloured and gilt. 

The arms of a few Spanish towns are given 
in Henry O'Shea's ' Guide to Spain and 
Portugal," sixth edition, 1878. 


BANKING FIRM (9 th S. x. 27, 114). I regret to 
find that while I quoted the Daily Telegraph 
of 16 June I omitted to give the date of the 
issue of the following day, where some of 
the facts given by nae were to be found. Mr. 
Hilton Price's ' Handbook of London Banks ' 
is, indeed, so well known that I really feel 
very little harm was done by not stating that 
the writer of the article in the newspaper 
admitted that he had dipped into its pages 
for his information ; for without doubt all 
who touch upon the subject of banks and 
banking will refer to it to confirm their 
statements. This I felt in this case to be 
unnecessary, my object being merely to put 
upon record, in as few words as possible, the 
fact that the old'5)ank known as Smiths, 
Payne & Smith had ceased to exist, as there 
are so few ways of keeping in mind notes 
that appear in the daily or weekly press. 


FLINT: FERREY (9 th S. x. S^.Fferis is 
the Welsh word for steel or hard metal, 
and was used to designate a fire-steel. 
Owen Pughe has " Feris ddn=& steel to strike 
fire with," which would seem to have been 
the name of the instrument in full. 


Southbourne-on-Sea, Hants. 

THE FROST OF 1683-4 (5 th S. xi. 145; 
9 th S. x. 112). In 'Poems on Several Occa- 
sions,' written by Charles Cotton, and pub- 
lished in 1689, two years after his death, 
there is one entitled ' Burlesque. Upon the 
Great Frost,' in which he naturally does not 
omit a reference to the river Dove and the 
fish in it. He writes : . 

And doubtless there was great mortality 
Of trout and grayling in great quality. 

Cotton does not, however, allude to the death 
of Izaak Walton during the frost. 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

117). I cannot quite gather whether MR. 
STREET is criticizing my remarks or confirm- 
ing them. I think it must be the latter, as I 
endorse all he says about Portuguese ou. 
When properly pronounced in Portuguese, 
Spanish, or Catalan, it is simply o plusw; 
but it is worth noting that by the side of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. AUG. so, 1902. 

this there exists in Portuguese (not in Span 
ish or Catalan) another and less elegani 
pronunciation, in which the second elemenl 
of the digraph is changed from u to i, so 
that ou becomes oi. Thus Douro and Ouro 
Preto become in familiar language Doiro anc 
Giro Preto. Some even prefer to write Giro 
Preto, but on the whole this perversion is 
not to be recommended. I do not know how 
the surname Sousa or Souza is sounded by 
the American composer who recently visiteo 
London. Englishmen generally called it 
Sooza, but in the country of its origin, 
Portugal, it is always either Soza (riming 
with Rosa), or more colloquially Soiza (rim- 
ing with Poyser). JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

109). So far as deaths are concerned, those 
(from 1711 to 1740) recorded in the works 
previously mentioned, together with those in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, London Magazine, 
Scots Magazine, and other works (down to 
about 1796), are indexed in 'Musgrave's Obit- 
uary prior to 1800,' published (1899-1901) by 
the Harleian Society in six volumes, a truly 
valuable work. This, so far as the date 
(1796 ?) extends, includes (1) ' The Biographi- 
cal and Obituary Notices in the "Gentleman's 
Magazine," 1731-1780,' indexed by Henry 
Farrar, and published (one vol., 1891) by the 
British Record Society ; (2) the general 
index (five vols.) to the Gentleman's Magazine, 
which includes a very inaccurate, though 
copious index to the obituary therein from 
1731 to 1818 in this, however, the surname 
only is given, so that the time spent in 
making the search renders it, for any save 
an unusual surname, practically useless; 
(3) the (much less copious) obituary from 
1759 to 1819 in the Annual Register, to 
which there is a good index. 

As to marriages, births, promotions, &c., 
those from 1731 to 1818, and from 1759 to 
1819, are indexed as above ; the marriages, 
however, in the Annual Register are, unfor- 
tunately, few, and those* in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine are, as above stated, very 
inaccessible. As to Irish marriages, an index 
by H. Farrar to those (a considerable number) 
contained "in Walker's Hibernian Magazine, 
1771 to 1812," was issued (two vols., 1897) by 
Philhmore & Co. ,36, Essex Street, London. 
It would indeed be a great boon to gene- 
alogists if an index to marriages from 1711 
to 1800 or later (on the same system as ' Mus- 
graves Obituary') were compiled. 

G. E. C. 

491). lo the information about Francesco 

Spiera which will, I presume, have been 
supplied by other correspondents, may I add 
the following two extracts? 

" There is a most memorable example of Francis 
Spira an Advocate of Padua, Ann. 1545, that being 
desperate, by no counsel of learned men could be 
comforted ; he felt (as he said) the pains of hell in 
his soul, in all other things he discoursed aright, 
but in this most mad. Frismelica, Bullovat, and 
some other excellent Physicians, could neither make 
him eat, drink, or sleep, no persuasion could ease 
him. Never pleaded any man so well for himself, 
as this man did against himself, and so he des- 
perately died. Springer a Lawyer hath written his 
life." Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' Parti- 
tion III. sect. iv. mem. ii. subs. iv. 

To "Francis Spira" Burton has a marginal 
note, "Goulart" (Simon Goulart, 1543-1628). 
" I have given a full account of this tragedy in au 
appendix to my (German) book on the ' Sin against 
the Holy Ghost' (Halle, 1841), pp. 173-210, from a 
rare publication of 191 pages (then in possession of 
Dr. Hengstenberg in Berlin) : ' Francisci Spierae 
qui, quod susceptam semel evangelicse veritatis 

Srofessionem abnegasset damnassetque, in horren- 
am incidit desperationem, Historia, a quatuor 
summis viris summa fide conscripta, cum clariss. 
virorum prsefationibus, Cdlii S C. et lo. Calvini et 
Petri Pauli Vergerii Apologia : in quibus multa hoc 

tempore scitu digna gravissime tractantur Basil. 

1550.' It was reprinted at Tubingen, 1558. Ver- 
gerio first published an account in his ' Apologia,' 
1548 (not 1549), which is contained in that book, and 
informed Calvin of it in a letter. Sixt gives large 
extracts, pp. 125-160. See Comba, ' Francesco 
Spiera,' Firenze, 1883." Foot-note on p. 150, vol. i. 
of Dr. Philip SchafFs 'The Swiss Reformation,' being 
the sixth "Division" of his 'History of the Christian 

One's thoughts naturally turn to Peter 
Williams and the tale of the Pechod Ysprydd 
Glan in George Borrow's ' Lavengro.' 


The University, Adelaide, South Australia. 


The New Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannia. 

Vol. IV., being Vol. XXVIII. of the Complete 

^ Work. (A. & C. Black and the Time*.) 

CHE fourth of the new volumes of the ' Encyclopaedia 

Britannica ' contains many articles of high and one 

r two of paramount interest. With a small section 

nly of these can we concern ourselves. ' Electricity,' 

vhich comes second in the volume, the first being 

Elections,' is beyond our ken. It is by three dif- 

erent writers, Prof. J. A. Fleming, Mr. W. C. D. 

Whetham, F.R.S., and Prof. J. J. Thomson, and, 

with kindred subjects, such as electrical supply, 

3lectro-chemistry, &c., occupies one hundred and 

i<wenty-five pages, or more than a sixth of the 

volume. Important advance in knowledge has been 

made since the original articles on electricity ap- 

leared, Rontgen's discoveries with regard to the 

cathode rays belonging to 1895. As regards electric 

-raction, treated under electricity supply, it is only 

9's.x.AuG.3o,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


within recent years that its superiority to other 
methods has been made obvious. The ' Prefatory 
Essay ' to the fourth volume is by Sir Leslie Stephen, 
and is on ' The Growth of Toleration,' one of the 
least obtrusive, though one of the most significant 
features of modern life. A digest of what is main- 
tained is not to be attempted. Scarcely one here 
and there can be found among our readers who is 
ignorant of the laws of thought Sir Leslie defends. 
We quote two sentences only from a powerfully 

argued article : " It may be laid down absolutely 

that to suppress freedom of discussion is, so far, 
invariably Dad," and " The argument that free 
thought leads to scepticism is s^uicidal ; for a doc- 
trine which can be destroyed bj exposure to argu- 
ment must be a doctrine which it is irrational to 

' English Literature ' is a subject in which prefer- 
ences and convictions are likely to assert them- 
selves. It is accordingly improbable that any 
intelligent reader will find himself in complete 
accord with all the opinions expressed. Greatly as 
we admire Robert Louis Stevenson, wa are not 
prepared to take Mr. Gosse's estimate. Among 
the poets we find no mention of William Johnson 
Cory, whose 'lonica' shows the highest lyrical 
water - mark among minor poets. From a list 
including a good many names of no signal signifi- 
cance ? we miss those of the Laureate (surely a cynical 
omission) and of Mr. Austin Dobson. We do not 
know if Mr. Dobson's name is recognized under 
another heading, but it merits recognition, as does 
that of T. E. Brown. The prolonged existence of 
Mr. Bailey should also be noted. The entire 
article is disappointing. 'English History,' by 
Sir Spencer Walpole, gives a good summary of 
political, social, and military history, and closes 
with the death of Queen Victoria. With it 
should be read the ' English Law ' of Prof. Mait- 
land. Under ' Engraving ' it is said that the 
history of line engraving in Engand shows con- 
tinuous decay, while what survival is witnessed in 
France is due to official encouragement. Prof. 
Ernest Gardner has a short but valuable article on 
* Epidaurus ' and the recent historical discoveries. 
Under 'Ethics,' Prof. Stewart, following Prof. 
Sidgwick, the author of the previous essay, shows 
how in the last quarter of the nineteenth century 
evolutionary ethics in England became more Dar- 
winian, and indicates our obligation to the recent 
teaching of Mr. Spencer, Sir Leslie Stephen, and 
Prof. Alexander. ' Europe ' is naturally an im- 
portant article, though much political interest is 
anticipated or supplemented under other headings, 
as under ' France,' by Mr. Bodley and the Hon. 
Maurice Baring. It is edifying to contrast the 
grave views entertained by the former concerning 
French statesmanship and politics with the cheer- 
ful optimism of the latter when dealing with 
French literature. In the France of the past hall 
century the genius of Gustavo Flaubert is held to 
overshadow all other writers. The Third Republic 
can count at least three writers of genius, Zola, 
Daudet, Maupassant, and two other producers oi 
exquisite art, Pierre Loti and Anatole France. A 
special subject is 'Exhibitions.' ' Fire and Fire 
Extinction ' has immediate interest, Capt. Wells 
treating of the portion concerned with Britain, 
and General Rockwell describing American methods 
of dealing with tire. Prince Kropotkin is respon 
sible for ' Finland.' ' Forests and Forestry' has maps 
of the forest regions in the United States. The 

annexation by Japan of Formosa gives interest to 
;he account, historical and descriptive, of that 
sland. The Rev. W. Hunt sends a sympathetic 
account of his colleague E. A. Freeman. He deals 
also with Froude. An all-important article on 
'Geology,' is by Sir Archibald Geikie. Compara- 
ively little has to be added to what was said in 
he ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' recent discoveries 
laving done little to furnish new theories. In 
Germany ' the influence of Nietzsche is regarded 
as assertive, and that writer is said best to embody 
the spirit of the period under contemplation. No 
single lyrist of the first order is to be indicated, 
except Liliencron, who, of course, belongs to the 
older generation. The life of Gerome is accom- 
panied by a reproduction of his well-known and 
melodramatic ' Duel after a Masquerade,' which is 
called 'The Duel, after the Ball.' Mr. F. G. 
Stephens supplies the life of Sir John Gilbert, 
which is accompanied by a rather misty design of 
'The Return of the Victor.' The life of Gladstone 
is comparatively long, and is naturally political. 

Bermondsey : its Historic Memories and Associa- 
tions. By Edward T. Clarke. (Stock.) 
THE favourable reception accorded Mr. Clarke's 
excellent history of Bermondsey has justified its 
appearance in a new and cheaper edition. So far 
as we recall, this is in no way inferior in attraction 
to the former edition.Jiaving the same illustrations 
as regards designs, -maps, &c. It offers great 
temptations to the collectors of works on London, 
and should find a place among all topographical 
and most archaeological collections. 

Cardiff Records. Edited by John Hobson Mat- 
thews. Vol. III. ( Sotheran & Co.) 
STEADY progress is being made in the publication, 
under the able editorship of Mr. John Hobson 
Matthews, of the Cardiff Records, a profitable task, 
undertaken by authority of the Corporation and 
under the direction of its Records Committee. At 
the outset we drew attention to the importance 
of the work undertaken and the public spirit ex- 
hibited by the Corporation (see 9 th S. iii. 238). The 
first volume appeared in 1898, the second in 1900, 
and the third is now seen. The work is maintained on 
the high plane on which it started, and stands con- 
spicuous and even eminent among publications of 
its class. Vol.'iii. opens with further charters and 
patents. Three of them are of exceptional interest. 
The first, which is very faint and decayed, is dated 
on the 15th day of May in the sixth year of John 
(1205), confirms to Margam Abbey and the monks 
serving God there the grants of various donors, 
Anglo-Norman and Welsh, with the right to have 
and hold in peace " quietly, entirely, fully, and 
honourably," according to the quaint Latin for- 
mulary, "In bosco & piano, In viis & semitis, In 
aquis & molendinis, In uiuariis & stagnis, In maris 
& marisc', In turbariis & piscariis, In pratis & 
pascuis & pastur's & i omnib's aliis locis & reVs," &c. 
On 9 September of the same year is granted to 
the Bishop of Llandaff permission to hold a yearly 
fair and a weekly market at Llandaff the fair 
from the Saturdayto Tuesday of Whitsuntide, and 
the market every Sunday. Llandaff fair was 
suppressed about 1880, owing to the rowdyism 
which prevailed. A third charter of 18 Edward I., 
1290, deals with the rights claimed by the Lords of 
Glamorgan to exercise regal rights within their 
palatinate. Amongst the Patent Rolls which 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. A, so, 1902. 

follow is one dated 14 July, 1297, calling on Walter 
Hakelute and Morgan ap Meredyth to choose 
900 Welshmen of Glamorgan to go with the king 
from Winchelsea and fight his battles in parts 
beyond the sea.'" A selection of Augmentation 
Proceedings is followed by a second from the 
Glamorgan Plea Rolls. Some of these deal with 
cases of murder, as when 'David Gos is sentenced 
to be hanged for having abetted in giving John 
Came, gent, a mortal wound "with a 'gleyve of 
the value of 12 pence." One is not, of course, 
astonished at finding the same penalty of death 
awarded Jenkyn Dio for stealing eighteen cheeses 
of the value of 26,*. 8rf., and one jarful of honey of 
the value of 20cZ. 

A sturdy vagrant named Thomas ap Hoeli is 
sentenced to be burnt with a hot iron through 
the gristle of the right ear, and to be afterwards 
whipped. Under ' Wills ' we find David William 
of Llanedern, 25 October, 1598, after bequeath- 
ing 2s. to the repair of Llandaff Bridge, and 124. 
to tithes negligently forgotten, leaving to his 
daughter his household stuff "(Except my best 
feather bedd w th his appurtenances, my best panne 
and my best brazen crocke)." Rinald Thomas, of 
Listleabout, leaves in 1636 "My wastcoate and 
hose that is next to the best, to my brother Morgan 
Thomas, together with my best shoes and stockines." 
Beds of all kinds are common articles of bequest. 
One phrase is "Item to Joseph East my second 
best oolster and pillow." Under ' Glamorgan 
County Records' it is said that a woman was 
flogged at Cardiff so late as 1753. Later instances 
may, we fancy, be advanced. Such entries are 
frequent as " This fell to pieces as fast as I could 
copy it.'' A very interesting portion of the volume 
consists of the 'Records of the Cordwainers and 
Glovers,' which cover a period of five hundred 

Siars. Of the copies of tombstone inscriptions Mr. 
at thews says that many of them have been 
copied only in the nick of time. The illustrations, 
both full plates and head and tail pieces, are equally 
curious and valuable. Besides a striking and ex- 
cellent portrait of the third Marquess of Bute, 
the former include four views by Paul Sandby, 
executed doubtless when he was in the employ- 
ment of Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, and many 
other spirited designs. As Mr. Matthews says, 
the head and tail pieces, which are due to Mr. 
Thomas Henry Thomas, R.C.A., "are intensely 
Welsh and antiquarian." To the antiquary and 
the genealogist, and, indeed, to the historian, the 
progress made by the work is especially gratifying. 

The Lesson of Evolution. By F. W. Hutton, F.R.S. 

(Duckworth & Co.) 

AT 9 th S. iv. 179 we reviewed ' Darwinism and 
Lamarckism,' by Mr. Hutton, which this little book 
of a hundred pages supplements by its two essays, 
one giving an account of the things evolution is 
teaching or ought to teach us, the other the geo- 
logical evidences which form the chain of inference 
from protozoa to man. The author has an admirable 
gift of lucid exposition, and his book may well be 
of great interest to the ordinary reader who is 
frightened by scientific terms. We are in general 
agreement with Mr. Button's account of the matter, 
though some debatable things are necessarily, in 
so brief a space, taken for granted. But we cannot 
admit that if science implies agnosticism, that result 
should cut science out of general education. Thought 
is free nowadays, we hope. Mr. Hutton says that 

after studying evolution "Theism is left as the 
only possible theory of the universe." He rejects 
Pantheism, which he equates with Monism, pro- 
bably to the surprise of some philosophers. But 
there are disciples of evolution who recognize all 
its inferences in the physical world, and find no 
sure presumption of religion (we use the word m 
its widest sense) in their study. Their number 
is not small, and we think it far too much to sa^ 
that "scientific teaching has now come to Theism. 
We have, however, indicated our dissent from the 
definiteness of Mr. Hutton on such points in our 
previous review. Here is another point we should 
dispute. We read: "Birds and other animals 
are as happy as man. Civilized man cannot boast 
that he is happier than the savage." All this is 
debatable. We think oiirselves that the man of 
culture, with his superior sensibility, has greater 
pleasures and deeper sorrows than the chawbacon, 
still more than backward races. "Everything is 
hard upon the thinking man," as a clever novelist 
has said, still we would say with Milton : 

Who would lose, 

Though full of pain, this intellectual being, 
Those thoughts that wander through Eternity ? 
The second essay is less interesting to the specula- 
tive mind than the first, but it will be useful to 
those who have no idea of the chain of evidence. 
Here there are gaps to be filled, problems to be 
solved. The ordinary reader will learn with sur- 
prise that man is, so far as we know at present, by 
no means " the last species of mammal to appear 
on the earth." 

gotirrs to 

We mitst call special attention to the f